Brick bonds are an essential part of
"brick" is a standard-sized weight-
bearing building unit.
Several bricks are laid together in
Mortar paste is placed on top of
each to form a firm bond.
are laid to form the structure.
There are different ways in which
bricks are termed as bonds.
WHAT IS BRICK-MASONARY
BRICK :- Brick is a building unit ,which is in the form
of rectangular block in which length to breadth ratio is
2 but height can be different.
MASONARY :-Construction of building unit bonded
together with mortar.
BRICK MASONRY:-The art of laying bricks in mortar
in a proper systematic manner gives homogeneous
mass which can withstand forces without
disintegration, called Brick masonry.
CHARACTERISTIC OF BRICKS
Brick will not burn, buckle or melt.
Brick will not rot and allow Termites to invade.
Brick will not rust and corrode.
Brick will not dent.
Brick will not fade from the Sun’s UV Rays.
Brick will not be damaged by high winds , rain or hail.
Brick will not require constant maintains.
Brick will not devalue.
Brick will not limit your personal expression.
Brick will not limit your design options.
ADVANTAGES OF BRICK MASONRY
The Brick masonry is cheaper than
compared to stone masonry.
Bricks are of uniform size.
Bricks are very workable .
Brick blocks don’t need any dressing.
Bricks are very light in weight.
No complicated lifting devices are
necessary in brick work.
There is no problem to its availability.
They do not require transportation from
Brick work can be done by the less skilled
Bonding strength is very good and brick
work is more durable.
TYPES OF BRICKS MASONRY
Brick work in mud Brick work in
BRICK WORK IN MUD
The mud is used to fill up the joints.
Thickness of the mortar joint is 12
Maximum height of wall is 4 m.
BRICK WORK IN CEMENT
Cement of lime mortar is used.
The surface and edges of bricks are sharp.
The thickness of mortar joints doesn’t exceed 10mm
Ground moulded bricks are used.
Bricks are rough and shape is slightly irregular.
The thickness of mortar joint is 12 mm.
Bricks are not hard ,rough surface with distorted
Used for temporary structures.
Used in places where rainfall is not heavy.
SIZES OF BRICK
Nominal size :-A standard
metric brick has coordinating
dimensions of 225 x 112.5 x 75
mm (9” x 4.5” x 3”)
Architectural size :- Working
dimensions)of 215 x 102.5 x 65
mm (8.5” x 4” x 2.5”)
Weathered joint :-Mortar joint has sloped
Concave joint :-Joint concave inwards.
Vee joint :-Mortar joint is the form of V.
Flush joint :-Mortar joint is flush with the brick
Raked joint :-A large portion of the mortar joint is
raked out not a safe ,impermeable joint.
Stripped joint :- A medium large portion of the mortar
joint is a safe permeable joint.
Struck joint :-Mortar joint has aslope (upwards) edge.
TOOLS USED IN BRICK MASONRY
BRICK COURSES & CLOSURES
QUEEN CLOSURE: A brick cut in
half down its length.
KING CLOSURE : A brick cut a
corner & joining middle points of
width and length of the brick.
THREE QUARTER BAT : A brick
cut to three-quarters of its length,
and laid with its long, narrow side
HALF BAT: A brick cut in half
across its width and laid in the wall
QUARTER BAT: A brick cut to a
quarter of its length.
ORIENTATION OF BRICKS
STRETCHER: A brick laid with
its long narrow side exposed.
HEADER: A brick laid flat with
its width at the face of the wall.
SOLDIER: A brick laid vertically
with the long narrow side of the
SAILOR: A brick laid vertically
with the broad face of the brick
RULES FOR GOOD BRICK BONDING
Uniform in size.
Bricks arranged uniformly throughout the wall.
Bats are used as little as possible.
The bricks in the interiors of wall laid as headers, that
is, across the wall.
The lap not more than 2 and one-fourth(1/4) inches.
The vertical joints in every other course should be
vertically over one another.
