<ul><li>Production is smaller-holder, subsistence, & fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>System is complex </li></ul><ul><li>Rudi...
Landholder development trajectory Meet subsistence needs Subsistence  Commercial use
CASSAVA  AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP <ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES FOR CASSAVA TO BE  </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETITIVE FOR BIO-FUEL...
CASSAVA  AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP <ul><li>CONSTRAINTS OF INDUSTRIAL CASSAVA PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>PERISHABILIT...
YIELD GAPS DUE  MAINLY TO THE USE OF INADEQUATE CULTURAL PRACTICES IN AFRICA CASSAVA  AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP
How should cassava production be competitive? CASSAVA  AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP
Production Price Production AVOIDING the SEESAW Higher volume   Lower Price Low volume   High Price Kg per person 1974 197...
CASSAVA  AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP <ul><li>CONSTRAINTS OF INDUSTRIAL CASSAVA PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>WEAK LINKS B...
APPLYING  THE SCIENCE
HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? <ul><li>INTENSIFY THE USE OF HIGH YIELDING VARIETIES WITH HIGH STARCH CONTENT, RESISTANT T...
Reduction of production costs  <ul><li>Mechanization </li></ul><ul><li>NO HEAVY MACHINERY IN FRAGILE SOILS  </li></ul><ul>...
Investing in the provision of feedstock production support services Public & Private Extension services; NGOs, FFS Product...
HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? 3.  Enhance cultural practices that can improve soil fertility through the use of mineral ...
HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? . USE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER:  AVERAGE NUTRIENT REMOVAL BY CASSAVA SIMILAR TO OTHER MAJOR ...
HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? HEAVY RAINS AND SOIL EROSION  IN NEW CASSAVA FIELDS
HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? <ul><li>Other practices to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD LAND PREPARATION </li></ul><ul...
NPACI support to biofuel <ul><li>COLLECTIVE ACTION BY FARMERS AND FARMERS’ ASSOCIATIONS FOR INCOME GENERATION </li></ul><u...
Environmental protection:  <ul><li>VAST MONOCULTURE PLANTATIONS CAN DEVASTATE THE FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS AND BRING UNTOLD SOCI...
FOOD CROP for subsistence: WOMEN CASH CROP: MEN GENDER ISSUE
Capacity building:  <ul><li>GENDER  CONSIDERATIONS ARE ESSENTIAL AS WOMEN'S GROUPS CAN PLAY A PIVOTAL ROLE IN PLANTATION A...
Upscaling Some R4D applications  Industrialists and entrepreneurs often shy away from using cassava in their applications ...
The Future?  <ul><li>GxE : Invest on the E  (AEZ + Mgmt + Policy) </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-fuel (ethanol) efficient varieties...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Session 4.3 Making Cassava Cultivation Sustainable and competitive for ethanol production by Nzola Mathungu, NEPAD and IITA

20,440 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
20,440
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
55
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Session 4.3 Making Cassava Cultivation Sustainable and competitive for ethanol production by Nzola Mathungu, NEPAD and IITA

