Bulgaria is a country situated in south-eastern E urope, bordering R omania, Serbia, the R epublic of M acedonia, G reece, T urkey and the B lack S ea.
<ul><li>The western and northern boundaries are shared with Serbia and Romania,respectively,and the Black Sea coastline constitutes the entire eastern border.The Romanian border follows the Danube for 464 km from the northwestern corner of the country to the city of Silistra and then cuts to the east-southeast for 136 km.Borders to the south are with Greece and Turkey,the border with Greece being 491 kilometres long,and the Turkish border having a length of 240 kilometres. </li></ul>
The land area of Bulgaria is 110,910 square kilometers . Considering its small size, Bulgaria has a great variety of topographical features. Even within small parts of the country, the land may be divided into plains, plateaus, hills, mountains, basins, gorges, and deep river valleys.
Considering its small area, Bulgaria has an unusually variable and complex climate. The country lies between the strongly contrasting continental and Mediterranean climatic zones. Bulgarian mountains and valleys act as barriers or channels for air masses, causing sharp contrasts in weather over relatively short distances. The continental zone is slightly larger, because continental air masses flow easily into the unobstructed Danubian Plain. Climate
Topography The main characteristic of Bulgaria's topography is alternating bands of high and low terrain s that extend east to west across the country. From north to south, those bands are the Danubian Plain, Stara Planina (the Balkan Mountains), the central Thracian Plain, and the Rhodope Mountains. The easternmost sections near the Black Sea are hilly, but they gradually gain height to the west until the westernmost part of the country is entirely high ground.
<ul><li>The Danubian Plain extends from the western borders to the Black Sea. It encompasses the area between the Danube River, which forms most of the country's northern border, and Stara Planina to the south. The plateau slopes gently from cliffs along the river, then it abuts mountains of 750 to 950 m. The plateau, a fertile area with undulating hills, is the granary of the country. </li></ul>Danubian plain
Stara Planina originates at the Timok Valley in Serbia and run s southward towards the Sofia Basin in west central Bulgaria. From there they run east to the Black Sea. The Balkans are about 600 km long and 30 to 50 km wide. They retain their height well into central Bulgaria, where Botev Peak, the highest point in the Balkan Mountains, rises to about 2,376 m. Stara Planina
Rilo-Rhodope M assif Relatively high mountains occupy the area between the Thracian Plain and Sofia Basin and the Greek border to the south. The western parts consist of three ranges: the Vitosha Mountain south of Sofia, the Rila Mountains further south, and the Pirin Mountains in the southwestern corner of the country. They are the most outstanding topographic feature of Bulgaria and of the entire Balkan Peninsula. The Rila range includes Mount Musala, whose 2,925-metre peak is the highest on the Balkan peninsula . About a dozen other peaks in Rila are over 2,600 meters.
Drainage <ul><li>The Balkan Mountains divide Bulgaria into two nearly equal drainage systems. The larger system drains northward to the Black Sea, mainly by way of the Danube River. This system includes the entire Danubian Plateau and a stretch of land running forty-eight to eighty kilometers inland from the coastline. The second system drains the Thracian Plain and most of the higher lands of the south and southwest to the Aegean Sea. Although only the Danube is navigable, many of the other rivers and streams in Bulgaria have a high potential for the production of hydroelectric power and are sources of irrigation water. </li></ul>.
Bulgarian motto is "Unity makes strength"