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AhmedHamza
AhmedHamza
Fold (geology)
A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such
as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of
permanent deformation. Synsedimentary folds are those due to slumping of sedimentary material
before it is lithified. Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds.
They occur singly as isolated folds and in extensive fold trains of different sizes, on a variety of
scales.
Folds form under varied conditions of stress, hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure, and temperature
gradient, as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments, the full spectrum of metamorphic rocks,
and even as primary flow structures in some igneous rocks. A set of folds distributed on a regional
scale constitutes a fold belt, a common feature of orogenic zones. Folds are commonly formed by
shortening of existing layers, but may also be formed as a result of displacement on a non-
planar fault (fault bend fold), at the tip of a propagating fault (fault propagation fold), by
differential compaction or due to the effects of a high-level igneous intrusion e.g. above alaccolith.

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Fold

  • 1. AhmedHamza AhmedHamza Fold (geology) A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation. Synsedimentary folds are those due to slumping of sedimentary material before it is lithified. Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds. They occur singly as isolated folds and in extensive fold trains of different sizes, on a variety of scales. Folds form under varied conditions of stress, hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure, and temperature gradient, as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments, the full spectrum of metamorphic rocks, and even as primary flow structures in some igneous rocks. A set of folds distributed on a regional scale constitutes a fold belt, a common feature of orogenic zones. Folds are commonly formed by shortening of existing layers, but may also be formed as a result of displacement on a non- planar fault (fault bend fold), at the tip of a propagating fault (fault propagation fold), by differential compaction or due to the effects of a high-level igneous intrusion e.g. above alaccolith.