  1. 2. <ul><li>Production is smaller-holder, subsistence, & fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>System is complex </li></ul><ul><li>Rudimentary technologies and low use of inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks economy of scale </li></ul><ul><li>large post-harvest losses & unreliable supply </li></ul><ul><li>uneven product quality & low producer prices </li></ul><ul><li>costly marketing structure </li></ul>What do we know?
  2. 3. Landholder development trajectory Meet subsistence needs Subsistence Commercial use
  3. 4. CASSAVA AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP <ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES FOR CASSAVA TO BE </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETITIVE FOR BIO-FUEL: </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH DRY YIELD POTENTIALS, </li></ul><ul><li>DROUGHT TOLERANCE, </li></ul><ul><li>ADAPTATION TO LOW SOIL FERTILITY BUT HIGHER </li></ul><ul><li>YIELDS IN GOOD SOILS </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXIBILITY IN PLANTATION AND HARVEST PERIODS </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHLY COMPETITIVE FOR STARCH PRODUCTION; </li></ul>
  4. 5. CASSAVA AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP <ul><li>CONSTRAINTS OF INDUSTRIAL CASSAVA PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>PERISHABILITY OF ROOTS AFTER HARVEST </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH COST OF PRODUCTION (MAINLY WITH SMALL SCALE FARMERS) </li></ul><ul><li>GERMPLASM: LOW YIELDING LOCAL VARIETIES, SUSCEPTIBLE TO DIVERSE BIOLOGICAL STRESSES STILL USED BY MANY FARMERS </li></ul><ul><li>LOW USE OF FERTILIZER AND INPUT </li></ul><ul><li>INADEQUATE CULTURAL PRACTICES, </li></ul><ul><li>LOW INVESTMENT IN COMMERCIAL CASSAVA PLANTATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>LOW QUALITY PLANTING MATERIALS </li></ul>
  5. 6. YIELD GAPS DUE MAINLY TO THE USE OF INADEQUATE CULTURAL PRACTICES IN AFRICA CASSAVA AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP
  6. 7. How should cassava production be competitive? CASSAVA AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP
  7. 8. Production Price Production AVOIDING the SEESAW Higher volume Lower Price Low volume High Price Kg per person 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1994 1998 2002 2004 Production (Supply) Food (Demand) The glut challenge
  8. 9. CASSAVA AS A POTENTIAL BIOENERGY CROP <ul><li>CONSTRAINTS OF INDUSTRIAL CASSAVA PRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>WEAK LINKS BETWEEN CASSAVA PRODUCERS AND EMERGING PROCESSORS </li></ul><ul><li>UNRELIABLE SUPPLY </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH COST OF TRANSPORTATION </li></ul>NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE COMMODITY CHAIN APPROACH
  9. 10. APPLYING THE SCIENCE
  10. 11. HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? <ul><li>INTENSIFY THE USE OF HIGH YIELDING VARIETIES WITH HIGH STARCH CONTENT, RESISTANT TO VARIOUS BIOTIC STRESSES </li></ul><ul><li>MAKE AVAILABLE TO FARMERS CASSAVA VARIETIES WITH: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EARLY BULKING BUT WITH STABLE DRY YIELD ABOVE 12 MAP FOR EXTENDED HARVESTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH FERTILIZER USE EFFICIENCY, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DELAYED PPD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUITABLE TO VARIOUS WEED MANAGEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(3) ENHANCE CULTURAL PRACTICES FOR IMPROVED SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
  11. 12. Reduction of production costs <ul><li>Mechanization </li></ul><ul><li>NO HEAVY MACHINERY IN FRAGILE SOILS </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTION OF LIGHT MACHINERY SUCH THE RUGGED POWER TILLER AND ACCESSORIES </li></ul>Cost Reduction Effects Manual planting: 1ha/day (12 persons) 1 ha/hour /3 persons 26 21.2 17.5 25.4 29.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Traditional system Improved varieties Mechanized planting Mechanized planting and harvesting Mechanized planting &harvesting &improved varieties US$/ton 100% 13.6% 11.6% 27.9% 40.5%
  12. 13. Investing in the provision of feedstock production support services Public & Private Extension services; NGOs, FFS Production & supplies of Improved planting materials & other inputs … Contract Farm mechanization services
  13. 14. HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? 3. Enhance cultural practices that can improve soil fertility through the use of mineral and organic fertilizers <ul><li>Green manures can be used to improve the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation, agro forestry and improved fallows with legumes can also help to improve soil fertility </li></ul>
  14. 15. HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? . USE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER: AVERAGE NUTRIENT REMOVAL BY CASSAVA SIMILAR TO OTHER MAJOR CROPS IF PLANT TOPS ARE RETURNED TO SOILS EXC. POTASSIUM . NEEDS TO SUPPLEMENT WITH FERTILIZERS TO SUSTAIN SOIL FERTILITY AND ROOT PRODUCTION PENDING ON SOILS TYPES
  15. 16. HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? HEAVY RAINS AND SOIL EROSION IN NEW CASSAVA FIELDS
  16. 17. HOW TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES? <ul><li>Other practices to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD LAND PREPARATION </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE PLANTING DATES </li></ul><ul><li>PLANT POPULATION </li></ul><ul><li>PROPER WEEDING </li></ul><ul><li>PHYTOSANITARY CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE HARVEST DATES </li></ul>
  17. 18. NPACI support to biofuel <ul><li>COLLECTIVE ACTION BY FARMERS AND FARMERS’ ASSOCIATIONS FOR INCOME GENERATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for mechanization (field operations and post-harvest processing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly point for produce collection </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Environmental protection: <ul><li>VAST MONOCULTURE PLANTATIONS CAN DEVASTATE THE FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS AND BRING UNTOLD SOCIAL DAMAGE </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE IRRIGATED PLANTATIONS DEPLETE UNDERGROUND WATER RESOURCES, IN TIMES OF INCREASED DROUGHT AND LACK OF RAIN DUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE </li></ul>
  19. 20. FOOD CROP for subsistence: WOMEN CASH CROP: MEN GENDER ISSUE
  20. 21. Capacity building: <ul><li>GENDER CONSIDERATIONS ARE ESSENTIAL AS WOMEN'S GROUPS CAN PLAY A PIVOTAL ROLE IN PLANTATION AND HARVEST OF CASSAVA </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINING OF FARMERS FOR FEEDSTOCK CULTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>BUILD CAPACITY IN TECHNICAL, MANAGERIAL AND FINANCIAL SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE (NATIONAL, REGIONAL, CG,ETC) TO PROMOTE BEST PRACTICES </li></ul>
  21. 22. Upscaling Some R4D applications Industrialists and entrepreneurs often shy away from using cassava in their applications because of the absence of a local example to follow and the uncertainty of success. Investment with no value chain analysis
  22. 23. The Future? <ul><li>GxE : Invest on the E (AEZ + Mgmt + Policy) </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-fuel (ethanol) efficient varieties development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue culture facilities in Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient investment models for ethanol production plants </li></ul></ul>

×