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Lean Thinking Model

Haley Johnson
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Lean Thinking Model

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Lean Thinking Model
A decentralized network of communication will be utilized. Preferably the all–channel network
model provides the most desirable means of communication for problem–solving situations and
most satisfaction for the team members (Tubbs, 2012). Leadership will be minimal, a lean facilitator
will keep the meeting on task by starting and concluding meetings at appropriate times. According
to Anderson and Rovik (2015), quality improvement by the use of lean thinking is introduced in
many hospitals worldwide. Lean thinking is a systematic quality improvement approach to identify
and eliminate non–value–adding activities in work processes. The goal is a relaxed environment that
will bring about ideas without judgement which will precipitate the ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
On the agenda, members will find articles to prepare for the first meeting. The first article is entitled,
"Marketing for Keeps" author Murrow, J., & Murrow, C. A. (2003). This article explains like any
other service marketing (or general marketing) situation, it's at least five times less costly to retain a
customer (nurse) than to find and recruit a new one. According to Murrow and Murrow (2003),
retention depends heavily on responsive and caring management, a supportive culture within the
organization, fair compensation, professional appreciation, meaningful work, respect,
empowerment, skill–use opportunity, and training. The second article required to read is Craumer,
M. (2001), "The effective meeting: A checklist for success: The Harvard Management
Communication Letter," 4(3), 1–3. This article was written in 2001, but still delivers some key
points on effective meetings and the need for all members to participate. It also provides ideas on
how to keep your meetings fresh by regularly reviewing the meetings purpose, soliciting agenda
ideas from the group in advance, rotating leadership of the meeting, and asking for feedback
(Craumer,
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Lean Thinking Model
Lean Production
Lean production is widely understood to be production based upon a range of waste saving
measures inspired by Japanese manufacturing companies, particularly the Kaizen and Just in time
techniques. Metov's plastics have taken the decision upon themselves to incorporate some of the
characteristics of lean production namely time management and critical path analysis into their
manufacturing process and I will examine these.
One method used by Metov's is critical path analysis (CPA). CPA is the process of planning the
sequence of activities in a project in order to discover the most efficient and quickest way of
completing it. Metov's have recently been able to incorporate this technique due to recent
advancement in the companies ICT system ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The marketing budget was expanded by Pavlo so more research could be undertaken compared to
smaller companies. This led to a series of highly successful advertising campaigns which produced
major increases in sales revenue, and as the business expanded Metov's was able to afford to use a
wider range of media that enabled more customers to be reached in a more persuasive way. This led
to an increase in the effectiveness of advertising and reduced its effect upon unit cost.
As research and development spending was increased Metov's were also able to benefit from
research and development economies of scale. By increasing spending in this area a number of new
products were patented by Metov's, in addition to increasing sales volume, having patents upon its
products gave them a USP and competitive advantage so a higher profit margin was able to be
obtained, whilst also leading to increased sales. Similarly Metov's also upgraded their ICT system so
more advanced software could be utilised. This enabled the company to plan projects more
affectively using network analysis and also went some way to improving communication in the
business.
In conclusion I believe that the only true measure of whether or not the economies of scale
outweighed the diseconomies of scale would be profit, and as that figure is not given I am not able
to reach a judgement. If Metov's were more profitable because the increased their levels of
production
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Lean Thinking Model
The Evolution Of Lean Production
1. Traditional Operations The evolution of Lean production which can be also called Toyota
Production system (TPS), manufacturing system introduced by automaker toyota, is contributed by
two significant traditional method called Scientific management ( Taylorism ) and Mass
manufacturing ( Fordism). Taylorism Scientific management or Taylorism advocated by Fred W.
Taylor, states that the Production efficiency can be maximised by working closely with the workers.
It involves fragmenting each task into individual motions, analyse each motion and eliminate the
unnecessary motions. With this best possible way to do the task created the workers with proper
tool, training and incentives can follow a closely supervised routine, translating into being extremely
productive. Fordism Mass production or Fordism advocated by Henry Ford, founder of Automaker
Ford, introduced a philosophy that aimed to achieve higher productivity by standardizing the output
using movable assembly lines (Conveyor belts) and breaking the work into small deskilled tasks.
Fordism seeks to combine both machine and manpower as one unit, emphasizing on minimizing the
cost of production rather maximizing the profits. The year 1913, Henry ford introduced the moving
assembly line the lead time was reduced from 12.5 hours to 93 minutes. Lean production has its
roots in Taylor's work, Efficient ways to satisfy task by eliminating unnecessary motions (Waste
removal) and Henry Ford's invention of the conveyor belt
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Lean Thinking Model

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Lean Thinking Model

  • 1. Lean Thinking Model A decentralized network of communication will be utilized. Preferably the all–channel network model provides the most desirable means of communication for problem–solving situations and most satisfaction for the team members (Tubbs, 2012). Leadership will be minimal, a lean facilitator will keep the meeting on task by starting and concluding meetings at appropriate times. According to Anderson and Rovik (2015), quality improvement by the use of lean thinking is introduced in many hospitals worldwide. Lean thinking is a systematic quality improvement approach to identify and eliminate non–value–adding activities in work processes. The goal is a relaxed environment that will bring about ideas without judgement which will precipitate the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... On the agenda, members will find articles to prepare for the first meeting. The first article is entitled, "Marketing for Keeps" author Murrow, J., & Murrow, C. A. (2003). This article explains like any other service marketing (or general marketing) situation, it's at least five times less costly to retain a customer (nurse) than to find and recruit a new one. According to Murrow and Murrow (2003), retention depends heavily on responsive and caring management, a supportive culture within the organization, fair compensation, professional appreciation, meaningful work, respect, empowerment, skill–use opportunity, and training. The second article required to read is Craumer, M. (2001), "The effective meeting: A checklist for success: The Harvard Management Communication Letter," 4(3), 1–3. This article was written in 2001, but still delivers some key points on effective meetings and the need for all members to participate. It also provides ideas on how to keep your meetings fresh by regularly reviewing the meetings purpose, soliciting agenda ideas from the group in advance, rotating leadership of the meeting, and asking for feedback (Craumer, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 3. Lean Production Lean production is widely understood to be production based upon a range of waste saving measures inspired by Japanese manufacturing companies, particularly the Kaizen and Just in time techniques. Metov's plastics have taken the decision upon themselves to incorporate some of the characteristics of lean production namely time management and critical path analysis into their manufacturing process and I will examine these. One method used by Metov's is critical path analysis (CPA). CPA is the process of planning the sequence of activities in a project in order to discover the most efficient and quickest way of completing it. Metov's have recently been able to incorporate this technique due to recent advancement in the companies ICT system ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The marketing budget was expanded by Pavlo so more research could be undertaken compared to smaller companies. This led to a series of highly successful advertising campaigns which produced major increases in sales revenue, and as the business expanded Metov's was able to afford to use a wider range of media that enabled more customers to be reached in a more persuasive way. This led to an increase in the effectiveness of advertising and reduced its effect upon unit cost. As research and development spending was increased Metov's were also able to benefit from research and development economies of scale. By increasing spending in this area a number of new products were patented by Metov's, in addition to increasing sales volume, having patents upon its products gave them a USP and competitive advantage so a higher profit margin was able to be obtained, whilst also leading to increased sales. Similarly Metov's also upgraded their ICT system so more advanced software could be utilised. This enabled the company to plan projects more affectively using network analysis and also went some way to improving communication in