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Stone as a building material.

STONE -As A Building Material.
Stones have been considered as one of the popular building material from the olden days due to their availability in abundance from the natural rocks. Building stones should possess enough strength and durability.
The stones which are suitable for the construction of the structures such as retaining walls, abutments, dams, barrages, roads etc are known as building stones.

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Stone as a building material.

  1. 1. STONE as a building material
  2. 2. WHAT IS STONE? The hard, solid, non metallic mineral matter of which rock is made, a building material. STONE -As A Building Material. Stones have been considered as one of the popular building material from the olden days due to their availability in abundance from the natural rocks. Building stones should possess enough strength and durability. The stones which are suitable for the construction of the structures such as retaining walls, abutments, dams, barrages, roads etc are known as building stones. SOURCES OF STONE Monomineralic rock-monomineralic Applied to rocks composed of one mineral type only. Examples would include the igneous rock anorthosite (composed entirely of plagioclase feldspar) and the metamorphic rock marble (composed entirely of calcite). Polymineralic rock-or “polymineralic,” i.e., mixtures of two or more minerals. An example of a polymineralic rock is granite, which is typically composed of quartz, feldspar, and mica. Rock forming minerals: ( Found in igneous rocks) 1.Augite 2.Chlorite. 3.Felspar. 4.Hornblende. 5.Mica 6.Olivine. 7.Plagioclase. 8.Quartz. 9.Serpantine. 10.Calcite
  3. 3. STONE As a building material. Classification- 1.Geological Classification- A)Igneous Rocks.-These are primary rocks which are formed from molten magma. They represent different structural features depending upon the condition of solidification and composition. Generally igneous rocks are strong and durable. These are also called un stratified or eruptive rocks. The examples of igneous rocks are granite, basalt, trap, etc.
  4. 4. b)Sedimentary rocks-These are secondary rocks and are formed by the denudation and deposition of previously existing rocks due to weathering actions. Water (rain) is the most powerful and principal weathering agent. The other destructive agents are frost, winds and chemical actions. The destructive agents break up the surface of earth which gets further broken up when carried down by rains and rivers. When the velocity of water in the rivers those broken particles are deposited in the river bed and thus sedimentary rocks are formed. These are also called aqueous and stratified rocks. (OR) The rocks which are formed by gradual deposition are called Sedimentary Rocks. Examples: Lime stone, sand stone, etc. Sandstones are made up of sand sized grains Limestones are the principal me of carbonate rocks the limeston is a light whitish-gray Sedimentary Rocks
  5. 5. c) Metamorphic rocks-Rocks which are formed due to metamorphic action of pressure or internal heat or by both (or) alteration of original structure due to heat and excessive pressure) are called Metamorphic Rocks. Examples: Marble etc. New minerals are produced by this metamorphism. Shales (mudstones) may be recrystallized into mica-rich rocks called schist. As such rocks are heated to temperatures below but not far from those that would melt the rocks, they become soft, recrystallize further, and can be deformed into crenulated light and dark units that resemble layers, forming rocks called gneisses. Examples of slate, schist and gneiss are:
  6. 6. 2.Physical Classification a)Stratified rocks-Stratified rocks show a layered structure in their natural environment. They possess planes of stratification or cleavage and can be easily split up along those planes. Sedimentary rocks are distinctly stratified rocks, eg; sandstone, limestone, slate, etc. b)Non stratified rocks-The rocks which do not show any sign of strata and cannot be easily split into thin layers are called unstratified rocks. Their structure may be crystalline or granular. Granite, trap and marble are the common examples of unstratified rocks. c)Foliated rocks-There are two basic types of metamorphic rocks: 1) foliated metamorphic rocks such as gneiss, phyllite, schist and slate which have a layered or banded appearance that is produced by exposure to heat and directed pressure; and, 2) non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and quartzite which do not have a layered ...
