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A STUDY ON JOB STRESS AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

The employees in the organization are under a great deal of stress and due to many antecedents of stress such as overload, role ambiguity, role conflict, responsibility for people, participation, lack of feedback, keeping up with rapid technological change. Outcomes of this among the employees are stress on job performance. The physical and psychology demands of workers in the organization make them more vulnerable to high level of stress. This study investigated and evaluated the job stress and its effect on job performance among the employees in the organization.

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A STUDY ON JOB STRESS AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

  1. 1. 247 V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016) I A STUDY ON JOB STRESS AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE Ms. V.B. Sathya Priya Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, SRM University - Ramapuram Campus, Chennai – 600089 ABSTRACT The employees in the organization are under a great deal of stress and due to many antecedents of stress such as overload, role ambiguity, role conflict, responsibility for people, participation, lack of feedback, keeping up with rapid technological change. Outcomes of this among the employees are stress on job performance. The physical and psychology demands of workers in the organization make them more vulnerable to high level of stress. This study investigated and evaluated the job stress and its effect on job performance among the employees in the organization. The study sought to find out how work related stress could affect the employee’s performance and health in the organization. The data obtained through questioners was analyzed by statistical test chi square and percentage analysis reliabilities were also confirmed. The results are significant with negative relationship between job stress and job performance and shows that job stress significantly reduces the performance of an individual. The results suggest that organization should facilitate supportive culture within the working atmosphere of the organization. Key words: Job Performance, Stress, Employees, Organization Cite This Article: V.B. Sathya Priya. A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance. International Journal of Management, 7(2), 2016, pp. 247-254. http://www.iaeme.com/IJM/index.asp 1. INTRODUCTION In the present changing and competitive work environment, stress level is increasing both in the workers as well as the managers. As a result of this work stress, more and more managers are showing signs of chronic fatigue and burnout. Research has concluded that stressed out managers are not good for their companies or shareholders. In most cases, stress leads to reduced productivity. Stress is a problem in almost all the countries, irrespective of the economy either strong or weak. Therefore, work stress is important aspect to be focused while studying human behavior. All employees get affected by work related stress in one way or another way. Although Job stress is by no means a new phenomenon, it is being increasingly globalize and its affects all countries, all professions, non-workers, including the blue and white collar workers. While job stress is most frequently considered in the context of the industrial countries, workers in developing countries are also undoubtedly affected. Job stress can be defined as “the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of personnel’s”. A work and occupational structure play a critical role in an individual sense of identity, self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. Work is the central and defining characteristic of life for almost individuals whose work may have intrinsic value, instrumental value or both. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 http://www.iaeme.com/ijm/index.asp Journal Impact Factor (2016): 8.1920 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 © IAEME Publication 248 V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016) The intrinsic value of work is the work itself. The instrumental value of work is in providing the necessities of life and serving as a channel for the individual talents, abilities and knowledge. 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Viljoen,J.P and Rothmann, S.8 aimed at studying and investigating the relationship between “occupational stress, ill health and organizational commitment” (2009). The results were that organizational stressors contributed significantly to ill health and low organizational commitment. Stress about job security contributed to both physical and psychological ill health. Low individual commitment to the organization was predicted by five stressors, namely work-life balance, overload, control, job aspects and pay. Stewart Collins16 in his book titled “Statutory Social Workers: Stress, Job Satisfaction, Coping, Social Support and Individual Differences” (2008) he is highlighted that healthy or unhealthy coping strategies have gender difference and the importance of support in various forms with in the work setting, whereas mutual group support accompanied by individual differences are linked to good self- esteem, personal hardiness and resilience. Kopp, Maria S; Stauder, Adrienne; Purebl, Gyorgy; Janszky, Imre; Skrabski, Arpad 22 in their research paper titled “Work stress and mental health in a changing society” (2008) they conducted a study indicates that a cluster of stressful working and psychosocial conditions are responsible for a substantial part of variation in self-reported mental and physical health with work related factors. Katherine Pollak. Eisen. George J. Allen. Mary Bollash and Linda S. Pescatello 23 in their book titled “Stress management in the workplace” (2009) it suggested that work stress significantly contribute to corporate health costs. Comparison through randomized controlled design of stress management and intervention provided by an instructor-led group and computer presented format, has resulted in significantly higher attrition in computer based presentation format.
