Geography of Romania
With an area of 238,391 square kilometers, Romania is the twelfth
largest country in Europe. Situated in the northeastern portion of the
Balkan Peninsula, the country is halfway between the equator and
the North Pole and equidistant from the westernmost part of Europe-
-the Atlantic Coast--and the most easterly--the Ural Mountains.
Romania has 3,195 kilometers of border. Republic of Moldova lies to
the east; Bulgaria lies to the south, Serbia to the southwest, and
Hungary to the west. In the southeast, 245 kilometers of Black Sea
coastline provide an important outlet to the Mediterranean Sea and
the Atlantic Ocean.
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea and
Danube, with the Carpathian mountains in its center.
Controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans, Moldova and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates: 46°N 25°E
coordinates: 46° 25°
Area Total: 238,391 km² land: 231,231 km²
water: 7,160 km²
Land boundaries -total: 3,149.9 km
-border countries: Bulgaria 631 km, Hungary 448 km,
Moldova 681 km, Serbia 546 km, Ukraine (north and
east) 649 km.
Traditionally Romania is divided into several historic regions
that no longer perform any administrative function:
Dobruja is the easternmost region, extending from the
northward course of the Danube to the shores of the Black
Moldavia stretches from the Eastern Carpathians to the Prut
River on the Moldovan and Ukrainian border.
Wallachia reaches south from the Transylvanian Alps to the
Bulgarian border and is divided by the Olt River into Oltenia
on the west and Muntenia on the east. The Danube forms a
natural border between Muntenia and Dobruja.
The west-central region, known as Transylvania, is delimited
west- region, Transylvania,
by the arc of the Carpathians, which separates it from the
Maramureş region in the northwest; by the Crişana area,
which borders Hungary in the west; and by the Banat region
of the southwest, which adjoins both Hungary and Serbia. It
is these areas west of the Carpathians.
Romania's natural landscape is almost evenly divided among
mountains (31 percent), hills (33 percent), and plains (36
percent). These varied relief forms spread rather
symmetrically from the Carpathian Mountains, which reach
elevations of more than 2,500 meters, to the Danube Delta,
which is just a few meters above sea level.
The arc of the Carpathians extends over 1,000 kilometers
through the center of the country, covering an area of 71,000
square kilometers. These mountains are of low to medium
altitude and are no wider than 100 kilometers. They are
deeply fragmented by longitudinal and transverse valleys and
crossed by several major rivers. There are permanent
settlements here at above 1,200 meters.
Romania's Carpathians are differentiated into three ranges:
the Eastern Carpathians, the Southern Carpathians or
Transylvanian Alps, and the Western Carpathians. Each of
these ranges has important distinguishing features. The
Eastern Carpathians are composed of three parallel ridges
that run from northwest to southeast. The westernmost ridge
is an extinct volcanic range with many preserved cones and
craters. The range has many large depressions, in the largest
of which the city of Braşov is situated. The Eastern
Carpathians are covered with forests. They also contain
important ore deposits, including gold and silver, and their
mineral water springs feed numerous health resorts.
The Southern Carpathians offer the highest peaks at Moldoveanu
Peak (2,544 m) and Negoiu (2,535 m) and more than 150 glacial
lakes. They have large grassland areas and some woodlands but
few large depressions and subsoil resources. At higher elevations,
the wind and rain have turned the rocks into spectacular figures
such as Babele
The Western Carpathians are the lowest of the three ranges and are fragmented by many deep
structural depressions. The Western Carpathians are the most densely settled, and it is in the
northernmost area of this range, the Apuseni Mountains, those permanent settlements can be found
at the highest altitudes.
Romania's lowest land is found on the northern edge of the Dobruja region in the Danube Delta. The
delta is a triangular swampy area of marshes, floating reed islands, and sandbanks, where the
marshes, islands, sandbanks,
Danube ends its trek of almost 3,000 kilometers and divides into three frayed branches before
emptying into the Black Sea. The Danube Delta provides a large part of the country's fish
production, and its reeds are used to manufacture cellulose. The region also serves as a nature
preserve for rare species of plant and animal life including migratory birds
After entering the country in the southwest at Bazias, the Danube
travels some 1,075 kilometers (almost 40% of its entire length)
through or along Romanian territory, forming the southern frontier
with Serbia and Bulgaria. Virtually all of the country's rivers are
tributaries of the Danube, either directly or indirectly, and by the
time the Danube's course ends in the Black Sea, they account for
nearly 40 percent of the total discharge. The most important of
these rivers are the Mureş River, the Olt River, the Prut, the Siret
River, River, Prut,
River, the Ialomi a River, the Someş River, and the Argeş River.
River, River, River.
The Danube is by far Romania's most important river, not only for
transportation, but also for the production of hydroelectric power.
One of Europe's largest hydroelectric stations is located at the Iron
Gates, where the Danube surges through the Carpathian gorges.
Because of its position on the southeastern portion of the European
continent, Romania has a climate that is transitional between temperate
and continental. Climatic conditions are somewhat modified by the
country's varied relief. The Carpathians serve as a barrier to Atlantic air
masses, restricting their oceanic influences to the west and center of the
country, where they make for milder winters and heavier rainfall. The
mountains also block the continental influences of the vast plain to the
north in the Ukraine, which bring frosty winters and less rain to the
south and southeast. In the extreme southeast, Mediterranean
influences offer a milder, maritime climate. The average annual
temperature is 11 °C in the south and 8 °C in the north. In Bucharest,
the temperature ranges from −30 °C in January to 35 °C in July, with
average temperatures of −3 °C in January and 23 °C in July. Some
mountains areas receive more than 1,010 mm of precipitation each
year. Annual precipitation averages about 635 mm in central
Transylvania, 521 mm at Iaşi in Moldavia, and only 381 mm at
Constan a on the Black Sea.
Temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny
summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Winters generally
are from November to March. The springs are short, occasionally
turning right into summer. Summer lasts from May to August. They
have a prolonged autumn, from September to November.
Bran Castle was built in 1212,
and became commonly known
as Dracula's Castle after the
myths that it was the home of
Vlad III the Impaler.
Hungary and a
sea which is
DID YOU KNOW….?
After the Second World War Romania had to
give Russia money but it didn’t have after the
fight so we gave to Russia a part of Romania
which is the present Moldova.
After that Moldova wanted to be independent so
they finally bacame independent and it is the
1. WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT ROMANIA? DO YOU LIKE IT?
2. DO YOU THINK THAT THE FLAGS ARE INTERESTING?
3. IS MOLDAVIA AN INDEPENDENT STATE OR DOES IT FORM
PART OF ROMANIA?
4. WHAT IS THE BIGGEST REGION THAT WAS PART OF
ROMANIA IN THE PAST?(Transylvania, Moldavia or Wallachia)
5. DO YOU THINK ROMANIA IS NOW
OR THE SAME SIZE THAN IN THE PAST?
6.WAS MOLDOVA PART OF ROMANIA IN THE PAST?
1) Is Romania in Europe? What are the geographic
2) What are the land boundaries?
3) What are the several historic regions?
4) How many kilometers does the river Danube travel along
Romania? Name two important rivers.
5) Explain the climate of Romania.