  7. 7. 3.Chemical classification- a)Siliceous rocks-The stones which contain (Silica SiO2) as principal constituent are called silicious rocks. These stones are durable stones. The examples of silicious rocks are granite, Quartzite and Sand stone etc. b)Argillaceous rocks-Argillaceous or clay stones are those stones which contain (alumina Al2O3) (clay) as principal constituent. These stones are less durable stones. All clay stones belong to this group. The examples of argillaceous rocks are Slate, Laterite, etc. c)Calcareous rocks-The stones which contain calcareous material (CaCO3) as principal constituent are called calcareous rocks. They also contain some proportion of siliceous and clay matter. The examples of calcareous rocks are marble stone and lime stone, etc. Siliceous rocks Argillaceous Calcareous
  8. 8. Characteristics of Stones while considering them for construction There are several characteristics of stones which are used for building construction……these are………. 1)Hardness :denotes several qualities of stones such as resistance to cutting and resistance to abrasion (rub with each other) 2) Durability: is the power of stone to resist atmospheric and other external effects. It depends upon: Chemical composition, Physical structure, Resistance to weathering effects, Place where it is used (3) Decomposition: Gases and acids in rain water dissolve (4) Porosity and Absorption: Stone can hold water in two ways Either through porosity or absorption.For building purposes, the better stones some constituents of stone and cause the stone decay. (5) Disintegration: In cold countries water freezes and expands and thus disintegrates the stones. (6)Reliability:When exposed to fire stone should be reliable (good in quality). (7)Weight:This is an important characteristic of stone. It depends upon the type of structure of stone in which we shall use. E.g. we shall use heavy stones in the construction of the dams, bridges, etc. (8)Strength:It is power of stone to sustain pressure or resistance to crushing force. Average crushing strength of stone is 3 tons per square inch. (8)Appearance and color:Highly colorful stones are preferred for architectural purpose but those are soft and thus less durable. Therefore, lighter stones are preferred than to darker ones. (9) Physical Strength:Crystalline structures are more durable than non-crystalline structure stone. (10)Seasoning Qualities:A good building stone should have good seasoning qualities. All the stones contain some moisture which is known as quarry sap stones. The period 3-6 months are enough for seasoning (11)Fire resistance:A good building stone should be fire resistant. Some stones such as basalt
  9. 9. Uses Of Stone in Construction Common Uses Of Builiding Stones: 1.Millions of tones of crushed rock are needed annually for road base, paving, 2.ready-mixed concrete and asphalt. 3.Sandstone which is not so hard-wearing or beautifully patterned is used for walls and paths in landscaping. 5.Basalt: It is quarried and crushed as "Blue Metal" which is used as a road-base, and in reinforced concrete as aggregate. 6.Although wood, straw and mud is used for houses in some parts of the world, most buildings are preferred to be built of stones. 7.Building wells. 8.Material for foundation and walling of buildings, dams, bridges, etc. 9.Aggregate. 10.Stone walls. 11.Roof tile in the form of slates. 12.Murram for covering and flooring of road surface. 13.Limestone for burning lime and for the manufacture of Portland cement. 14.Shale is a component of bricks and may also be used in manufacturing of cement. 15.Nite, another stone type is used for architectural construction, ornamental stones and monuments. 16.Marble is widely used in construction industry, for aesthetic purposes,
  10. 10. Stone Masonry What is stone masonry? The construction of stones bonded together with mortar is termed as stone masonry where the stones are available in a abundance in nature, on cutting and dressing to the proper shape, they provide an economical material for the construction of various building components such as walls, columns, footings, arches, lintels, beams etc. Where is stone masonry used? Cladding Works Dams, light houses, monumental structures. Paving jobs Railway, ballast, black boards and electrical switch boards Building foundations, walls, piers, pillars, and architectural works. Lintels, Beams, beams Arches, domes etc. Roofs and Roof coverings. What are the criteria's of selecting A building stone? 1.Availability 2.Strength and stability 3.Polishing characteristics 4.Ease of working 5.Appearance 6.Economy 7.Durability
  11. 11. Stone Masonry-General Principals For Laying Stone Masonry. 1.The stones to be used for stone masonry should be hard, tough and durable. 2.The pressure acting on stones should be vertical. 3.The stones should be perfectly dressed as per the requirements. 4.The heads and bond stones should not be of a dumb bell shape. 5.n order to obtain uniform distribution of load, under the ends of girders, roof trusses etc large flat stones should be used. 6.The mortar to be used should be good quality and in the specified faces. 7.The construction work of stone masonry should be raised uniformly. 8. The plumb bob should be used to check the verticality of erected wall. 9.The stone masonry section should always be designed to take compression and not the tensile stresses. 10.The masonry work should be properly cured after the completion of work, for a period of 2 to 3 weeks. 11.As far as possible broken stones or small stones chips should not be used. 12.Double scaffolding should be used for working at higher level. 13.The masonry hearting should be properly packed with mortar and chips if necessary to avoid hallows. 14.The properly wetted stones should be used to avoid mortar moisture being sucked.
  12. 12. Laying The Stone 1.Decrease the stone thickness from the bottom to the top of wall. 2. Ensure that the headers in the heart of the wall are the same size as in the face and extend at least 12 in (300 mm) into the core or back. (Avoid Dumb-bell shaped stones) 3.Ensure that headers in “walls of 2 feet (600 mm) or less in thickness” extend entirely through the wall. The headers shall occupy at least 20 percent of the face of the wall. 4. Lay the masonry in roughly leveled courses. Ensure that the bottom of the foundation is large, with selected stones. 5. Lay the courses with leaning beds parallel to the natural bed of the material. 6. Regularly diminish the thicknesses of the courses, if varied, from the bottom to the top of the wall. Keep a surplus supply of stones at the site to select from. 7. Before laying the stone in the wall, shape and dress it so that it will not loosen after it is placed. No dressing or hammering which will loosen the stone will be permitted after it is placed. 8. Clean each stone and saturate it with water before setting it. Clean and moisten the bed that will receive it. 9.Bed the stones in freshly made mortar with full joints. Carefully settle the stones in place before the mortar sets. 10. Ensure that the joints and beds have an average thickness of not more than 1 inch. (25 mm). 11. Do not place vertical joints directly above or below a header joint.
  13. 13. 12.If a stone is moved or if the joint is broken after the mortar has set, take the stone up and thoroughly clean the mortar from the bed and joints. Reset the stone in fresh mortar. 13. Note: Do not lay the masonry in freezing weather or when the stone contains frost, except with permission subjected to the required conditions. 14.Whenever possible, properly point the face joints before the mortar sets. If joints cannot be pointed, rake them out to a depth of 1 in (25 mm) before the mortar sets. 15.Do not smear the stone face surfaces with the mortar forced out of the joints or the mortar used in pointing. 16.Thoroughly wet the joints pointed after the stone is laid with clean water and fill with mortar. 17. Drive the mortar into the joints and finish with an approved pointing tool. 18. Keep the wall wet while pointing. In hot or dry weather, protect the pointed masonry from the sun and keep it wet for at least three days after the pointing is finished. 19. Note: Do not perform pointing in freezing weather or when the stone contains frost. 20. After the pointing is completed and the mortar is set, thoroughly clean the walls and leave them in a neat condition
  14. 14. MASONRY: Construction of building units bonded together, Masonry is basically a wall material. Masonry walls are divided into three categories, they are 1. Load bearing walls 2. Non-load bearing walls 3. Retaining walls STONE MASONRY: From times immemorial, stone has been used both for residential as well as public buildings. Historical buildings that stand today are the living examples of the strength, durability and the excellent weather resisting qualities of stone masonry. Because of high crushing strength, stone is used in the construction of piers, docks, dams and other marine structures. But dressing and placing of stone requires a great deal of time and extra labour. Depending upon the degree of refinement used in shaping the stone, the finishing adopted and the arrangement of the stone in the construction, stone masonry can be broadly classified in the following two types: 1. Rubble masonry 2. Ashlar masonry
  15. 15. Rubble Masonry: It is further sub-divided in the following categories 1. Uncoursed rubble masonry 2. Random rubble masonry 3. Coursed rubble masonry 4. Dry rubble masonry . Definitions of terms:
  16. 16. Masonry Joints
  17. 17. Definitions of terms: Course: A course is a horizontal layer of bricks stones Bed: the surface of a stone perpendicular to the line of pressure of (lower surface of bricks or stones in each course) Back: The inner surface of wall not exposed is called back. The material forming back is known as backing Face: The exterior of the wall exposed to weather is known as face. The material used in the facing of wall is known as facing’ Hearting: It is the interior portion of a wall between facing and backing Head: It is a brick or stone, which lies with its greatest length at right angles to the face of the work. Stretcher: It is a brick or a stone which lies with its congest side parallel to the face of the work Bond: The method of arranging bricks so that the individual units are tied together Spalls: The chips of stones used for filling the interstics in stone masonry Quoins: The stones used for the corners of walls of structure Bat: It is a portion of a brick cut across the width. Closer: It is the portion of a brickcut in such a manner that its one long face remains uncut