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 © IAEME Publication V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016) 3. OJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To study the various organizational and individual stressors that cause stress to the employees of organization. 2. To find out the effects of stress such as physiological, psychological and behavioral consequences. 3. To suggest remedial measures to overcome the problem of job stress. 4. NEED FOR THE STUDY This study deals with the effect of stress on the employee’s performance. It also deals with various other problems like causes of stress. The importance of this study is to formulate control measures to overcome employees stress. 5. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. This pressure at work leads to physical disorders. Stress refers to individual’s reaction to disturbing factors in the environment. Hence, this study would help the organization to know the factors of stress and to reduce the stress in employees. As it is a well-known fact that healthy employee is a productive employee. 6. DATA COLLECTION The task of data collection after a research problem was defined and research design/plan was chalked out. While deciding about the method of data collection be used for the study, the researcher used questionnaire method 7. SAMPLE SIZE A sample of 50 respondents was taken using random sampling. 8. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Data analysis and interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to the collected information and determining the conclusions, significance, and implications of the findings. The steps involved in data analysis are a function of the type of information collected; however, returning to the purpose of the assessment and the assessment questions will provide a structure for the organization of the data and a focus for the analysis. Table Showing the Organizational Stressors Organizational stressors YES (%) NO (%) TOTAL Work related stress 32(64%) 18(36%) 50 Relationship with the superiors 34(68%) 16(32%) 50 Difficulty in concentrating the work 26(52%) 24(48%) 50 Leadership style and pressure from the superiors 28(56%) 22(44%) 50 Unequal remuneration and incentives 26(52%) 24(48%) 50 Fear of achieving target 30(60%) 20(40%) 50 9. INTERPRETATION From the above table (3.7) it shows that 64% of the respondents feel that stress can be caused due to work. The employees are stressed when they are asked to complete the work within a specific period of time.
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 © IAEME Publication 250 V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016) It shows that 68% of the respondents feel more stress due to more expectation from the employees. It shows that 52% of the respondents have difficulty in concentrating their work. Stress is caused to the respondents, due to the family commitments and obligations; another reason is they may lack skills and intelligence it shows that 56% of the respondents say that stress can be caused due to leadership style and pressure from superiors. Some executive officers create a culture characterized by fear, tension and anxiety. They establish pressure in the employees to perform in the short-run. It shows that 52% of the respondents say that stress can be caused due to unequal pay and incentives in the organization. It shows that 60% of the respondents says that they feel more tensed when they fear for achieving the target, the pressure from the superiors to achieve the target in a particular time cause stress among the respondents. 10. AGE GROUP OF EMPLOYEES AND WORK PRESSURE 10.1. Null Hypothesis: - There is no association between the age group of employees and their work pressure as an individual stressor. 10.2. Alternate Hypothesis: - There is an association between the age group of employees and their work pressure as an individual stressor. 10.3. Chi-Square Analysis Table Showing the Association between the Age Group of Employees and their Work Pressure as a Individual Stressors Observed Frequency Age Group Opinion Relating to age Group of Employees and work Pressure as an Individual Stressor Total Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disaree 21-25 4 2 5 3 1 15 26-30 5 0 1 2 0 8 31-35 5 4 3 0 2 14 Above36 4 3 1 3 2 13 Total 18 9 10 8 5 50 Calculation of Chi-Square Observed Frequency (O) Expected Frequency (E) (O-E) (O-E)2 / E 0 5.4 1.4 0.363 4 2.7 2.3 1.959 5 3 2 1.333 5 2.4 1.6 1.067 2 1.5 0.5 0.167 0 2.88 2.88 2.88 4 1.44 2.56 4.55 3 1.6 1.4 1.255 5 1.28 3.72 10.811 1 0.8 0.2 0.005 3 5.04 -2.04 0.826 1 2.52 1.52 0.916 3 2.8 0.2 0.014 2 2.24 0.24 0.026
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 © IAEME Publication V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016) Observed Frequency (O) Expected Frequency (E) (O-E) (O-E)2 / E 0 1.4 1.4 1.4 3 4.68 1.68 0.603 1 2.34 1.34 0.767 0 2.6 2.6 2.6 2 2.08 0.08 0.003 2 1.3 0.7 0.376 50 31.754 = 31.754 Degrees of freedom = (r-1) (c-1) = (4-1) (5-1) = 12 At 5% level of significance, the table value is 21.026 11. INFERENCE From the above table calculated value is greater than the table value; accept alternative hypothesis, there is an association between age group of employees and their work pressure as an individual stressor, young adults between the age of 21 to 25 years have more stress when compared to older people, this may due to lack of experience among the youngsters which causes high level of stress. So they feel more work pressure in the organization 12. GENDER AND ROTATION OF SHIFTS 12.1. Hypothesis 12.2. Null Hypothesis: There is no association between the gender of employees and rotation of shifts as an individual stressor. 12.3. Alternative Hypothesis: There is an association between the gender of employees and rotation of shifts as an individual stressor. 12.4. Chi-Square Analysis Table Showing the Association between the Gender of Employees and Rotation of Shifts as Individual Stressors Observed Frequency: Gender Opinion Relating To Rotation Of Shifts As An Individual Stressor Total Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Male 8 12 4 4 4 32 Female 2 5 6 4 1 18 Total 10 17 10 8 5 50
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 © IAEME Publication 252 V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016) Calculation of Chi-Square Observed Frequency (O) Expected Frequency (E) (O-E) (O-E)2 / E 8 6.4 1.6 0.4 2 10.88 8.88 7.248 12 6.4 5.6 4.9 5 5.12 0.12 0.0028 4 3.2 0.8 0.2 6 3.6 2.4 1.6 4 6.12 2.12 0.734 4 3.6 0.4 0.444 4 2.88 1.12 0.436 1 1.8 0.8 0.356 50 15.9208 Degrees of freedom = (r-1) (c-1) = (2-1) (5-1) = 4 At 5% level of significance, the table value is 9.488 13. INFERENCE From the above table calculated value is greater than the table value; accept alternative hypothesis, there is an association between the gender of employees and rotation o shifts as an individual stressor, frequent rotation of shifts causes illness in family members and long term strained relations with the spouse or children. Then rotation of shifts acts as a significant stressors in the employees. 14. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY The findings of the study are as follows  64% of the respondents are male.  30% of the respondents belong to the age category of 21 to 25 years.  56% of the respondents are under graduated.  30% of the respondents have experience of above 3 years.  30% of the respondents are earning an income of RS 15000 to RS 20000.  64% of the respondents feel that stress can be caused due to work. The employees are stressed when they are asked to complete the work within a specific period of time.  68% of the respondents feel that relationship with the superiors caused stress to them, because expectations from the superior are more to them.  52% of the employees feel that they are not able to concentrate in work due to stress because of their family commitments another reason is they may lack in skills and intelligence.  56% of the respondents feel that stress can be caused due to leadership style and pressure form superiors. Some executive officers create a culture characterized by fear, tension and anxiety. They established pressure to the employees to perform in the short-run.  52% of the respondents say that stress can be caused due to unequal pay and incentives in the organization.  60% of the respondents says that they feel more tensed when they fear for achieving the target, the pressure from the superiors to achieve the target in a particular time cause stress among the respondents.
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 © IAEME Publication V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016)  There is association between the gender of employees and rotation of shifts as the factors of individual stressors frequent rotation of shifts. Causes illness in family members and long term strained relations with the spouse or children. Then rotation of shifts acts as a significant stressors in the employees.  There is association between the marital status and family demands and obligations as the factors of individual stressors the stress level among married and unmarried group varies with respect to family demand and obligations. Among the married group, family commitment and responsibility is required in a wider aspect.  There is association between the age group of respondents and work pressure as the factors of individual stressors young adults between the age of 21 to 25 years have more stress when compared to older people, this may due to lack of experience among the youngsters which causes high level of stress. So they feel more work pressure in the organization.  There is association between the service of respondents and organizational changes as the factors of individual stressors one major source of job stress for the individual is changes in the organization. The experienced employee did not feel for the changes in organization, because he has the capabilities to cope up with the changes from his experience, but it is not applicable for the fresher’s because they lack in experience.  High blood pressure secured first rank among the various physical problems. It may be caused due to organizational stressors and individual stressors.  Anger secured first rank due to stress among the various psychological problems because of work pressure, family commitments or conflict among the employees. 15. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings these are the recommendations and suggestions made:  The management should know the capabilities of the employees, according to it they have to align the work and responsibilities to the employee.  Social interaction with the superiors helps to reduce the stress at job.  Friendly talking and healthy conditions help the employees to reduce their family tension as well as stress in work place.  The leadership style should be clear in the management. The superiors must be friendly to the employees. It can reduce tension to the employees in the management.  The management must give equal remuneration and incentives to the employees. It motivates the people to work more and also it reduces the stress.  The superiors should give proper training to the employees to achieve their target. It can reduce tension among the employees at work place.  The management must avoid the frequent rotating shifts to the employees. It helps the employees to reduce their tension and make them to involve in participating the family activities also.  The management must understand the problems of the married employees; they can arrange counseling to reduce their personal problems as well as their role conflict.  To reduce the work pressure, the management should conduct seminars, audiotapes, conducting fun activities and providing permission for using any other recreation programs.  To reduce the stress due to frequent organizational changes, the management must give proper training to the fresher employee, from this they can cope up with the organizational changes easily.  The management can arrange for medical facilities to the employees, who is affected by high blood pressure  The work environment should be in such a way that the employees should not feel anger.
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 7, Issue 2, February (2016), pp. 247-254 © IAEME Publication 254 V.B. Sathya Priya. “A Study on Job Stress and its Impact on Employees Performance”. - (ICAM 2016) 16. CONCLUSION The discussion made in this study proves that the stress on employees affect the production and other activities, thus giving them enough training and giving information about stress will help them to overcome from the stress. Stress is the important factor that leads to cause psychological and physiological problems. It reacts to high stress through absenteeism, turnover, error, dissatisfaction and reduced performance. So the management must concentrate to make the place stress free. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books  Dr. Tripathi. P.C, “Research Methodology” in Social Science, Sulthan Chand and sons, New Delhi, 2000.  S.S. KHANKA, “Organisational Behaviour”, S.Chand & Company Ltd, New Delhi, 2000.  Stephen P. Robbins “Organisational Behaviour”, Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd, New Delhi, 1989.  M. Gangadhar Roa, “Organisational Behaviour”, S.Chand & Company Ltd, New Delhi, 2002.  Guptha S.P, “Statistical Method”, Sulthan Chand and sons, New Delhi, 2000.  Kothari. C.R, “Research Methodology”, Vishwa Prakshan Publications, New Delhi, 1990. WEBSITE  WWW.Orchidphrama.com.  WWW.Google.com.  WWW. Answer.com

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