The Industrial Revolution


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The Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution Lavoro svolto da Jessica Fici IV D
  2. 2. How the revolution was born <ul><li>Starting in the mid-1700s in England, a series of inventions sparked the biggest change in human life since tools first had been used in the growing of crops thousands of years earlier. These inventions caused profound changes in the ordinary lives of people and in the way society is organized. The entire process—technical innovation and social change taken together—is called the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Standards of living gradually improved not only on account of developments in agriculture but also through improvements in the fields of medicine and general hygiene. Overall greater wealth and the growth in population led to an increase in demand for goods, from home and abroad. This instigated a general movement towards finding methods for speeding up production especially in the field of cloth production and, later, for developing and improving transport and communication which were essential for facilitating quick and easy exchange of goods both within England and abroad with her colonies. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The industrial revolution was dominated by two important developments in technology machines used to make textiles, or cloth the steam engine driven by coal
  5. 5. The development of the new industrial or manufacturing towns in the North came with the invention of steam power-a source which was not dependent on climatic conditions. It was James Watt who, in 1765, produced the first steam engine capable of turning a wheel. Now steam power could be used to drive machinery in factories. James Watt
  6. 6. Parallel to the steam engine driven , the cloth industry began to move into large buildings capable of holding the large machinery. Infect, John Kay built a machine called the Flying Shuttle (1733) which allowed for more cloth to be woven more quickly and James Hargreaves that invented the Spinning Jenny (1764) which increased the output of thread. Another important element was iron in the whole industrial revolution, because it was a necessary material for the construction of the newly-designed machinery and for the future construction of the railway.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Parallel to the revolution in industry, there was the revolution in agriculture. This in turn led to an increase in the quantity and quality of the crops, better breeding, and fresh meat. </li></ul><ul><li>The peasant class and small land-owners began to disappear as the land was gradually bought up by the wealthy landowners who leased off their land to tenant farmers and laborers. The new agricultural methods were invented by these rich landowner farmers who now had the incentive to invest their time and money in improving their land and its produce. In addition to the introduction of new sources of power and machinery, the Industrial Revolution resulted in new ways of thinking about work. The process of making things began to be viewed in terms of a system: machines and people functioning together in workplaces, typically in factories as parts of a factory system. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Political changes <ul><li>The demographic increase created the birth of the industrial city, that populated him of artisans and farmers that abandoned the countries to work in the factories giving origin to phenomenon of the urbanization. This phenomenon of the urbanization brought a so many Political changes </li></ul><ul><li>The dislocations brought about by the movement of people to cities and the rise of factories as a source of wealth came together to diminish the power and influence of the old aristocracy, including kings and queens, that had arisen in Europe in the Middle Ages. Instead, business owners and, later, workers assumed domination over government. At first, factory owners fought for a greater voice in and influence over government affairs. Later, beginning in the mid-1800s, voices were raised on behalf of the rights of workers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social aspects <ul><li>For this important political changes, the work suffered a radical transformation: in the factories, for to work, it was not in demand a particular ability as instead it was in demand to the artisan; besides the chain workmanship forced the worker to repetitive and stressful actions for 12 - 14 daily hours, in damp sheds for the accumulated aqueous vapor and poorly airy. Infect, </li></ul><ul><li>The society divided in 2 classes: </li></ul><ul><li>- Capitalistic (tall-bourgeois rich, owners of the factories) </li></ul><ul><li>- Proletarian (rich of issue, with low salaries and deprived of guardianship in the relationship of job) </li></ul><ul><li>In this period , spread the childish Job especially in the factories where the small ones for their draft constitution you/they could slip in narrow spaces. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The industrial Revolution How the revolution was born Innovations Social aspects Political changes