  18. 18. Queen closer: it is the portion of a brick obtained by cutting a brick length- wise into two portions King closer: It is the portion of brick obtained by cutting off the triangular piece between the centre of one end and the centre of one side. Bevelled closer: It is the portion of a brick in which the whole length of the brick is bevelled for maintaining half width at one end and full width at the other Frog: It is an indentation or depression on the top face of a brick made with the object of forming a key for the mortar. Sill: It is a horizontal stone, concrete or wood, employed for the purpose of shedding off rain water from the face of wall immediately below the window opening Corbel: It is the extension of one or more course of stone or brick from the face of a wall to serve as a support for wall plates Templates: Pieces of stones placed under the end of a beam to distribute load over a greater area. Coping: It is the course placed upon the exposed top of an external wall to prevent the seepage of water Buttress: It is a sloping or stepped masonry projection from a tall wall intended to strengthen the wall against the thrust of a roof as shown in figure.
  19. 19. Uncoursed Rubble Masonry: This is the poorest form of stone masonry. The stones to be used are directly obtained from quarry, after merely knocking off weak corner and edges With the masons hammer. The Face stones selected from the heap should have uniform colour, uniform bed and greater size. In this type the stone blocks are made roughly square with hammer. Generally the facing stones are given hammer-dressed finish. Large stones are used as quoins. As far as possible the use of chips in bedding is avoided.
  20. 20. Random Squqre Rubble masonry This form is slightly superior to uncoursed rubble masonry in this form the stones used in the work are hammer or chisel dressed. The stone are not suitably shaped or finished and as such the elevation of this type masonry show irregular shape stones with non uniform joints. In good work the face stones are of uniform colour and equal. In this type of stone masonry the uniform height stones are used in horizontal layers not less than 13cm in height. Generally, the stone beds are hammered or chisel dressed to a depth of at least 10cm from the face. The stones are arranged in such a manner so that the vertical joints of two consecutive curse do not coincide with each other as shown in figure below
  21. 21. Coursed Rubble Masonry: This is the form of masonry which is commonly adopted in residential building, public building, piers and abutments for ordinary bridges. Considering the dressing and finishing of stones it is further subdivided into 1st class, 2nd class and 3rd class. In first class masonry, generally all the courses are of the same height and the minimum height of the course is limited to 15 cm. The face stones are hammer dressed. The beds of the face stone or hammer or chisel dressed and rendered true and square. In this type of stone masonry the uniform height stones are used in horizontal layers not less than 13cm in height. Generally, the stone beds are hammered or chisel dressed to a depth of at least 10cm from the face. The stones are arranged in such a manner so that the vertical joints of two consecutive curse do not coincide with each other as shown in figure below
  22. 22. (v) Polygonal rubble masonry: In this type of masonry the stones are roughly dressed to an irregular polygonal shape. The stones should be so arranged as to avoid long vertical joints in face work and to break joints as much as possible. Small stone chips should not be used to support the stones on the facing as shown in the figure below. Dry Rubble Masonry: The construction of this form is similar to that of ordinary rubble masonry without mortar.
  23. 23. Flint Rubble Masonry (vi) Flint rubble masonry: This type of masonry is used in the areas where the flint is available in plenty. The flint stones varying in thickness from 8 to 15cm and in length from 15 to 30cm are arranged in the facing in the form of coursed or uncoursed masonry as shown below.