the business. In conclusion I believe that the only true measure of whether or not the economies of scale outweighed the diseconomies of scale would be profit, and as that figure is not given I am not able to reach a judgement. If Metov's were more profitable because the increased their levels of production ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. The Evolution Of Lean Production 1. Traditional Operations The evolution of Lean production which can be also called Toyota Production system (TPS), manufacturing system introduced by automaker toyota, is contributed by two significant traditional method called Scientific management ( Taylorism ) and Mass manufacturing ( Fordism). Taylorism Scientific management or Taylorism advocated by Fred W. Taylor, states that the Production efficiency can be maximised by working closely with the workers. It involves fragmenting each task into individual motions, analyse each motion and eliminate the unnecessary motions. With this best possible way to do the task created the workers with proper tool, training and incentives can follow a closely supervised routine, translating into being extremely productive. Fordism Mass production or Fordism advocated by Henry Ford, founder of Automaker Ford, introduced a philosophy that aimed to achieve higher productivity by standardizing the output using movable assembly lines (Conveyor belts) and breaking the work into small deskilled tasks. Fordism seeks to combine both machine and manpower as one unit, emphasizing on minimizing the cost of production rather maximizing the profits. The year 1913, Henry ford introduced the moving assembly line the lead time was reduced from 12.5 hours to 93 minutes. Lean production has its roots in Taylor's work, Efficient ways to satisfy task by eliminating unnecessary motions (Waste removal) and Henry Ford's invention of the conveyor belt ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 7. Nike Lean Thinking Strategy : Nike's Lean Thinking Strategies In 2014, Nike was valued at $19 billion dollars, making it one of the top valued sports business of all time. Their presence of slogans and successful athlete endorsements, such as "Just Do It," are known antics that have allowed Nike to develop a brand reputation of success. Additionally, the Nike brand has become so popular that it has become a fashion statement. A key driver of Nike's influencing power in the athletic market is their methods for implementing lean thinking strategies. Two main objectives Nike sets out to achieve within their lean thinking plan is to "make today better" and "design for the future." In order to achieve both of those goals, Nike encourages their employees to better themselves each day by learning new skills that will enhance their ability to work more productively. Nike's employees embraced lean thinking methods because their goals outline self improvement strategies for each employee, as well as designing products that customers desire. A few notable attributes that Nike has accomplished since implementing lean thinking include: "40% faster lead times, 50% reduction in defect rates, 20% improvement in productivity, and 30% reduction in the time it takes to create a new model of one of the product lines" (Shmula, 2014). In 2014, Nike employed over one million factory workers and 785 contract workers, while creating over 500,000 unique public products. Designing for the future is of significant importance to Nike since bringing new products ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. The Roots Of Lean Manufacturing Production managers are faced with many challenges within their facilities such as managing inventories, controlling waste, and managing an ever changing production schedule. Managing product flows can be difficult when balancing supply chain inventories with demand changes or scheduling problems due to throughput variations. Several methods for managing these challenges have been developed through the years and each have their own advantages and disadvantages for different applications. The methods discussed in this paper will be limited to the Theory of Constraints, Just in Time, and Material Requirements Planning. All three methods are designed to manage different aspects of a manufacturing facility's product flow but all three were ultimately developed as an optimization strategy for the manufacturing process. The roots of Lean Manufacturing is one of the earliest management strategies to be developed to address the challenges for production control and may well have been the birth of strategic production control as we know it today. LEAN MANUFACTURING At the end of the 18th century Benjamin Franklin wrote about reducing waste in Poor Richard's Almanac and this may very well have been the starting point for waste reduction thinking. At the beginning of the 20th century Henry Ford was the first person to truly integrate a production process with waste reduction, inventory control, and time management in mind. This paved the way for Lean Manufacturing strategies to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 11. Lean Between Lean And Lean Management Systems Lean in Cellular Pathology Lean management systems have been successfully introduced into a number of Histopathology laboratories. Historically, many laboratories are non–standardised, unorganised in their layout with cluttered areas and work–tops. To be successful with lean management, I believe it is essential to start with the laboratory environment and create an ideal standard work station. This is what was employed at Path Links Pathology based in Lincoln. The lean approach to work design is underpinned by the principle that the right process will produce the right result and this requires a high degree of organisation and discipline in the work environment1. Equipment and consumables required should be standardised in its layout with ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Furthermore, with the use of 5S audit sheets (another use of visual management) this means that at any time of day the workstation is cleaned, replenished with stock and functional so work is unimpaired. One of the key elements in lean management is to deliver standardised work, which in Cellular Pathology is very useful as the workplace involves several processes where the end product can be variably achieved by different training and knowledge from staff in the workplace. There are a number of practical tools to improve processes but one of the most important in lean is to produce standard work, which is the practical application of the first four TPS rules7. Standardisation ensures that a process is done in a 'standard' way and achieves the same outcome, without compromising staff knowledge and experience. The use of visual management to create A3 standard operating procedures (SOPs) was also introduced at Path Links and utilised the production of SOPs on an A3 page, using step by step guides to the process with photos and images to assist what to expect from the procedure. The lean visual approach of A3 SOPs was adopted from a lean precision engineering plant9. Although many laboratories use SOPs, many are written in–house and like at Path Links, although the format and content convey all the necessary information to carry out a procedure, they did not adequately deliver a truly standardised work ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Lean Production Of Lean Manufacturing 2.3.1) Lean Manufacturing Review Lean originally comes from the thought of scarce resources. The Japanese automotive manufacturer called Toyota was the one who introduced this method with innovations such as JIT, and so forth [14; 44; 28]. Lean operations were used as a different method for capital–intensive mass manufacture in order to help firm use resources more effectively and efficiently. As a result, the firm will be able to reduce muda activity and non–value adding tasks. The procedure of lean implementation and research had been widely used by many organizations across the world. Conglomerates found out that the manufacturing process need not only improvement in performance, but also the development must be extended and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The main role of "lean" supply is to strengthen the relationship and collaboration between suppliers– customers. According to Ellram [10], the author has defined the concept of lean as the continuous bond between the organizations which concerns to the contract and commitment in the long term relationship and a shared advantages and risks. Additionally, there are also some other features after the relationship and commitment between suppliers until customers. Those features are the trade of concepts (communication), data, and advantages such as merge inR&D, long–term relationship, and so forth [38; 40; 9]. The concept of lean supply also is being as the start of the enhancement in system in terms of taking the proactive role in improving the usual technique for similar advantages throughout the supply chain. As from the authors, the suppliers will work on working with manufacturer and ongoing collaborate until customers in both direct and indirect ways [13]. Occasionally, the managers will face with the situation where wastes cannot be found and discovered all. The various tools are then introduced for finding those wastes throughout the area by observing in products and circumstance's information. Six of the noticeable tools are stated. The first tool is called "Process activity mapping". The very noticeable role of this tool is the function as the identifiers of lead–time for both merchandise ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15. Lean Manufacturing Is An Approach Introduction Lean Manufacturing is an approach taken by manufacturing organization to increase efficiency through optimization and maximize customer value while minimizing waste. Traditionally, Lean principles were applied to manufacturing industries especially automotive companies. However, with the success in automotive industry, it no longer limited to automotive sector and can be applied in other manufacturing sectors as well as services industries (Balle, et al., 2006). The drivers for implementing Lean in both manufacturing and service sectors are customer demands for better quality products and services, managerial demands for cost reduction and sustaining in an increasing market competitiveness. Lean implementation and various success stories has led companies worldwide to introduce lean in their operations and services but majority of these companies achieved only modest levels of success (Womack & Jones, 2003). It is reported that many organizations are not able to transform themselves to lean organization and thus at some point of time, lean implementation is destined to fail (Farris, et al., 2009). Some of the main factors for lean failures are poor communication, lack of strong leadership, lack of learning, staff resistance to change, and lack of clear direction (Emiliani & Stec, 2005). Researchers have argued that transition to lean environment and sustaining lean improvements requires cultural change in the organization rather than changing the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. The Conception Of Lean Production Essay 1.1 Lean The conception of lean can be traced back to late 1980s, which was used to talk about Toyota production system. Through using lean management, Henry Ford create a high production and low stock, and fulfilled manufacture in a short period of time in the late 1910s (Arnheiter & Maleyeff, 2005). The original principle of lean production is to identify and eliminate 'muda'. The term of muda is a Japanese word, which means waste. Then such principle was regarded as lean. The theory of lean is considered that after eliminating waste, there is an improvement in quality and reduction of time and cost (Gershon & Rajashekharaiah, 2011). After that, lean is used to manufacturing, and adding value and fulfilling the satisfaction of customers with less waste become the core idea of lean. According to Ferguson (2006), a successful implement of lean is to lead the whole organization to enhance the value stream. There are several tools for lean manufacturing, such as 5S, Just–In–Time (JIT), Kaizen, total productive maintenance (TPM) and value stream mapping (leanproduction).  5S: Sort (to remove the things which are unnecessary needed), Set in order (to arrange the things which are remained), Shine (clean and check the work space), Standardize (establish metric for the things above) and Sustain (employ the metric regularly). Through using 5S, the waste can be reduced in the workplace where is poorly organized (leanproduction).  JIT: It is used to make the products fulfil the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19. The Evolution Of Lean Manufacturing LEAN MANUFACTURING Origins of Lean Lean originally originated from Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) (McCarthy, 2015) in the early 1900's however it wasn't until the Toyota family introduced the Toyota Production System (TPS) into their company manufacturing operations that it began to gain recognition. In the 1950's, Toyota first implemented quality measures within the production lines process and hence the initial stages of continuous improvement. Taiichi Ono, who was the executive vice president, developed and implemented the renowned Toyota Production System (TPS) after the Second World War as a means of producing a highly effective and efficient manufacturing line for their products. Ono took great inspiration from Henry Ford's early lean concepts and applied it to meet the demand of their own Japanese market. This built the seeds of TPS, which today is better known as lean manufacturing (Womack&Jones, 1996). Nowadays, Lean is used globally throughout industry in all different sizes of enterprises that can depend on the successful implementation of Lean. (Herron, 2008). Toyota's success as one of the world's largest automotive manufacturers and leading Lean implementers stands as proof of Leans merits. (Institite, 2000–2016). This has led to enormous demand for knowledge on leans tools and techniques as companies continue to have success with its implementation. What is Lean? Lean is commonly referred to as a systematic methodology to approaching and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. The Origins Of Lean Thinking 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The origins of lean thinking is actually created from the manufacturing industry. In the manufacturing or production industry, lean management design approach main objective is focusing on the elimination of waste and having a smooth workflow through a right process. Lean also enables the organization to improve performance. In the construction industry, lean thinking still consider a new way or method of managing project in construction. Lean in the construction is an issue of developing a new thinking, knowledge and adopting new culture. On the other point, lean focused on value and the right process that would maximised value and moving towards perfection. Moving from a traditional way of managing construction project to lean will requires extra effort, not just changing the works procedure but far from that. Changing the way we think about construction to a new paradigm; lean in construction. On the other hand, off–site construction has been applied in the construction industry quite a while, especially in United Kingdom construction industry. It just a matter of people perception on accepting these off–site construction method. In other country off–site construction also known as Industrialised Building System (IBS). Off–site construction method is about moving the site activities away from the actual construction site into a controlled environment and organising the work force into production line look alike. Due to changes in technology and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 23. Banking(Lean) Fundamentally, Lean is about eliminating waste. Some waste is unavoidable, but the objective is to identify all activities that are non–value–added, and reduce as many as possible. General examples of waste include over–producing, waiting, defects/ rework, over–processing, inventory, motion, and transport. A few specific examples of waste sometimes found in financial services include: Rework due to lost files or processing errors Over–processing due to duplicate client records, or redundant data entry requirements Movement due to physical dispersion of process participants Printing, copying, and transporting of documents instead of transmitting/storing electronically Identifying, eliminating, or reducing such waste will ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Communication is the most important step in change management. A bank needs to share a common goal and set of expectations of value that the lean program will deliver. Teaching and coaching Lean techniques to employees is a needed investment to sustain the Lean culture. The concept of the "internal client" should also be introduced for non–customer–facing departments. This approach will ensure a customer–centered attitude at every level of the bank. Finally, Lean managers must spend more time on the floor to observe and capture improvement ideas The case for Lean banking The focus of Lean lies on building a client–centered organization. Banks have always struggled to deliver excellent customer experience due to processes that are not adapted to the customer's need. Moreover, it is mostly a negative perception of the banking industry that hurts customer satisfaction. Lean initiatives are rising rapidly in banking, yet their approach is still too much focused on reaching operational excellence. A focus on the cultural aspects of Lean would ensure, in the first place, that the entire organization is working together in improving its customer service, but more importantly, all employees will be inspired to deliver continuously excellent customer service. Here is some of the challenge in banking management and benefit of lean. Challenge | Benefit of Lean | Systems and Management ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. Lean Manufacturing Essay 1 INEN 5354 Lean Manufacturing–Course Project Due Date: August 15, 2015 A Project on A COMPARISON AND CONTRAST OF IMPLEMENTATION OF LEAN MANUFACTURIG IN A FOOD INDUSTRY AND A HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY Submitted by Ranjith Kumar Gandi– L20384478 Krishna Chaintanya Kurra– L20369514 Under the Guidance of Dr. Berna Eren Togkoz 2 :: TABLE OF CONTENTS ::  Introduction...................................................Page no.3  Brief description and Literature explanation of a Food Industry and a HealthCare system.........................................................Page no.4–8  Comparing and contrasting the implementation of Lean Manufacturing in manufacturing and service industries:...................................................Page no.8–9 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Later on, many service industries have adopted the philosophy of Lean with the aim of improving their quality of service, processes, methods and resulting a better customer satisfaction. The study made revealed that although the Lean Manufacturing was designed and developed for the manufacturing industries initially, it is now proven that even the service industries could implement the Lean principles as well, and increasing the customer satisfaction. In this project, we compare and contrast how lean manufacturing principles and its best practices have been applied in the Food industry (manufacturing industry) and the Health Care and Hospital systems (service industry). 4 Brief description and literature explanation of the Industries selected:  Manufacturing Industry–FOOD INDUSTRY: The food and beverage industries have large batch processes .There is a misperception that Lean Manufacturing do not lead to easy application in these industries. Food industry is composed of various sectors such as meat and fish, vegetables and fruits, dairy and its products, bakery, oils and fats, coffee and cocoa products, sugar and salt, cocoa and its products, canned foods, and alcoholic and non–alcoholic beverages, etc. The food industry represents more than 20% of the total industry.
