Impact of Tectonics on Landscapes


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Impact of Tectonics on Landscapes

  1. 1. Tectonic landscapes
  2. 3. What impact does tectonic activity have on landscapes and why does this impact vary? <ul><li>Volcanic activity: </li></ul><ul><li>• Variations in the form, type and frequency of eruption to be considered in relation to types of plate margin, vents and lava. </li></ul><ul><li>• The distinction between intrusive and extrusive volcanic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>• Extrusive landforms: volcanic cones the major sub-types being noted, lava plateaux, and minor forms such as geysers, hot springs/boiling mud. </li></ul><ul><li>• Intrusive landforms: batholiths, laccoliths, dykes and sills. </li></ul><ul><li>• Case studies are needed for the above and these must range from the small scale, e.g. for dykes and sills to the global when considering types of eruption. </li></ul><ul><li>• Candidates must be made aware of landforms in the UK which are related to volcanic activity. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Extrusive volcanic landforms <ul><li>Volcano types: </li></ul>
  4. 5. fissure eruption Mid-ocean ridge: creation of sea floor
  5. 6. Hotspots
  6. 7. <ul><li>Extrusion= the upward movement of magma through the earths crust and onto its surface as lava. Extrusive volcanic landforms form once the lava has cooled and hardened. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Intrusive Volcanic Landforms <ul><li>Intrusion= the movement of magma underground into spaces that exist within rock strata. When this magma cools and hardens, intrusive volcanic landforms are created. Weathering and erosion causes these landforms to be exposed. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Batholith <ul><li>Batholith is the name given to the largest of igneous rocks that form as a result of magma forcing its way into the rock above it. When it cools it forms granite and this can be exposed due to weathering and erosion. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Stock <ul><li>Stock is the name given to intrusive igneous rocks smaller than 100km2. </li></ul>Laccolith <ul><li>A Laccolith is a dome of igneous rock that is formed between two layers of pre-existing sedimentary rocks. It forms a dome or mushroom shaped intrusion. </li></ul>Plutons <ul><li>Taken from Pluto the Greek god of the underworld. It is a general term to describe any mass of rock formed by hardening magma underground. See above </li></ul>
  10. 11. Dike <ul><li>A Dike is a vertical or near vertical sheet of rock that is created when magma is thrust into a body of rock. Dikes cut across layers of existing rock. When exposed on the earths surface Dikes can appear as a wall of volcanic rock. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Sills <ul><li>Sills are long thin intrusions of rock that form a layer between other sedimentary rocks. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Vein <ul><li>Sometimes magma forces its way through cracks in the rock. When it cools vein like patterns may remain. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Landforms and Rock Structure <ul><li>Exposed Batholiths and Monadnocks </li></ul><ul><li>Batholiths: huge bodies of intrusive igneous rock </li></ul><ul><li>Form hilly or mountainous uplands </li></ul><ul><li>Monadnock : a mountain that rises out of a surrounding plain and that develops because it consists of more resistant rock than the bedrock of the surrounding region </li></ul>
  14. 16. Tectonic landscapes created by Earthquakes <ul><li>Faults and Faulting </li></ul><ul><li>Rift Valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Ground displacement and folding </li></ul>
  15. 17. Faults <ul><li>A fault is a break in the crust where slabs of crust slip past each other. The rocks on both sides of a fault can move up or down or sideways </li></ul><ul><li>When enough stress builds on a rock, the rock shatters, creating faults </li></ul><ul><li>Faults usually occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion compress, pull, or shear the crust too much so the crust smashes </li></ul>
  16. 19. Strike-Slip Faults <ul><li>Shearing creates this fault </li></ul><ul><li>In this fault, rocks on both sides of the fault slide past each other with a little up and down motion </li></ul><ul><li>When a strike-slip fault forms the boundary between two plates, it becomes a transform boundary </li></ul>
  17. 20. Tectonic Landforms Faults and Fault Landforms Transcurrent or Strike-slip Faults are produced when tectonic plates move past each other horizontally
  18. 21. Normal Faults <ul><li>Tension forces in Earth's crust causes these types of faults </li></ul><ul><li>Normal faults are at an angle, so one piece of rock is above the fault, while the other is below the fault </li></ul><ul><li>The above rock is called the hanging wall, and the one below is called the footwall </li></ul><ul><li>When movement affects along a normal fault, the hanging wall slips downward </li></ul><ul><li>Normal faults occur along the Rio Grande rift valley in New Mexico, where two pieces of Earth's crust are diverging </li></ul>
  19. 23. Reverse Faults <ul><li>Compression forces produce this fault </li></ul><ul><li>This fault has the same setup as a normal fault, but reversed, which explains it’s name </li></ul><ul><li>Just like the normal fault, one side of the reverse fault is at an angle of the other </li></ul><ul><li>This fault produced part of the Appalachian Mountains in the eastern United States </li></ul>
  20. 24. Tectonic Landforms Faults and Fault Landforms Reverse and overthrust faults are produced by compression in the crust
  21. 26. The Great Rift Valley <ul><li>The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately 6,000 kilometres (3,700 mi) in length, that runs from northern Syria in Southwest Asia to central Mozambique in East Africa. </li></ul>
  22. 27. Graben <ul><li>Another name for a Rift Valley is Graben (German for ditch) A graben is a depressed block of land bordered by parallel faults. </li></ul>
  23. 31. Tectonic Landforms Faults and Fault Landforms Normal faults are produced by crustal extension
  24. 32. Folding <ul><li>Folding creates mountain ranges and also can influence coastal Geography. </li></ul>
  25. 34. Tectonic Landforms Fold Belts Compression from tectonic activity produces folds in rock strata Anticlines : upbends Synclines: troughs Folds : corrugations of strata caused by crustal compression
  26. 35. Tectonic Landforms <ul><li>Fold Belts Folds erode to form ridge-and-valley landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Ridges and valleys parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Folds may be plunging folds </li></ul>
  27. 36. Land deformation