  24. 24. Ashlar Masonry: The work built from carefully dressed stones with accurate bedding and jointing is termed as ashlars masonry. This construction is further subdivided into various types they are 1. Ashlar fine 2. Ashlar rough tool 3. Ashlar chamfered 4. Ashlar facing Ashlar Fine: In this type of masonry, all the stones are fine tooled; all bed and side joint faces are rendered perfectly true to pattern desired. The height of the courses is never less than 30 cm. The bed and the side joint in this type of work should never exceed 3mm in thickness.
  25. 25. Dry rubble masonry This type of masonry is used in the construction of retaining walls pitching earthen dams and canal slopes in the form of random rubble masonry without any mortar. The hallow spaces left around and stones should be tightly packed with smaller stone pieces as shown below.
  26. 26. Ashlar Rough Tool: In this type of masonry the exposed faces of stone generally have a fine dressed chisel drafting all round the edges. The portion the face stone enclosed by the chisel draft is rough tooled. The thickness should never exceed 6mm.
  27. 27. Ashlar Champhered : This type masonry is similar to the one described above with the only difference that the edges around the exposed faces of stone are bevelled off at an angle of 45O for depth of 25mm or more
  28. 28. Ashlar Facing: In this type of masonry the faces of stone are rough tooled, and chamfered and the stones are provided in face work only. The backing may be made in brick, concrete, or rubble as desired. The composite construction reduces the cost of work appreciably the height of the course is never kept less than 20cm.
  29. 29. Selection Of Stone Masonry Recommended Use of Common Types of Stone S. No Situation Types of Stones Used 1. For face work of building. Marble, granite and close-grained sand. Stone. 2. For curved or ornamental works. Soft sand stone and marble. 3. For masonry work in industrial town Granite, compact sandstone and Exposed to smoke and chemical fumes. quartzite 4. For road metal. Basalt and coarse-grained granite. 5. For railway ballast. Sand stone, granite and quartzite. 6. For paving’s, door sills and steps. Marble, slates and sand stones. 7. For bridges, piers, docks 8. For fire resistant masonry Compact sand stone.
  30. 30. Dressing Of Stones Building stones has to quarried out from the rock formation before it can be put into use quarry of the stone may be done either by hand tool or with the help explosives. In large quarries, a machine has to be used for the purpose. Rough block of stone are obtained from quarry are irregular in shape and non uniform in size and as such they cannot be used in without proper dressing and cutting. 8 The commonly used tools and implements for the cutting and dressing of stone blocks are 1. Pick 2. Face hammer 3. Scabbling hammer 4. Mallet 5. Sutke 6. Mash hammer 7. Spalling hammer 8. Pitching tool 9. Punch 10. Chisel 11. Toothed chisel 12. Claw chisel 13. Jumper 14. Drag 15. Saw for soft stone 16. Crosscut saw
  31. 31. (1).Hammer Dressed or Quarry Faced This is the roughest form of surface finish. Stone as removed from the quarry has large projections which are knocked off with the quarry hammer and it is finally broken up into blocks of suitable size and shape such as khandi, quoin, or rectangular blocks. (2). Rough Tooled Surface. In this type of surface finish, the projection of the stone block is removed by means of chisels and the surface is nearly dressed true. (3). Tooled Surface In this type of surface finish continuous parallel chisel marks are produced throughout the width of the stone. The parallel corrugations or chisel marks are made at closer intervals rendering the surface truly planned. (4). Cut Stone Surface In this type of surface finish the surface is dressed by using a sharp chisel so that the chisel marks are practically imperceptible. (5). Rubbed Surface This type of surface finish is obtained by grinding or rubbing a cut stone surface by hand or machine until it gets perfectly smooth (6). Polished Surface The Rubbed surfaces of granite, marble of lime stones are polished to enhance their texture. Polishing may be done by manual labour using sand and water, pumice stone etc. Or by rubbing machine
  32. 32. The End Ar.Suvarna lele