  • 26. These products are sold to customers not on orders. The food products are manufactured based on a forecast of the market and demand, and this results in large differences between the forecast made and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28. Le Lean And Lean Introduction Lean Principles have been essential to numerous organisations all over the world for achieving outstanding results in terms of efficiency, quality and manufacturing times. Large organisations are especially acknowledged to implement lean principles successfully. However, in recent years small and medium sized enterprises have been in emphasis due to their flexibility and capabilities that provides the necessary robustness in the global economic crisis (Matt , 2007). Therefore, this paper will critically appraise and assess two separate case studies by authors Matt and Rauch (2013) and Kumar et al. (2006) respectively. The two case studies, provided by these respective authors, revolve around SMEs in two different countries. This paper will identify lean elements along with their motivations behind their lean implementations and identify the main differences and similarities between the two case studies in terms of general lean literature. Finally, a list of recommendations will be given to each case study and how their individual companies can improve the success of their lean adoption. The Case Studies' Lean Adoption The first case study is a SME, situated in the north of Italy. The firm started in 1995 and employs around 25 persons. With a small employee size it was very hard to commit too much time to develop a lean production with a two year period in single steps. Since there was limited resource allocation, it was decided that the firm will use a step ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Lean Thinking Lean Thinking in Health Care Lakeshia R. Dingle Grand Canyon University: HCA–240 May 14, 2016 Lean Thinking in Health Care "Health care is big business that has a major impact on our nation's economy" (GCU Lecture 1). It is one that is highly regulated by both federal and state level governments as well as that of accrediting agencies. Lean Thinking In the 1950s Toyota came up with the idea of lean thinking which is a set of functioning ideas and techniques that helps generate the greatest importance for individuals by decreasing waste and delays" (Feeney, 2015). The purpose of this systematic approach was to change the establishments thought process and value, which would eventually lead to the conversion of the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With the lean thinking process comes new ideas, systems and equipment that have been realistically applied to enhance the flow process. Methods used to deal with organization, standardization, exclusion of non–value added steps and overall visual control. Ways of improving flow, removing waste and decrease delays, getting things correct the first time, therefore expanding quality and bring down costs. Lean Thinking also identifies ways to permit the personnel by encouraging them to maintain solutions through making respectable judgments based on evidence presented. The Office of Inspector General within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services was created to as a self–governing and unbiased oversight unit of the department to carry out the mission of upholding economy, effectiveness and efficiency by eliminating fraud, abuse and waste. One of the biggest problems in health care is spending and the fact that managers are now giving the responsibility of ordering medical supplies to the technologists. They continue to overstock on supplies that are rarely used and the managers are allowing it happen. Today hospitals easily discard more than enough surgical equipment that could be saved and used to assist with those serious shortages, enhance surgical care and increase public health in other industrialized countries. "Maintaining and transporting such materials is truly a low–hanging fruit enterprise, a simple approach that could may have an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32. Lean Journey at C1 The case narrative was developed from recorded interviews with C1 executives, on–site observations, review of company literature, presentations and website information. Eight operations and three human resource (HR) executives were interviewed at C1. Although data collection initially began at C1, obtaining access to HR executives proved more difficult. The interviews were completed over a one year period at the company, by which time three new companies had been recruited and data collected for research. While HR interviews encompassed both corporate and unit executives located at the distribution center (D.C.), Operation function (including operations, quality and marketing) participants were located at the corporate office. Corporate ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Case Narrative As a supply chain solutions company, C1 provides downstream value–added services for energy and industrial markets through a distribution network of more than 250 locations across North America and Europe (company website). C1 stocks more than 90,000 diverse products for customer markets providing them with maintenance, repair and operations (MRO) products and has been in the business for almost 100 years (company website). The company's commitment to quality has ensured that C1's distribution centers maintain International Organization for Standardization (ISO) certification standards and ensure top quality and service to customers. Reasons for C1 Adoption of LQS While the focus on quality was not new at C1, one event galvanized Lean introduction. Two major customers demanded alignment of C1 operations through the use of LQS improvement programs. Failure to adopt LQS initiatives could have damaged C1's relationships and reputation with key customers. To the extent possible, C1 mirrored customer LQS efforts even incorporating similar language surrounding the initiatives. For example, one major customer preferred not to label the improvement initiatives as Lean. Depending on customer preferences, C1 customized training material, communication and orientation for branches serving the key customers. The incorporation of Lean program components led to the formation of a Lean ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. Lean And Six Sigma Introduction Efficiency and effectiveness are two key terms in business, no matter the industry a company activates in, as measuring firm strategy and performance has become more and more critical nowadays. All organizations seek to achieve both and this requires a whole range of tools and resources. Efficiency relates to the "degree to which an organization uses resources optimally in order to provide its services" (Ala, Carol, Joy, & Aziz, 1993, p. 39), while effectiveness "measures the extent to which it provides appropriate services" (Ibidem). Furthermore, "being efficient means doing things "right". Being effective means to do the "right" things" (Roberto, Carlo, & Roland, 113, p. 429). It is therefore quite likely that a company cannot do both simultaneously, and here the concepts of "lean thinking", "Six Sigma management" and even "Lean Six Sigma" arise. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Lean and Six Sigma will be analyzed taking into consideration the principles and implications underlying them, they benefits that these methodologies bring to businesses, as well as the most popular tools used by the companies. Further on, in the case study I will concentrate on the Hospitality Industry. I will take each large field it includes and investigate how Lean Six Sigma is or could be applied in order to generate as much benefits as possible: to improve customers' experiences, get rid of the large amounts of waste and defects identified once they started the projects and of which managers are usually not really aware of, and, of course, reduce costs and increase ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36. How Lean And Lean Approach For Enhancing Organizational... Obstacles to Implementing Lean Lean System has become a popular technique used in both local and global markets. More companies are embracing it to improve efficiency, achieve better quality, and be more competitive. The Lean thinking was considered to be one potential approach to enhancing organizational performance. It has evolved into a management approach that improves processes at different levels of the organization. Nevertheless, the process of implementing lean manufacturing is bound to encounter obstacles. Besides defining the lean concept, this paper will consider the points that impede lean implementation and will outline the main two defies that companies are facing when they change their business model towards implementing a new management system, lean approach. This paper will also provide some recommendations to overcome these obstacles. Lean Definition Todd(2000) defines lean production as "initiative, whose goal is to shrink the waste in human effort, inventory, time to market, and manufacturing space to become highly responsive to customer demand while producing world class quality products in the most efficient and economical manner". The Lean approach consists of several practices, which aim to improve efficiency, quality, and responsiveness to customers. Lean manufacturing is industrialized by Taiichi Ohno at Toyota Motor Company in the 1950's (Motwani 2003). It was like "an innovation technique based on the minds and hands philosophy of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38. Lean Manufacturing Introduction to Lean manufacturing: Principles of lean thinking have been broadly accepted by many manufacturing operations and have been applied successfully across many. Different authors define it distinctively. Lean manufacturing is most frequently associated with the elimination of seven important wastes to ameliorate the effects of variability in supply, processing time or demand defined it as a philosophy of manufacturing that focuses on delivering the highest