Baroque Gian Lorenzo Bernini Diagrammatic plan of the Basilica and Piazza of San Pietro, Rome, showing Berninis elliptical urban space and the converging colonnades in front of the churchSant’Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, 1650s Plan of SantAndrea al Quirinale, Rome, showing elliptical nave surrounded by chapels with high-altar on the short axis opposite the entrance
Baroque Gian Lorenzo BerniniSant’Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, 1650s
Baroque Francesco Borromini San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane Plan of the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, showing the centres from which arcs describing the circles and ellipse are struck, and thegeometrical relationships of those centres to elements within the plan. Convex-concave arragement of the entrance-front.
Palazzo Barberini Baroque Francesco Borromini Palazzo Barberini The famous helicoidal staircase by Borromini.
Santa Maria della Salute Baroque The interior is less dramatic and colorful than is usual in Baroque churches. Figures of the prophets stand above the tall Corinthian columns in the angles of the octagon. An ambulatory surrounds the octagon with rectangular chapels at each axis except for the entrance and altar. The church was designed in the then fashionable baroque style by Baldassare Longhena, a pupil of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio, and construction began in 1631. Most of the objects of art housed in the church bear references to the Black Death.
The Baroque and the EnlightenmentEtienne-Louis Boullée 1728–1799Born in Paris, Boullée was involved in many of the city’slargescale symbolic buildings including the nationallibrary. H also d ilib He l designed visionary structures that were d i i hnever realised including the Cenotaph dedicated toNewton, which was a complete spherical structure.Boullée also wrote the influential essay on the art ofarchitecture, which promoted neoclassical architecture. hit t hi h t d l i l hit t
Symmetrical and Rational Plan of theChâteau de Versailles The Baroque and the EnlightenmentThis diagram shows the connection, along acentral axis, between the gardens and thebuilding of the Château de Versailles. Both plans Versaillesare symmetrical along the axis. The château wasdesigned by the architect Louis Le Vau and thegardens by landscape architect André Le Notrein 1661. The Château de Versailles, Paris, France Louis Le Vau, 1661–1774 Initially a small hunting lodge, The Palace of Versailles was extended by successive kings of France and designed to g g resemble its current form by Le Vau in 1661. It has been designed by architects and landscape architects and is an impressive connection of building and landscape, landscape interior and exterior linked by carefully considered views and axis.
The Baroque and the Enlightenment St Paul’s Cathedral, London, UK, Sir Christopher Wren, 1675–1710 This current cathedral was constructed after its predecessor was destroyed by the great fire of London. The dome of St Paul’s has a great physical presence on the skyline of London,and is an important visual feature and reference for the city city.Sir Christopher Wren 1632–1723Wren studied both astronomy and architecture at Oxford University. The Great Fire of London in 1666 gave him Universitythe opportunity to be involved in the rebuilding of the city.He designed St Paul’s Cathedral in London, was involved in the rebuilding of 51 of the city’s churches and alsodesigned Hampton Court Palace and Greenwich Hospital.
Rococo Germain Boffrand,Salon de la Princesse,Hotel de Soubise. Begun 1732. Soubise 1732
Rococo The Rococo style of architecture first appeared in the French court in the early years of the 18th century century.The French architect François de Cuvilliés refined its exterior design in the small hunting lodge called theAmalienburg. Built in the 1730s in the park of the Nymphenburg Palace in Munich, it was named after the Electress Maria Amalia of Austria.
Romantic architecture: Gothic Revival and Neo-Classical StyleBy the early 19th century, the Gothic Revival style came to be seen as the national style of England, one that was historically native to northern Europe and therefore more appropriate to English architecture than the equally popular Neo-Classical style, which derived from Ancient Greece and Rome. As it gained popularity, the Gothic Revival style developed its own p y p philosophical underpinnings, which g p p g , gave it g greater social relevance than it had held in 18th-century EnglandOne of the best-known examples of the Gothic Revival style is the Houses of Parliament, built in London in 1836–1880 by Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin after fire destroyed Parliament’s earlier WestminsterPalace in 1834. .