BONDS IN BRICK-WORK
1. English bond.
2. Flemish bond.
3. Header bond.
4. Stretcher bond.
5. Facing bond.
6. English cross bond.
7. Brick on edge bond.
8. Dutch bond.
9. Raking bond.
10. Garden wall bond
This bond has one stretcher
between headers, with the
headers centered over the
stretchers in the course below.
When a course begins with a
stretcher, the course will
ordinarily terminate with a
stretcher at the other end.
Brickwork that appears as
Flemish bond from both the
front and rear is Double Flemish
Bricks are laid in alternate courses
of headers and stretchers.
There is a chance of penetration of
damp through transverse joints.
Queen closures are inserted next
to headers to produce overlap.
English bonds are the strongest
but it is to be noted that the
continuous vertical joints are to be
Appearance is not as good as
This bond has three
stretchers between every
the headers are centered
above the midpoint of three
stretchers in the course
Generally used as garden
walls and are relatively
cheaper than other bonds.
Used for 9 inch wall.
Used when a fair face is
required on both sides.
Wall is composed of three or
four courses of stretchers
alternating with one of
It is mostly used in
construction of garden wall.
Heading or Header Bond is laid on
Used for round quick sweeps .
Should never be used in straight
work as it is very week.
This bond is used for facing of
curved surface and footings in
Bricks are laid in stretchers.
Used in walls of half – brick in thickness.
Due to its constant occurrence in the last position it is
also called Chimney Bond, Running Bond.
This bond doesn’t develop proper internal bond.
QUALITIES OF GOOD BRICKS
1. Bricks should be uniform in shape & standard in size.
2. Bricks should give a clear metallic ringing sound when struck
with each other.
3. Bricks should show a bright homogeneous & free from voids.
4. Bricks should be well brunt and possess sharp edges.
5. Colour of the bricks should be uniform and bright.
6. Bricks should be sufficiently hard & no impression should be
left on bricks surface when scratched with finger nail.
7. Bricks should have crushing strength above 5.50N/mm”.
8. The bricks should not break when it dropped from a height of
about 1 m.
9. The bricks should not absorb water more than 20% by weight
when soaked in cold water for 24 hrs.
10. The bricks should not show any deposits of white salts when
allowed to dry in shade.
CLASSIFICATION OF BRICKS
FIRST CLASS BRICKS :-
This are table moulded.
Surface & edges are sharp, square ,smooth , straight.
Well brunt & have uniform texture ,metallic ringing when struck
against each other.
Used for superior work.
SECOND CLASS BRICKS :-
This are ground moulded brick.
Surface are rough.
The quality of this bricks are inferior.
THIRD CLASS BRICKS :-
The surface & edges are rough.
Does not create any metallic sound.
Used for temporary & unimportant structure.
FOURTH CLASS BRICKS :-
This bricks are over brunt.
Irregular shape & dark colour.
Used in floor , foundation, roads.
TESTS FOR BRICKS
1) Absorption:- The brick should not absorb water more
than 20% of dry weight.
2) Crushing strength:- As per BIS 1077-1957 the minimum
crushing strength of bricks is 3.5 N/mm2
3) Hardness :- Brick is treated to be sufficient hard if no
impression could be made on the surface of the brick by
4) Soundness :- Two bricks when struck with each other
should emit metallic ringing sound.
5) Structure :- It should be homogeneous ,compact ,and
free from any defects.
6) Shape & size :- Standard size (190 X 90 X 90 mm) and
shapes should be truly rectangular with sharp edges and
DEFECTS IN BRICK MASONRY
Sulphate attack :- Sulphate salts present in bricks
work react with alumina content of cement .It occur in
Crystallization of salts from bricks :- Occur in
masonry made out of brick which contain excessive
soluble salts.This phenomenon is also known as
Corrosion of embedded iron or steel :- Iron or
steel embedded in brick work gets corroded in the
presence of dampness .On corrosion the metal
expands in volume and tends to crack the brick work.
Masonry boasts an
strength (vertical loads) but
is much lower in tensile
strength unless reinforced.
Brick masonry increases the
thermal mass of a building
and thereby resists fire.
Masonry tends to be heavy
and must be built upon a
strong foundation, such as
reinforced concrete, to avoid
settling and cracking.