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Jim Baird | Carbon Accounting for Waste Management


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Presented at the 4th International Conference on Carbon Accounting
25th November 2011

Published in: Technology, Business
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Jim Baird | Carbon Accounting for Waste Management

  1. 1. Carbon Accounting – Waste Management
  2. 2. Acknowledgements • Kimberley Pratt – Zero Waste Scotland • Sheila Scott and Charlie Russell
  3. 3. International Solid Waste Association
  4. 4. Waste & Climate Change: some numbers Global direct GHG emissions from WM = 1.3 GtCO2e or 3-5% total Between 1990 & 2007 total global anthropogenic emissions in 2005. GHG emissions from waste sector declined from 69 Mt to 32 Mt for the 36 Annex 1 industrialised countries & EITs - LF CH4 In EU, MSW management could recovery. account for 18% of 2012 Kyoto target for 15 EU member states. Overseas - CDM in Kyoto Protocol = opportunity for WM sector: •18% of 1,834 registered projects in 10/2009 = waste •Currently registered = deliver 209 M carbon credits by end of 2012 •1 carbon credit = 1 t CO2e emission reduction ISWA White Paper: „Waste and Climate Change‟ December 2009
  5. 5. “Improved, harmonisedThe resource economy and transparent approaches for both direct and indirect emissions associated with waste management activities must be developed to complement existing methodologies” ISWA White Paper: „Waste and Climate Change‟ December 2009
  6. 6. “Improved, harmonisedThe resource economy and transparent approaches for both direct and indirect emissions associated with waste management activities must be developed to complement existing methodologies” ISWA White Paper: „Waste and Climate Change‟ December 2009
  7. 7. Waste management solutions to reduce GHG emissions • Waste reduction – prevention & reuse - Zero Waste Scotland • Recycling – reduction in energy spent in extraction/processing • Composting – sequestration, reduced fertiliser production, peat substitution • Recover energy from waste/waste processing - incineration/EfW, RDF, AD - thereby displacing fossil fuel • Engineered landfilling (our own modern day „gas fields‟)
  8. 8. UK NIR waste GHG emission reporting CH4 emissions, T =Current National Inventory [ x CH4 generated, T – RT ] (1-OXT)Reporting: CH4 emitted in year T, Gg T = inventory year • Waste = direct emissions (CH4 x = waste category or type of material from landfill) RT = recovered CH4 in year T, Gg OXT = oxidation factor in year T (fraction) • Energy; Industrial Processes; Solvents & Other Product Use; Agriculture; LULUCF = indirect emissions• UK GHG emissions from WM = 3.2% total UK emissions in 2009; 69% decrease in waste emissions; 69% of CH4 generated in UK landfills now recovered. UK Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1990 to 2009 April 2011• Scottish GHG emissions from landfill = 2.559 MtCO2e (4.8% total Scottish emissions in 2008) GHG Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales & NI: 1990-2008 Sept 2010
  9. 9. Defra GHG reporting guidelines - scopesDECC/Defra Guidance on how to measure and report your greenhouse gas emissions09/2009
  10. 10. Defra/DECCs GHG Conversion Factors for CompanyReporting “These conversion factors should be used to measure and report GHG emissions for: 1. Your organisation 2. Your personal carbon footprint 3. Other reasons such as project planning and GHG emission reductions projects.” NB: Not for supply chain – double accountingAugust 2011 Guidelines to Defra/DECC‟s Greenhouse Gas Conversion Factors forCompany Reporting: Annex 9 LCA Emission Factors for waste emissions
  11. 11. Distillery Businesspage 11
  12. 12. LCA Methodology• Life Cycle Thinking informed by: – ISO 14040:2006 Principles and framework – ISO 14044:2006 Requirements and guidelines – PAS 2050 (2008) – World Resource Institute GHG Protocol Initiative – Also draws on work by Sevenster et al. (2007) in the Netherlands• Climate change is used as a proxy indicator for all environmental impact• Consumption approach to materials rather than territorial – Considers whole life cycle – But less compatible with CC Act
  13. 13. Carbon Factors• A summary of the carbon factors can be found on ZWS website• Carbon impacts of materials based on LCA results• Designed to include additional data as it becomes available
  14. 14. Data sources• Sources include: trade associations, Eco-invent, IPCC, SEPA, DEFRA, WRATE, WRAP studies• Quality assurance: less than 5 years old, representative of Scotland, traceable data sources and clearly defined limitsLimitations: Exceptions:• Glass (old data) • Incinerator residues (exc. metals)• Wood and paper (USA dataset) • Florescent tubes• Steel (estimated) • Vegetable oil• WEEE (incomplete study) • Furniture• Footwear (USA dataset) • Paint
  15. 15. Tonnage V Carbon impact exampleRecycling Rate (%)
  16. 16. Focusing on CarbonTotal arisings (t) Total recycled (t) Tonnage RR Carbon Metric RR
  17. 17. Carbon Metric• Will focus recycling efforts on materials with high carbon intensity• Denominator is carbon metric factor x material arisings • So how do we deal with waste reduction – need baseline year? • Evolving technologies will change carbon potential • For example • waste to electricity • Waste to electricity plus heat • Waste to biogas to gas grid • Waste to biogas to biomethane (transport fuel)page 18
  18. 18. Current Policy and Market Measures in the Waste Sector
  19. 19. How would and ETS system fit in?page 20
  20. 20. Conclusions• At the NIR level Waste has been dealt with from the GHG level – i.e. CH4 from Landfill and CO2 from incineration of fossil carbon.• Production and Waste Sectors are not on a level playing field in terms of Carbon. Waste and Production should be better integrated.• Waste Sector now has its own carbon metric informed by LCA 21