quality product on time and at the lowest cost. Worley (2004) defined it as the systematic removal of waste by all members of the organization from all areas of the value stream. Briefly, it is called lean as it uses less, or the minimum of everything required to produce a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Lean manufacturing requires machines which are reliable and efficient. Inventories can be reduced when machine downtime is minimized. Work processes across the value stream should also be emphasized in lean manufacturing. Processes should be performed with a minimum of non value added activities in order to reduce waiting time, queuing time, moving time, and other delays Besides this, standardization of work processes is needed to facilitate efficient, safe work methods and eliminate wastes, while maintaining quality.Itensures a consistent performance and creates a foundation for continuous improvement. Nowadays, a product with high quality is a prerequisite for any manufacturer. Quality is a major focus in lean manufacturing because poor quality management would result in many wastes such as scraps and rejects. Appropriate quality management helps to control a manufacturing process, and this reduces "safety" buffers and exposes quality issues. Reduction of "safety" buffers will eventually lead to reduction of inventories. Employees who are motivated and empowered are essential since people are the key element in lean manufacturing. Japanese regard people as assets because they are the ones who are going to solve problems and improve processes in production. Another key area of lean manufacturing is layout which determines the arrangement of facilities in a factory. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40. Team Lean Initiatives And Characteristics Of Lean... Team Lean Initiatives Paper Learning Team C ISCOM/472 November 30, 2015 Daryl Pearson Introduction "Since its founding in 1837, John Deere has seen great many changes in its business, its products, and its services" (John Deere, 2015). John Deere will have some contrasts and comparisons to our organization in management style(s) for lean initiative and characteristics of lean enterprise style(s). Some of John Deere's lean practices could also integrate into our organization. The use of technology can support lean objectives in a global environment in different ways. John Deere has shown the way to becoming a leaner company. Management Style Management styles are a set of skills that appear in divergent traits. Many organizations worldwide have clung onto the authoritative management for centuries. This category of management is known as the "do as I say manager, and seldom accepts input from their team. For an association to generate revenue, all employees must feel some sort of importance. John Deere is notoriously known for operating with the highest reliability. They continually embrace a lean manufacturing philosophy that elevates better production controls to dispense with waste and expand efficiency. They have established methods of quality assurance to ensure that each product is upheld to integrity and standard. It is believed that management style that John Deere practices is the participative management style. The participative ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42. Lean On Lean Software Development Lean Summary Lean Software Development (LSD) is an implementation of Lean Principles in software development. In sum, every action that does not produce value is considered waste (muda) (Liker, 2005). The goal is to create a system (software development or otherwise) that is waste free. "Several Agile techniques can be used to achieve this in software development, making LSD and Agile similar at first glance (Austad, 2011)". Origin/History It is important to note the history of Lean and the history of Lean Software development (LSD) are two different histories. Lean and LSD are related but their histories are different. This history will focus on LSD. The term lean software development originated in a book written by Mary Poppendieck and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Empower the Team – In a traditional work environment, decisions are made from the top down. In a LSD, it works in reverse of that. "The lean approach favors the aphorism 'find good people and let them do their own job,' encouraging progress, catching errors, and removing impediments, but not micro–managing (Liker, 2005)." Defer Commitment – By deferring critical/irreversible, you keep your options open for as long as possible (Liker, 2005). Pros/Cons Pros o Delivering the product early means that the development team can deliver more functionality in a shorter period of time, hence enabling more projects to be delivered. o Empowerment of the development team helps in developing the decision making ability of the team members which in turn creates more motivation among team members ( 'Top 12 Software Development Methodologies And Its Advantages/Disadvantages ', 2014). Cons o Lean does not do very well in small dev teams where the projects are small and unpredictable (job shop and/or lots of support). o " The project sponsors and clients need to know what they want and make decisions they will stick to. In lean software development these decisions can be made later. But the problem is that project sponsors tend to be paralyzed by fear when it comes to making the tough decisions. And in lean the whole objective of using this over say agile methodology is to enable your development to be done faster and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44. Lean Six Sigma The establishment of Lean Six Sigma is to take a gander at items/benefits through the client 's eyes and decide how enhancements can wipe out "waste". Lean Six Sigma takes after a thorough methodology of DEFINE... MEASURE... ANALYZE... IMPROVE... CONTROL. Through this procedure we distinguish the 7 sorts of waste that is, Overproduction, Inventory, Extra Processing, Motion, Defects, Holding up, and Transportation. A group is structured to direct an Action Work Out to actualize changes that will wipe out the waste. Since "Waste makes Waste" we should ceaselessly Kaizen (improve) to streamline and streamline our methodologies. We exceed expectations to model the Toyota Production System (TPS) with the aid of Shingijutsu specialists that show us the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As indicated by numerous business examiners and quality change specialists, Lean Six Sigma is the most mainstream business execution approach ever. Lean and Six Sigma in Healthcare: For quite a long time the US medicinal services industry has been working all alone way disregarding developing elements, for example, rivalry, quiet wellbeing, soaring health awareness cost, risk, misbehavior protection cost and utilization of DRG for Medicare and protection installment. Be that as it may, as these components got to be more predominant and rivalry inside the business increased, numerous US healing facilities have been getting to be progressively mindful of the discriminating needs of controlling the working expenses and meet and even surpasses the desires of patient consideration quality. This paper presents a model of Six Sigma methodology to health awareness quality administration for clinics in the US furthermore abroad. The human services industry in the U.s has been working all alone customary monetary space disregarding present developing components, for example, rivalry, quiet security, soaring social insurance cost, risk from misbehavior claims and more government control on Medicare installment. Anyhow as of late, these components have gotten to be more predominant and rivalry inside the business has been strengthened, and numerous US healing facilities has been getting to be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46. Lean Management LEAN IN PRODUCTION AND SERVICE The word term ''LEAN'' was put together to describe and personalize Toyota's business activity during the 1980's by a research team headed by one Jim Womack, Ph.D., at MIT's international Motor vehicle programme. According to them, the concept of 'LEAN' was fathered by Taiichi Ohno of Toyota. Ohno developed a contrasting approach to the mass production methods of US car firms through necessity. Later, in 1996, Jim Womack's team espoused the five lean principles and also lean tools that they believed were the secret for Toyota's success. According to Oxford dictionaries, Lean means efficient and with no wastage. The core idea of lean is to minimize wastage and at the same time maximize customer value. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... If we are able to answer the key questions that I have associated with each of the aspects, I believe that we can develop a vision for lean implementation in our organization. The questions would be:– 1. purpose what are the customer problems will the organization try to solve in order to achieve their own purpose of prospering? 2. Process: how will the organization assess each major value stream devised to make sure each step in the value stream is valuable, capable, available, adequate and flexible? 3. People: how will the organization ensure that every important process in the value stream has someone responsible for continually evaluating it in terms of business purpose and also lean process? How will everyone involved in the value stream be engaged actively in the process of operating it correctly and continually improving it? As for the next step that I would take, it would be on the possible implementation of the core lean principle into my organization. This, I believe would involve the core of lean which is basically waste reduction. Usually, in an organization including production and service oriented organizations, we can find seven basic types of waste, which I am listing below. ❖ Producing goods and services beyond the immediate need of the customers. ❖ Unnecessary movement of products due to poor layout planning. ❖ Wasted motions when working. ❖ Time idling and wastage. ❖ Implementing processes that are unimportant to finish ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48. Lean, The And Beverage Industry Project Report "Lean" in food industries By Yiqun Ma IE 5617: Lean Concepts and Applications Spring 2016 Instructor: Andrei Guschin, Ph.D. 1. Introduction to "Lean" in food industries  Why is it hard to implement "Lean" in food industries  The obstacles in food industries to "Lean" implementation  Food/Beverage industry examples and a typical improvement activity  The resistance to change in food industries 2. Food industry examples with "Lean" implementations Nestlé:  Introduction  Application of Lean in Nestlé  Benefits of lean manufacturing Kraft Foods:  Introduction  Applications of Lean in Kraft Foods and outcomes Coca–Cola:  Introduction  Lean journey in Coca–Cola  Benefits of lean implementation 3. Conclusions 4. References
  • 49. It is hard to implement "Lean" in food industries There is a basic assumption that Lean Production and associated continuous enhancement companies do not provide themselves to very easy application in sectors that have large batch processes, like the food and also refreshment industries. Normally these business kinds sell their items from huge distribution or item mixing centers, as well as are not make to order businesses. They produce to a forecast, and usually the forecast preparation to production is long, causing huge distinctions in between the projection that drives manufacturing degrees, and also real need. The internet result of this void is huge levels of stock holdings, commonly in completed goods; ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51. Disadvantages Of Lean Manufacturing 2– LEAN MANUFACTURING: As per Womack, Jones, and Roos (1990), the expression "Lean" speaks to a framework that uses less input with a specific end goal to make the same yields than those made by a conventional large scale manufacturing framework, while expanding the scope of various completed merchandise for the end client. The term lean manufacturing is synonymous with various names, for example, agile manufacturing, just–in–time manufacturing, synchronous manufacturing, world class manufacturing, and continuous flow (serial production). Lean manufacturing is an operational procedure arranged toward accomplishing the most limited conceivable process duration by wiping out waste. It is gotten from the Toyota production system and its goal is to expand the worth included work by taking out squanders and decreasing superfluous work. The method frequently diminishes the time between a client request and shipment, and it is intended to enhance benefit, consumer loyalty, throughput time, and worker inspiration. The advantages of lean manufacturing for the most part are lower costs, higher quality, and shorter lead times. The term lean manufacturing is made to speak to less human exertion in the organization, less assembling space, less interest in apparatuses, less stock in advancement, and less designing ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Waste, or MUDA, is anything that adds expense to the item without including esteem. Squanders can be arranged into seven classes: 1. Waste of overproducing: Producing components that are neither intended for stock nor planned for sale immediately. 2. Waste of waiting: Refers to the idle time between operations. 3. Waste of transport: Moving material more than necessary. 4. Waste of processing: Doing more to the product than necessary and the customer is willing to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53. Lean Vs Lean Manufacturing Systems Executive Summary Lean Manufacturing Systems were first introduced in Japan by the Toyota Motor Corporation. The Lean movement is a type of a system that relies on simple visual cues in order to manage production stages that are based on customer demand. The system is a is also a kind of manufacturing that put great emphasis on the minimization of resources, time included, that is utilized in various activities of manufacturing and provides techniques for uninterrupted quality improvement. Although this system has gained enormous momentum and respect over the last decades, some companies have found it difficult to use Lean Manufacturing Systems, and, as a result, the companies have ended up failing. The concept of Lean Systems is best understood when companies familiarize themselves with certain key insights that are utilized during the course of systems architecting. The article provides a synopsis of the lean and is divided into four parts that will be mainly used for the purpose of this review. The article starts by comparing Lean Systems used in Japan compared to the ones used in the west. The success of lean production has induced mass producers to copy many of its features, but it is not always successful (Maier and Rechtin, 2002, p.70). The success of Japanese in using lean production can be linked to the limitation of conversion of lean systems in other environments. In the West, industrial engineers and management science people ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55. Lean Manufacturing : An Overview LEAN MANUFACTURING An Overview CONTENT Description Page No. I. Lean Manufacturing Overview: 2 a. Introduction: 2 b. Manufacturing management: 2 c. Lean as a management approach: 3 II. Lean Manufacturing Principles: 3 III. Wastes in Lean Manufacturing: 4 IV. Performance Measurements: 5 V. Implementation of Lean: 5 VI. Barriers to implement lean: 7 The cement industry is ideal example of the continuous process manufacturing where the traditional mass production system is adopted in order to produce, accumulate, and move thousands tons of materials between the work areas. The nowadays challenge is to change the cement industry from traditional mass production into more effective production system aiming to increase the productivity, overall performance, and capacity utilization to meet high marker demand. The cement industry is forced to reduce the production costs and delay times in order to take advantages in the global competition environments. I. Lean Manufacturing Overview: Introduction: In the twentieth century two major manufacturing revolutions have been introduced. Both revolutions have been developed at the automobile sector. The first revolution was mass production. In the 1900s the demand for cars has raised dramatically, and the automobile sector has become very competitive. Craft production has dominated the automobile sector; in fact using of the craft production was inadequate to manage the high demand at that period. In that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 57. Lean Manufacturing And Its Production Lean Manufacturing Most people wouldn't know what Lean Manufacturing was if they hadn't either learned about it or use it at work. Lean manufacturing is a way to eliminate waste and maximize customer value. Delivering the right product, in the right quantity, with the right quantity, at the exact time the customer needs it and at the lowest cost possible is the main goal of lean manufacturing. With lean manufacturing you can have benefits such as reduced lead times, improved quality, improved on– time deliveries, less inventory, less space, less human effort, lower costs, and increased profitability. The concept of lean manufacturing was introduced in Japan, and Toyota Production System was the first company to use it. Lean manufacturing simply follows the notion that the customer will pay for the value of services they receive and they will not pay for the mistakes. It was stated in Challenges in the transformation to lean production from different manufacturing process choice that for Toyota the focal point is not to make money but to generate value for the customers; money follows automatically if the customers are satisfied. The lean production philosophy is currently widely applied globally in industries such as the process industry, aerospace industry, furniture manufacturing, the textile industry, hospitals, government agencies, and the service industries. But, there are some principles that need to be followed in order for companies to become lean. There are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59. Lean Operations Essay Tasks and answers Task 1: To what extent could or should Deane expect to apply the philosophies and techniques of JIT/Lean to the running of a staircase cell? Staircases Production Company (SPC) is a small, successful, privately owned timber and building materials company based in a small city in the UK. The company offers a wide variety of timber products, from regular doors, windows and staircases to special products such as non–standard sections or special profiles (i.e. old designs of skirting board). Its products stand out from its main competitors (small joinery businesses) with high levels of quality. Due to the quality of its products as well as the huge demand of special stairs in the region, sales has been increasing steady ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... al 1997). Nevertheless, the result can be levelled within a set of well–defined flexibility parameters (Jina et. al 1997), to give some examples: commonizing raw material and finished parts and organizing for high and low level demand. Process. It can be said that processes currently do not follows any flow structure: production is planned without any solid criteria and there is no single flow route for either materials or machinery. This unstructured work floor causes: joinery department job shops are untidy and congested (joiners are working on several part–finished items at once, single pieces of equipment are shared by 10 or more joiners, joiners try to fit in with each other over the use of machinery, etc.) and big allowance of waste and timbers defects are found around the workshop. Despite of this chaos, it has been identified that the specific case of the manufacturing and assembling staircases follows a repeatable process steps (although staircases are different): cutting timber, sanding, machining and tenoning, which makes this process potentially standardised. Therefore, it can be said that Lean principles