beauty The aggregate of qualities in a person or thing that gives intense pleasure to the sensesor deep satisfaction to mind or spirit, whether arising from harmony of form or color, excellence of craft, truthfulness, originality or other. delight A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment. Ching, Francis D., A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997.
THUTMOSE, Nefertiti, from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt,18th Dynasty, ca. 1353–1335 BCE.Painted limestone. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Roman copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450– 440 BCE. Marble.Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. Polykleitossought to portray the perfect man and to impose order on human movement. He achieved his goals by employing harmonic proportions and a system of cross balance for all parts of the body.
IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon, the Temple of Athena Parthenos (looking southeast),Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE.The architects of the Parthenon believed that perfect beauty could be achieved by using harmonicproportions. The controlling ratio for larger and smaller parts was x = 2y + 1 (for example, a plan of17 by 8 columns).
Selection of the most beautiful rectangle, Chart, P. von Naredi-Rainer: Arhitektur und Harmonie, Dumont, Köln, 1982. Which of the preceding rectangles is more pleasing to look at? According to the ancient Greeks, and verified by modern psychologists, most people find therectangle on the left more pleasing. The Greeks used this rectangle in constructing many of their buildings - it is called a golden rectangle.
Golden Section Spiral ConstructionBy using the golden section subdivision diagram a golden section spiral can be constructed.
Drawing of the Parthenon, Athens, and the Architectural Relationship to the Golden SectionAnalysis of golden section proportions according to the golden section construction diagram.
Golden section Harmonic AnalysisAnalysis of golden section proportions according to a diagram of a harmonic analysis of the goldensection.
LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, west facade of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, 1456– 1470. Alberti’s design for the facade of this church features a pediment-capped temple front andpilaster-framed arcades. Numerical ratios are the basis of the proportionsof all parts of the facade.
LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa,ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood. Louvre, Paris.
Homage to the Square: With Rays, 1959. Josef Albers
49 Three-Part Variations of the Three Different Kinds of Cubes, Sol Lewitt, 1967–71, 49 units, each 24 x 8 x 8 in (60 x 20 x 20 cm), enamel on steel, Hamburg: Kunsthalle.
“DELIGHT”: Seeing Architecture Mechanisms of Perception
“A great deal of what goes under the name of perception is, in the wide sense of the term, recall.” Sir Frederic Bartlett
Sensation and Perception “....we have come to live in a very visually dominated culture, and it is easy to forget that space is also perceived through the sensations of sound, smell and even touch. Perception is an active process through which we make sense of the worldaround us. To do this of course we rely upon sensation, but we normally integrate the experience of all our senses without conscious analysis.” Bryan Lawson
St. Catherines College, Oxford, Arne Jacobsen. Dining Hall.
Starry Night Vincent Van Gogh, 1889 Mary Cassatt, The Child’s Bath, 1891
Bottom-up processing (also called data-based processing) is processing that isbased on incoming data. Incomingdata always provide the starting point forperception because without incomingdata, there is no perception.Top-down processing (also calledknowledge-based processing) refers toprocessing that is based on knowledge.Knowledge isn’t always involved inperception but, it often is—sometimeswithout our even being aware of it.
Stages of information processing in viewing art. Edward Hopper, Nighthawks (1942.)Cognition and the Visual Arts , Robert L. Solso, A Bradford Book, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts; London,, England.
Gestalt Theory of Visual PerceptionPerceptual Segregation: How Objects Are Separated From the Background Rubin’s Vase (Figure-ground vase) represents two different shapes, but both shapes can never be seen at the same time.
Gestalt Theory of Visual Perception CONTINUATION SIMILARITY CLOSUREanomally
Gestalt Theory of Visual PerceptionPROXIMITY FIGURE AND GROUND (AREA and SYMMETRY)
“DELIGHT”: SEEING ARCHITECTURE Beauty Mechanisms of Perception Exam preparation: Professor’s lecture and presentationChing, Francis D., A Visual Dictionary of Architecture, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997., “Design”, page: 56; “Vision”, pages: 264,265, http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm .
Prepared by: Dr. Sc. Nermina Mujezinović architect Literature that was used for lecture preparation / Credits & References1. Solso, R. L., Cognition and the Visual Arts, A Bradford Book, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts2. Lawson, B., The Language of Space, Architectural Press, 20013. Goldstein , E. B., Sensation and Perception, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning , 2010, 2007.4. Elam, K., Geometry of Design: Studies in Proportion and Composition , Princeton Architectural Press, 2001.5. Cumming, R., Eyewitness Companions Art6. Ciccarelli, S. K. , White , J. N., Psychology, Pearson, 2009.7. Kleiner, F. S. Gardner’s Art Throught the Ages8. Hargittai, I., Hargittai, M, Symmetry: a unifying concept, 1994. http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/process/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm