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The infuriating inconsistency of network electricity carbon intensity  Andrew Peacock Heriot Watt University
World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline  = ω.BM + (1-ω).OM CO 2  Emissions Saving Methodology
World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline  = ω. BM  + (1-ω).OM CO 2  Emissions Saving Methodology
BM – Build Margin emission rate Assumes that the electricity reduction measure will reduce the need for future capacity A proportion of the reduction is then assigned to the deferment of this added capacity FIRST CONFUSION What new plant is planned in the UK?
Installed Plant in the UK (2007/8) Source:  National Grid 7 year statement, 2007
Planned new plant (2013/14) Source:  National Grid 7 year statement, 2007
Planned new plant (to 2020) However Coal – 14.2 GW of new coal plant is in various stages of development Build Margin emission rate for; Coal (45% efficient plant) 0.776kgCO 2 /kWh CCGT (50% efficient plant) 0.412kgCO 2 /kWh Will coal be resurgent?  Principal uncertainty – 3 rd  Revision of the EU Emission trading scheme DEFRA Guidance 2007 –  Build Margin Rate = 0.43kgCO 2 /kWh (Assumed for a CCGT Plant)
World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline  = ω.BM + (1-ω).OM CO 2  Emissions Saving Methodology
World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline  = ω.BM + (1-ω). OM CO 2  Emissions Saving Methodology
Operating Margin  Emission Factor Assumes that the electricity reduction measure will reduce demand SECOND CONFUSION What carbon intensity do we assign to the negawatts?
System Average Carbon Intensity
System Average Carbon Intensity DEFRA Guidance – 5 Year rolling average – 0.523kgCO 2 /kWh
Not all plant will respond If we exclude nuclear – approximate “load following” 5 year rolling average =  0.671kgCO 2 /kWh
Different Carbon intensities that could be used Factor Description Carbon Intensity (kgCO2/kWh) BM Efficient Coal Plant 0.776 Efficient CCGT Plant 0.412 DEFRA (CCGT plant) 0.430 OM System average 0.523 Annual “Load following” 0.671
World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline  = ω.BM + (1-ω).OM CO 2  Emissions Saving Methodology
World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline  =  ω .BM + (1- ω ).OM CO 2  Emissions Saving Methodology
Third Confusion  Weighting factor,   Guidance Weighting Factor,   CFL Lighting Solar Panel – 1.5kW DEFRA 0 0.5 World Resource Institute 0.92 0
Third Confusion  Weighting factor,   Approx 2.9GW of maximum system peak demand is due to domestic lighting. This will fall to approx 1.45GW with banning of incandescent bulbs in 2010 No effect on system capacity Guidance Weighting Factor,   CFL Lighting Solar Panel – 1.5kW DEFRA 0 0.5 World Resource Institute 0.92 0
Effect on savings from CFL Lighting and Solar-PV Using DEFRA Guidance
Effect on savings from CFL Lighting and Solar-PV Can be 76% higher Can be 53% higher Spread of possible BM and OM figures
Conclusions Deriving a simple number for Carbon intensity of network electricity that suits all technologies is impractical and will mislead The recognised international metric discussed here could be employed One approach might be to assign factors to technologies based on this standard procedure This has been a talk largely about the present – the future is more difficult still
Further Complication  Time variant nature of carbon intensity Wednesday 26 th  January 2005
Time variant nature  of carbon intensity Wednesday 26 th  January 2005
Demand side response to reduce gradient change has the capacity to alter operating protocols that could yield reductions in CO 2  intensity of network electricity Time variant nature  of carbon intensity

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Carbon Electrical Intensities | Andrew Peacock

  • 1. The infuriating inconsistency of network electricity carbon intensity Andrew Peacock Heriot Watt University
  • 2. World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline = ω.BM + (1-ω).OM CO 2 Emissions Saving Methodology
  • 3. World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline = ω. BM + (1-ω).OM CO 2 Emissions Saving Methodology
  • 4. BM – Build Margin emission rate Assumes that the electricity reduction measure will reduce the need for future capacity A proportion of the reduction is then assigned to the deferment of this added capacity FIRST CONFUSION What new plant is planned in the UK?
  • 5. Installed Plant in the UK (2007/8) Source: National Grid 7 year statement, 2007
  • 6. Planned new plant (2013/14) Source: National Grid 7 year statement, 2007
  • 7. Planned new plant (to 2020) However Coal – 14.2 GW of new coal plant is in various stages of development Build Margin emission rate for; Coal (45% efficient plant) 0.776kgCO 2 /kWh CCGT (50% efficient plant) 0.412kgCO 2 /kWh Will coal be resurgent? Principal uncertainty – 3 rd Revision of the EU Emission trading scheme DEFRA Guidance 2007 – Build Margin Rate = 0.43kgCO 2 /kWh (Assumed for a CCGT Plant)
  • 8. World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline = ω.BM + (1-ω).OM CO 2 Emissions Saving Methodology
  • 9. World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline = ω.BM + (1-ω). OM CO 2 Emissions Saving Methodology
  • 10. Operating Margin Emission Factor Assumes that the electricity reduction measure will reduce demand SECOND CONFUSION What carbon intensity do we assign to the negawatts?
  • 12. System Average Carbon Intensity DEFRA Guidance – 5 Year rolling average – 0.523kgCO 2 /kWh
  • 13. Not all plant will respond If we exclude nuclear – approximate “load following” 5 year rolling average = 0.671kgCO 2 /kWh
  • 14. Different Carbon intensities that could be used Factor Description Carbon Intensity (kgCO2/kWh) BM Efficient Coal Plant 0.776 Efficient CCGT Plant 0.412 DEFRA (CCGT plant) 0.430 OM System average 0.523 Annual “Load following” 0.671
  • 15. World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline = ω.BM + (1-ω).OM CO 2 Emissions Saving Methodology
  • 16. World Resources Institute recommend that the grid electricity emission reduction factor should be calculated thus: ER baseline = ω .BM + (1- ω ).OM CO 2 Emissions Saving Methodology
  • 17. Third Confusion Weighting factor,  Guidance Weighting Factor,  CFL Lighting Solar Panel – 1.5kW DEFRA 0 0.5 World Resource Institute 0.92 0
  • 18. Third Confusion Weighting factor,  Approx 2.9GW of maximum system peak demand is due to domestic lighting. This will fall to approx 1.45GW with banning of incandescent bulbs in 2010 No effect on system capacity Guidance Weighting Factor,  CFL Lighting Solar Panel – 1.5kW DEFRA 0 0.5 World Resource Institute 0.92 0
  • 19. Effect on savings from CFL Lighting and Solar-PV Using DEFRA Guidance
  • 20. Effect on savings from CFL Lighting and Solar-PV Can be 76% higher Can be 53% higher Spread of possible BM and OM figures
  • 21. Conclusions Deriving a simple number for Carbon intensity of network electricity that suits all technologies is impractical and will mislead The recognised international metric discussed here could be employed One approach might be to assign factors to technologies based on this standard procedure This has been a talk largely about the present – the future is more difficult still
  • 22. Further Complication Time variant nature of carbon intensity Wednesday 26 th January 2005
  • 23. Time variant nature of carbon intensity Wednesday 26 th January 2005
  • 24. Demand side response to reduce gradient change has the capacity to alter operating protocols that could yield reductions in CO 2 intensity of network electricity Time variant nature of carbon intensity