Romantic architecture:Gothic Revival and Neo-Classical Style The famous “Breakers House House” built overlooking the ocean in Newport Newport, Rhode Island. Designed by Richard Morris Hunt in the 1890s for Cornelius Vanderbilt
Art NouveauVictor Horta, Tassel House, Brussels, 1892 (1893-5)
Art Nouveau Victor Horta, Tassel House, Brussels, 1892 Bottom of staircaseplan of entry and vestibule showing mosaic floors
Art Nouveau Vienna Secession (Sezessionsstil) secession building Vienna - Art Nouveau The secession building in Vienna was built in 1897 by Joseph Maria Olbrich to accommodate the exhibitions of Secession Patterns the Art Nouveau group secession which included thePatterns on the exterior of leading artists and architects of the era like Gustav Klimt,the Secession Building in Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Josef Maria Olbrich, Vienna. Otto Wagner and others as members.
Art Nouveau Vienna Secession (Sezessionsstil)Poster for the 13th Vienna Secession exhibition Designed by Koloman Moser, 1902. Moser 1902
Art Nouveau(Modernismo / Modernismo catalán) Casa Milà, better known as La Pedrera (Catalan for “The Quarry”) is a y) building designed by the Catalan architect Antonio Gaudi.
Chicago School Sullivan and Adler: Auditorium Building, Chicago, 1887-89The Chicago Building (Chicago SavingsBank Building), 1904-1905.
Frank Lloyd Wright and Organic Architecture Frank Lloyd Wright, the best known American architect of the 20th century, designed both public buildings and best-known private houses to develop a uniquely modern American style of architecture. Born in Wisconsin, Wright first studied engineering at the University of Wisconsin but left his studies to apprentice with Louis Sullivan. By 1893, he had opened his own architectural studio, specializing in domestic structures. Wright’s goal was to create ahouse design that took into account the surrounding geography in order to better integrate homes into nature. This type of home, characterized by strong horizontal lines and large windows, is called the Prairie style house.Frederick Robie House
ExpressionismExpressionist architecture originally developed p p g y p parallel to the aesthetic ideals of the Expressionist visual and pperforming arts in the European avant-garde from around 1910 through 1924.Expressionism in architecture was introduced by Bruno Taut, a German painter and visionary who sought toexplore a highly utopian, socialist vision of modernist architecture. His Glass Pavilion, built for the CologneWerkbund Exhibition of 1914, reveals a blending of Gothic and more exotic features in its pointed dome made ofdiamond-shaped panes of glass set atop a drum designed from piers that frame glass curtain walls.
Expressionism Opera House in Essen, Germany, begun in 1959 Ot e Other Expressionist a c tects include Alvar Aalto, p ess o st architects c ude a a to, whose Opera House in Essen, Germany, begun in 1959, features a white façade that appears to fold into curves like a piece of paper. Such later forms of Expressionism reveal a blending of modernist styles, p g y , which formed the foundation for the work of Eero Saarinen, Bruce Goff, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Frank Gehry. Thus, the legacy of Expressionism continues to inform Deconstructivism, High-Tech architecture, , g , and the even more recent bulging, amoeba-styled buildings called “Blobitecture.The Savoy Vase, also known as theAalto Vase.
Constructivist ArchitectureConstructivist art and architecture, found in theSoviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s, grew outof the geometric, dynamic, and kinetic styles of both Cubism and Futurist architecture. One of the first Constructivist structures was designed in 1919 for the headquarters of the First Comintern in St. Petersburg by the Futurist artist Vladimir Tatlin. Also called “Tatlin’s Tower,” plans for this never-built monument reveal a dramatic spiraling steelhigh-rise enclosed with a glass curtain wall that recalls a more dynamic version of the Eiffel Tower in Paris
Functional modernism, Rationalism (de Stijl), International Style, PurismWalter Gropius, The Fagus Shoe FactoryConsidered the founder of modernism, Loos wrote a manifesto titled “Ornament and Crime” in 1913, which explains these connections between excessive architectural ornamentation, decadence, andcorruption. His buildings, such as the Steiner House in Vienna, from1910, reflect these ideas. This structure protects its inhabitants with roofs and walls while providing light through plain windows that puncture the exterior where they are needed on the interior. Loos’s functionalism quickly spread across Europe. It is seen in the Fagus Adolf Loos, Steiner House, 1910.Shoe Factory, built in Germany in 1911 by Walter Gropius, and in the work of German architects Bruno Taut and Peter Behrens.
Functional modernism, Rationalism (de Stijl), International Style, PurismLudwig Mies van der Rohe, German Pavilion of the International Exposition held in Barcelona in 1929.
Functional modernism, Rationalism (de Stijl), International Style, Purism Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper, project, Berlin, Germany, ModelFriedrichstrasse Skyscraper, project, Berlin-Mitte, Germany, Urban context model Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Functional modernism, Rationalism (de Stijl), International Style, Purism Ville Savoye, Le Corbusier The term “International style” was coined by Henry Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in an exhibition theyorganized at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1932 They called it “The International Style: Architecture 1932.since 1922” and subsequently published it in a manifesto in which they identified three fundamental principles of modern architecture.
BauhausBauhaus architecture is intricately linked to the International style, which sought to redirect architectural aestheticstoward less opulent, more streamlined construction. The word Bauhaus (“House of Building”) was the name of adesign school that, despite its initial lack of an architectural curriculum, was fundamental in shaping modernGerman architecture.
Toward Postmodern Architecture Robert Venturi, Vanna Venturi House V t iHPost-Modern architecture was established in the 1970s to bring historicism and playful ornamentation to themore austere modern International style. International style was increasingly considered too intellectualized, serious, and repetitive, and thus a style that ultimately did not respond to the needs of the broader public. The leaders of this new movement were Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, whoexpressed these concerns in the book Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, first published in 1966.
From High – Tech to the Present Alberto Campo Baeza Nursery School in Aspe, Alicante Norman F N Foster,Hongkong and Shanghai Bank
SPIRIT OF AN AGEAll design endeavors express the zeitgeist.Zeitgeist is a German word meaning roughly the spirit of an age The zeitgeist is meaning, roughly, age.the prevailing ethos or sensibility of an era, the general mood of its people, thetenor of public discourse, the flavor of daily life, the intellectual inclinations andbiases that underlie human endeavor Because of the zeitgeist parallel (although endeavor. zeitgeist,not identical) trends tend to occur in literature, religion, science, architecture, art,and other creative enterprises.It is impossible to rigidly defi ne the eras of human history; however, we can howeversummarize the primary intellectual trends in the West as follows:• ANCIENT ERA: a tendency to accept myth-based truths; y p y ;• CLASSICAL (GREEK) ERA: a valuing of order, rationality, and democracy;• MEDIEVAL ERA: a dominance of the truths of organized religion;• RENAISSANCE: holistic embracings of science and art; g• MODERN ERA: a favoring of truths revealed by the scientifi c method;• POSTMODERN (CURRENT) ERA: an inclination to hold that truth is relative orimpossible to know.
THE HISTORY AND MEANING OF ARCHITECTURE:”Chronological table”; styles and periods - review with examples (…..from baroque to contemporary architecture) Exam preparation: p p Professor’s lecture and presentation Ching, Ching Francis D., A Visual Dictionary of Architecture Van Nostrand Reinhold 1997., D Architecture, Reinhold, 1997 “History”, pages: 128-135. Farrelly, L., Farrelly L The Fundamentals of Architecture, AVA Publishing SA 200 Chapter 2 Architecture SA, 200., 2, "History and Precedent", pages: 34-61. Hamlin, A.D., History of Architecture, Longmans, Geen, and Co .
Prepared by: Dr. Sc. Nermina Mujezinović architect Literature that was used for lecture preparation / Credits & References1. Palmer, A.L., Historical Dictionary of Architecture, The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 20082. Hamlin, A.D., History of Architecture, Longmans, Geen, and Co, 1909.3. Farrelly, L., The Fundamentals of Architecture, AVA Publishing SA, 2007.