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Improving biophysical and socio-economic water productivity with cropping systems management and diversification

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2 October 2019. Cairo. Options for improving irrigation water efficiency for sustainable agricultural development.

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Improving biophysical and socio-economic water productivity with cropping systems management and diversification

  1. 1. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas icarda.org cgiar.org A CGIAR Research Center “Improving biophysical and socio-economic water productivity with cropping systems management and diversification” Jacques Wery In collaboration with Theib Oweis, Atef Swelam, Vinay Nangia October 2, 2019 Cairo
  2. 2. icarda.org 2 Water Productivity (WP): a framework of Indicators Consumed (depleted) • Evaporation • Transpiration • Quality deterioration What water? • Quality (EC) • Location (GW depth) • Time available What return? • Biomass, grain, fruit, meat, milk, fish (kg) • Income ($) • Social benefits (employment) • Nutrition (call., protein, carbohydrates, fat) • Environmental benefits (C) WP = 𝑹𝒆𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒏 𝑼𝒏𝒊𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝑾𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒖𝒎𝒆𝒅 Data Quality? • Measurement (ET) • Modeling • Remote Sensing
  3. 3. icarda.org 3 Act on Return, on Water or on both? Mechanized Raised-Bed Planting Wheat 22 governorates 10% of Egypt’s total wheat area (125,000 ha) • Less irrigation water (- 25%) • More yields (+30%) • Less seeds (-50%) Ethiopia, Jordan, Iraq, Morocco, Nigeria, Sudan, Tunisia and Uzbekistan Similar Systems and Contexts
  4. 4. icarda.org 4 Crops and Management have a strong influence on Water Productivity Economic Wp $/m3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 1 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.7 3 1.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Beef Lentil Wheat Potato Olive Dates Keep the precious irrigation water in the dry areas for fruits and vegetables? Poor management Improved management
  5. 5. icarda.org 5 Explore Trade-Offs between the various dimensions of Water Productivity Nutritional WP Protein gr/m3 10 90 50 50 10 8 30 150 150 120 30 16 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Beef Lentil Wheat Potato Olive Dates Poor management Improved management Economic Wp $/m3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 1 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.7 3 1.6 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Beef Lentil Wheat Potato Olive Dates
  6. 6. icarda.org 6 Co-design of Water Productive and Nutrition Sensitive Farming Systems also in soil: sub- surface irrigation Same biomass (with the right variety) Less water used (up to 30%) Produce electricity (Marrou et al. 2013. European Journal of Agronomy) Integrate Crops, Vegetables, Forages/livestocks and Fruit Trees….and more in Multilayer Systems
  7. 7. icarda.org 7 • Estimation of present physical and economic WP of progressive and traditional farmers • Testing and quantifying the increases in land and water productivity through adoption of recommended packages developed using crop modeling approaches • Improved human capacity of local researchers and technicians Integrated projects on water and livelihoods at community level The case of irrigated farming communities in Rajasthan (India) Crop Farmer N Farmer Irrigation Farmer Yield Farmer WP Recomm ended N Recomm ended Irrigation WP % WP increase Cluster bean 20 200 1700 0.47 60 100 1.27 290 Mustard 60 350 1800 0.51 100 250 1.03 102 Wheat 100 550 1600 0.29 160 400 0.58 100 Groundnut 40 550 400 0.07 60 400 0.15 114
  8. 8. icarda.org 8 Informing policies on trends, options and trade-offs “The analysis shows that achieving high AWP in all the region would either increase crop production by 8 million tons or save 8.1 BCM of water annually maintaining current production levels” Untapped potential of water savings and food security in the Euphrates-Tigress river basin through improved agricultural water productivity (Oweis et al., submitted) Hot spots of high and low water productivity in the irrigated areas for year 2002, 2006 and 2008 Euphrates- Tigress basin (project funded by SIDA)
  9. 9. icarda.org 9 • The multidimensional nature of Water Productivity • Explore trade-offs and synergies (among WPs and with P) • At different scales (field, farm, watershed, country) • Quality of datas  more measurements of WP • Opportunities to increase WP at farm and community levels • Sustainability of irrigated agriculture should be grounded in diversity Conclusion

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