can be applied to this process. However, in order to identify the applicability of Lean principles to the rest of the processes, more information should be provided. Workers. The processes ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61. The Problem Of Lean Manufacturing Again, LT help firm to redesign the patients' pathway. The significant numbers of waste were eliminated and achieved more efficient process. The patients' pathways were reduced significantly. From the fact, originally, there were 19 steps in serving patients, but with lean they were reduced to 11. This leads to the deduction in lead time in just 80 minutes [16]. As usual, every theory implemented has its own limitation. For lean thinking, it can help manufacturing industry to achieve in minimizing the waste activity. However, lean manufacturing has not been accepted by all users. For instance, difficulty in having human coordination and the limitation in applicability outside monotonous manufacturing environments are the weaknesses that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Moving on to the next word which is process, the word process is defined as the activities that are planned to establish the outcome for consumers. These activities will be structured and measured with care and awareness. The word process, according to Davenport [33], can be able to identify strongly on how job is handled within the business process inside the company. For the word "Business process" , it can sophisticatedly define into 3 different categories which are inputs, the processing, and the outcome. These three elements will concern to the process of inserting input into transformation process. The inputs will be included with data such as consumers' inquiries and materials. After that the, the processing will transform those data and materials into the outcome in which they have to move on through a number of processes. These materials might possibly turn into waste and time consuming if the process is not ready. The outcome, finally, will be delivered to consumers. Hammer [35] has further explained the 4 key words for BPR as followed: The first key word is foundation. In the process of reengineering, members in organization might come up with the most basic inquiries about these changes and how they function. The second key word is essential design. This will be focusing on the very foundation of things. The key word will totally ignore the outermost part that is already good in the moment, but it will completely ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63. Toyota Lean Management Contents Introduction Task 1: Managing Demand and Capacity 1.1 Toyota (Manufacturing and Product Services) 1.2 Starbucks (Mixture of Product Services) 2.1 The difference between the Pull and Push Demand systems 2.2 Processes and Layout Decisions 2.3 Inventory Management Comparisons 2.4.1 Toyota's Non–Existent Inventory 2.4.2 Starbucks 's Unlimited Inventory Task 2: Lean Management 3.1 Why Lean Management 3.2 What is Lean Management 3.2.1 The Eight Wastes of Lean Management 3.2.2 The Five S for Continuous Improvements 3.2.3 Just– In– Time for Inventory 3.2.4 Quality Performance 1. Task 3 : Six Sigma Strategy 4.1 What is Six Sigma Strategy? 4.1.1 Six Sigma and the Value ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Lean six–sigma methodologies are applicable to line queues processes. (figure 2.1) This efficient queue ordering processes enhanced their customer's experience, with their queuing lines moving quickly without having to sacrifice the quality; that is, fast order preparation and delivery with friendly service and a correct customer order. 2.2 Product Quality: (Good Quality Food) Starbucks identified that product quality is measurable in several aspects: product temperature, freshness and consistency. Product Temperature: Product temperatures in service organizations can use Six–sigma methodologies to set to acceptable upper and lower control limit temperature ranges. Temperature
  • 64. ranges may be determined either by the corporation's product quality standards to meet Critical to Quality standards or as determined by local Health & Safety regulations. Product ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66. Lean And Lean Case Study The basic concepts involved in lean and lean manufacturing was originated from The Toyota, one of the Japanese automaker in the global competition since decades. In 1988, Taiichi Ohno brought the lean concept into operation for the first time at Toyota and called it as Toyota Production System (TPS), to overcome economic crisis due to World War II. TPS was mainly developed to flourish with minimum resources. Owing to the immense shortages of material, human and financial resources, TPS had no other option but to choose the waste reduction policy to cut down the costs at the shop floor. Even in the hard economic crisis, Toyota sustained and was successful because of its higher efficiency in operation and improved production system. In the meantime, inadequacy of the resources which was at first an obstacle to the company transformed into an opportunity to establish Toyota as a world class car manufacturer. 'Lean' approach was slowly applied in many manufacturing and management floors over the last few decades. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Ultimately, by progressively improving manufacturing processes through the exclusion of waste, higher value is generated for the customer as the quality is improved and costs are decreased. These principles include: Pull processing, continuous improvement, waste elimination, flexibility, perfect quality, Load levelling, cultivating long term relationship with suppliers, Automation, Production flow and Visual control. Lean manufacturing also emphasizes on elimination of the seven kinds of wastes from the production activities, these wastes includes transportation or conveyance wastes, overproduction, incorrect processing, excess motion, waiting, inventory, wastes due to defects. Thus today's Toyota is a result of need impelled learning to overcome the issues within its own production ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68. Lean Literature Review Review of Literature 'Lean' principles are a management philosophy developed by Japanese manufacturing industry in the 1950s. This philosophy is known as "Toyota Production System" (TPS). This approach to management is centered on the concept of creating more value for customers by elimination of waste. Cutting out waste while preserving quality aims at enhancing the overall customer experience. 'Lean' is a concept that is applicable in all aspects of business– production, manufacture, distribution etc. Dennis, P. describes in his book 'Lean Production Simplified' (2002) how lean principles developed in Japan. The advent of lean goes back to the beginning of 20th century when Henry Ford developed the ideas of standardization and introduced ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... writes in his article 'Case Study: How Lean Manufacturing Failed' (2008) that lean implementation is a journey which may not give the desired results immediately. It might even fail to give successful results at all. According to Ortiz's experience, certain companies applying lean may struggle to achieve results due to various challenges like poor management commitment, poor training, lack of commitment and accountability. This reflects that lean is not a magical principle that may solve all the business problems. Moreover, Cooney (2002) argues that the possibility to apply all the "lean" principles is highly dependent upon business conditions that are not always met, thus limiting the "universality" of the concept. This restricts the 'powerful' lean production systems. However, certain principles and techniques of 'lean' can be adopted in project management and other industries depending upon various factors like market conditions, competition, processes, management perspective ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70. Lean Burn Combustion Lean burn refers to the use of lean mixtures in an internal combustion engine. The air–fuel ratios can be as high as 65:1, so the mixture has considerably less fuel in comparison to the stoichiometric combustion ratio (14.7:1 for petrol for example). Contents[hide] * 1 Principle * 2 Chrysler Lean Burn computer * 3 Heavy–duty gas engines * 4 Honda lean burn systems * 4.1 Applications * 5 Toyota lean burn engines * 5.1 Applications * 6 Nissan lean burn engines * 6.1 Applications * 7 Mitsubishi Vertical Vortex (MVV) * 8 Diesel engines * 9 See also * 10 Footnotes * 10.1 Citations * 10.2 References | [edit] Principle A lean burn mode is a way to reduce throttling losses. An engine in a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Heavy–duty lean burn gas engines admit as much as 75% more air than theoretically needed for complete combustion into the combustion chambers. The extremely weak air–fuel mixtures lead to lower combustion temperatures and therefore lower NOx formation. While lean–burn gas engines offer higher theoretical thermal efficiencies, transient response and performance may be compromised in certain situations. Lean burn gas engines are almost always turbocharged, resulting high power and torque figures not achieveable with stoichiometric engines due to high combustion temperatures. Heavy duty gas engines may employ precombustion chambers in the cylinder head. A lean gas and air mixture is first highly compressed in the main chamber by the piston. A much richer, though much lesser volume gas/air mixture is introduced to the precombustion chamber and ignited by spark plug. The flame front spreads to the lean gas air mixture in the cylinder. This two stage lean burn combustion produces low NOx and no particulate emissions. Thermal efficiency is better as higher compression ratios are achieved. Manufacturers of heavy–duty lean burn gas engines include GE Jenbacher, MAN Diesel & Turbo, Wärtsilä, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Rolls–Royce plc. [edit] Honda lean burn ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72. Advantages Of Lean Manufacturing INTRODUCTION. Lean can be simply described system that is designed to create more value for customers with fewer resources. Lean principle is best described as a series of processes or methodology that eliminates waste in a production cycle. Lean principles originated from Japan in the manufacturing industries, commonly in the Automobile sector. Over the last decade, Lean has stepped outside the norms of manufacturing to become a process improvement method for both service sector and more recently in public sector organizations that are interested in improving their output efficiency and increase customer value. Wikipedia defines Lean as the set of "tools" that helps in the identification of waste and its elimination. The waste is also referred to as Muda. It says elimination of waste improves quality and thus reduces production time and cost. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lean_manufacturing) The lean process is best represented in the diagram below – Figure 1 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Various written works have explored the Lean advantages and applications. The term Lean was initially instituted by Krafcik (1988). Therefore, Womack, Jones, and Roos (1991) utilized the term Lean implementing to portray the Toyota creation framework ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74. Lean Six Sigma Lean Six Sigma processes are used by many businesses without it being realized. Many companies today are adopting the Lean Six Sigma processes to aid in cost reduction and waste management. The Six Sigma program aids in eliminating the negative effects caused by variations within the supply chain. The Lean process is all about the speed, flow and elimination of waste concerning inventory. Although Lean and Six Sigma are separate programs, they complement each other. Together these two programs provide supply chains with a tool that eliminates, "unnecessary inventories through disciplined efforts to understand and reduce variation, while increasing speed and flow in the supply chain."(Lean Logistics Understanding) Lean and Six Sigma ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Manufactures have adopted the reusable container and save on disposal cost, as well as, improved product protection. So, even thought packaging is not the number one concern of supply chains; it is a valid area to evaluate. Applying Lean Six Sigma to packaging in supply chains will reduce product damage, improved flow within the supply change, promote efficiency and overall save money. Logistics is the management of inventory at all levels. "Inventory can represent any where from 5 to 30 percent of a manufacture's total assets and may represent half of a retailers assets." ()Inventory is one of the more visible forms of waste within supply chains. The driving factor behind inventory is customer demands. The goal of any company who wants to stay in business is to have the product in the right place at the right time for the right cost. This leads to companies trying to forecast for future demands. Forecasting is never exact and demands are always over or under what was forecasted. In my job as a command Readiness Spares Package manager we utilize past fiscal year demands to forecast for the future fiscal year. Although I utilize several different analysis systems to forecast demands; it is never accurate. The goal is to get the forecast as close to the future demands to eliminated customer wait time and save money. Many wholesalers ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76. Lean Manufacturing Insert your college logo here UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA REZZEN PENANG TERM PAPER: Lean Manufacturing PREPARED BY: Your Name Student ID PREPARED FOR: Lecturers Name DATE OF SUBMISSION: Date going to submit Table of Content 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Jabil Vision 1.2 Jabil Mission 2. History of lean manufacturing 1. What is lean manufacturing 2. Primary elements for lean manufacturing 3. Issues in lean manufacturing 3. 7 types of waste 1. Overproduction. 2. Waiting 3. Transporting 4. Inappropriate Processing 5. Unnecessary Inventory 6. Unnecessary / Excess Motion 7. Defects 8. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... ❖ Mechanical Design: Jabil Circuit's mechanical engineering design team involves in three– dimensional design and analysis of electronic and optical assemblies using modeling and analytical tools. It also involves in industrial design, advance mechanism development, and tooling management. ❖ Computer–Assisted Design: Jabil Circuit's computer–assisted design (CAD) team provides PCBA design services using advanced CAD/computer–assisted engineering tools, PCBA design testing and verification services, and other consulting services, which include the generation of a bill of materials, approved vendor list, and assembly equipment configuration for a particular PCBA design. ❖ Product Validation: Jabil Circuit's product validation team provides product and process validation. This includes system test, product safety, regulatory compliance, and reliability. ❖ Product Solutions: Jabil Circuit's product solutions efforts are focused on providing system–based solutions to engineering problems and challenges on the design of new technologies and concepts in specific growth areas as a means of expanding its customer relationships. Jabil Circuit's design centers are located in Vienna, Austria; Hasselt, Belgium; Beijing and Shanghai, China; Colorado Springs, Colorado; St. Petersburg, Florida; Jena, Germany; Tokyo, Japan;
  • 77. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 79. Lean Manufacturing The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/1741– 038X.htm JMTM 17,4 Critical success factors for lean implementation within SMEs Pius Achanga, Esam Shehab, Rajkumar Roy and Geoff Nelder Department of Enterprise Integration, School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science, Centre for Decision Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, UK Abstract Purpose – The aim of this research paper is to present the critical factors that constitute a successful implementation of lean manufacturing within manufacturing SMEs. Design/methodology/approach – A combination of comprehensive literature review and visits to ten SMEs based in the East of the UK were employed in the study. The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Several authors have reiterated the importance of cost factors and their reduction strategies in the current production process (Kulmala et al., 2001; Roy et al., 2001; Roy, 2003; Shehab and Abdalla, 2002). They assert that, cost factors are crucial, therefore, fundamental to the survivability of most organisations. Unfortunately, the idea of applying lean manufacturing has not been adopted by meaningful numbers of SMEs with any conviction. These companies require that the implementation costs and the subsequent benefits of lean manufacturing adoption, be projected upfront before they are able to commit. Therefore, this research paper aims to outline some of the factors that are perceived to be critical in the successful application of lean manufacturing within SMEs community. The main objectives of the research were to: JMTM 17,4 . . . explore the operational activities of SMEs in order to identify their cost drivers; investigate the dimensions of lean manufacturing applications within SMEs; and outline critical factors that determine its successful application within SMEs. 462
  • 80. Literature review The implementation of lean manufacturing like any other productivity improvement initiative is believed to harbour enormous difficulties (Denton and Hodgson, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 82. Lean Vs. Lean Manufacturing Industry Lean accountings primary use is in the manufacturing industry. A lean manufacturing company in which lean accounting is used looks to attack wastes in all forms. This in turn reduces the cost of goods sold. Lean accounting instead uses value stream costing. "Lean accounting experts believe that accounting itself can be lean, which can contribute to profit rather than just calculating it. Cost do not exist to be calculated. Costs exist to be reduced" (Taiichi Ohno). Lean accounting accentuates removing waste, increasing product turnover and reducing inventory levels in the manufacturing and production processes. The focus is on producing to meet customer demand while also achieving the shortest production cycle. Three benefits, which ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This results in making it almost impossible to calculate standard costs, standard material usage, and standard labor rates that show up on the financial statement. Examples of some companies that use lean accounting are Toyota, Lantech, Intel, Caterpillar Inc., Ford Motor Company, and John Deere just to name a few. Intel suggests that it use to take fourteen weeks to introduce a new chip but it has since been reduced to ten days since its implementation of lean manufacturing and accounting. Some of the techniques used by Ford Motor Company are "effective work groups, zero waste/zero defects, aligning global capacity with global market demand, optimizing production throughout, and using total cost to drive performance"(Ford Motors Company) Lean accounting is organized differently than the cost accounting. Cost accounting uses departments, the product moves to the next department for completing that phase, and then on to the next department all the while material, labor, and factory overhead are accounted for separately in each department in order to control cost and give assessments where waste is happening. This helps management to implement processes to regulate losses and make changes to productivity. Unlike this traditional system, which has been used in the early 1900 's lean accounting, uses value streams. "A value stream includes everything that is done to create value for a customer and can be easily associated with the product or ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...