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In the 18th century The  Novel In England Real or verisimilitude events Written with vivacity  and in a simple way in ord...
Various writers  who are engaged in the social life… … CONTRIBUTED TO ITS RISE: DANIEL DEFOE SAMUEL RICHARDSON HENRY FIELD...
Daniel Defoe Realistic Novel <ul><li>Realism :  presented in the form of diary or autobiography related in the 1st person ...
- Robison Crusoe <ul><li>Adventures of a castaway in his struggle for the daily bread to survive appling a rational method...
Bourgeois Novel Samuel Richardson <ul><li>Plot :  based on a single story with every day events and complex emotional situ...
The main novels: <ul><li>Pamela   : his first epistolary novel which comments on the sexual and social inequality of the p...
Henry Fielding Comic Novel <ul><li>Plot :  presents a well knit combinaton of episodes structured in organic unity; </li><...
The most important novel: Tom Jones <ul><li>The story of a nice and honest foundling is told in a lively and entertaining ...
Laurence Sterne Anti-novel <ul><li>Sterne derived his novels from the fusion of a new technique applied to old ones; </li>...
Jonathan Swift CLASSICAL WRITER A Brilliant satirist <ul><li>The simplicity of the style and diction give the effect of pa...
The best works: <ul><li>The battle of the Books:   analysed the contrast between moder and classical writers; </li></ul><u...
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In The 18th Century

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In The 18th Century

  1. 1. In the 18th century The  Novel In England Real or verisimilitude events Written with vivacity and in a simple way in order to be undestood even by less well educated readers It was made to satisfy the needs of middle class people who wanted to see their life and ideals portrayed in literature.
  2. 2. Various writers who are engaged in the social life… … CONTRIBUTED TO ITS RISE: DANIEL DEFOE SAMUEL RICHARDSON HENRY FIELDING LAURENCE STERNE JONATHAN SWIFT
  3. 3. Daniel Defoe Realistic Novel <ul><li>Realism : presented in the form of diary or autobiography related in the 1st person to increase verisimilitude; </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of structure : there is no real plot but a sequence of events unrolling in a chronological order around the same protagonist; </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of characterization : there is only one main character, who does not develop. What changes are the external conditions; </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism : the hero struggles against a lot of misfortunes and relies only upon himself for survival. Puritan idea and Augustan idea of new man; </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation : the characters are alone physically and socially ; </li></ul><ul><li>No sentimentalism : the characters struggle not for their ideals or passion but for their daily bread; </li></ul><ul><li>Moral attitude : all novels contain prayers and expressions of gratitude to God and end with the protagonist repenting of their mischiefs; </li></ul><ul><li>The moral conclusion is ambiguous. It is like a sweetener added to a coarse story. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a reflection of the society of his time: a direct or indirect satire of 18th centurty; </li></ul>
  4. 4. - Robison Crusoe <ul><li>Adventures of a castaway in his struggle for the daily bread to survive appling a rational method to every situation; </li></ul><ul><li>Defoe celebrates with him the modern man because the main character reflects the spirit of his age, who rules the world with intelligence, determination, pratical sense and tenacity and so he can modify reality trought his work and trought the interpretation of he Bible and God’s will; </li></ul>- Moll Flanders Autobiography of animated adveture by a great will of social success; Robison Crusoe’s female counterpart; Moral teaching; Puritan ideas; The main novels: HOME
  5. 5. Bourgeois Novel Samuel Richardson <ul><li>Plot : based on a single story with every day events and complex emotional situations; </li></ul><ul><li>Setting : domestic environment (interiors) instead of far-off or exotic countries ; </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization : characters are middle class people, with their private life, their family problems and repressed desire; </li></ul><ul><li>Realism : used in describing characters and situation and above all mental procesing and feelings; </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological analysis : novels reveal ‘s unique psychological insight in human feelings expecially women’s (characters can develop); </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological theme : moralism about egoist interest ; </li></ul><ul><li>Sentimentalism : they are all love stories with happy or movig tragic endings ; </li></ul><ul><li>Moralizing purpose : this main cocern was to promote the cause of religion and virtue, it reflects the Puritan middle class scheme of virtue and sins; </li></ul><ul><li>Technique and style : epistolary form and immediacy; </li></ul>
  6. 6. The main novels: <ul><li>Pamela : his first epistolary novel which comments on the sexual and social inequality of the position of women; </li></ul><ul><li>Clarissa </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Charles Grandison </li></ul><ul><li>Fictitious stories based on real lifes; </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections of the fashion for letter-writing of the period; </li></ul>HOME His followed novels which gave him a great success;
  7. 7. Henry Fielding Comic Novel <ul><li>Plot : presents a well knit combinaton of episodes structured in organic unity; </li></ul><ul><li>Setting : made up of streets, highways and various itineraries; </li></ul><ul><li>Characterization : lager range of characters including anticonformist middle class, lower class: they afford the greatest opportunity for truly comic to sketches. 3rd person narrative technique; </li></ul><ul><li>No individualism : he is more interested in society so he proposes to show “not man but manners, not an individual, but a species”; </li></ul><ul><li>Realism : realistic and genuine picture of 18th century English life; </li></ul><ul><li>Moralizing purposes : no idea of puritan punishment. Excessive sentimentalism: sexual instictis francly presented and directed to the good. There is a moral message: he wants to make man realize that virtue is better than vice and laughter can be the means to discover and defeat immorality; </li></ul><ul><li>No exaggerated individualism : love is a strong feeling which is openly revealed without reluctance; </li></ul><ul><li>Social denunciation : carried out indirectly through personal experience. Irony is broad and witty and sometimes boarders on coarseness; </li></ul>
  8. 8. The most important novel: Tom Jones <ul><li>The story of a nice and honest foundling is told in a lively and entertaining way; </li></ul><ul><li>An analysis of hipocrisy and egoism which are hided upon the conventions of conservative moralism; </li></ul><ul><li>-A deap confidence in honesty and loyalty against the individualism; </li></ul><ul><li>- Intention of creating suspense; </li></ul>HOME
  9. 9. Laurence Sterne Anti-novel <ul><li>Sterne derived his novels from the fusion of a new technique applied to old ones; </li></ul><ul><li>Old elements:- picaresque form; </li></ul><ul><li>- mock eroic; </li></ul><ul><li>- cast of characters; </li></ul><ul><li>- convetional biographic structure declared in the title of the novel; </li></ul><ul><li>New technique: - association of ideas; </li></ul><ul><li>New sense of Time: No chronological order </li></ul><ul><li>because the past exists in the present consciouness; </li></ul><ul><li>He used 1st person narration and put great attention on “Hobbyhorses” or rather </li></ul><ul><li>- obsessions </li></ul><ul><li>– ruling passions </li></ul><ul><li>- idiosyncrasies. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important novel: TRISTRAM SHANDY </li></ul>HOME
  10. 10. Jonathan Swift CLASSICAL WRITER A Brilliant satirist <ul><li>The simplicity of the style and diction give the effect of parody combing ironic; </li></ul><ul><li>A controversial writer: CONSERVATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>about what concerned with politcs and society </li></ul><ul><li>OPTIMIST on his age and Pride of man </li></ul><ul><li>- Hater of man </li></ul><ul><li>“ An animal capable of REASON ”: </li></ul><ul><li>An instrument that must be used properly but not too intesive because it finds in an error judgement and therefore unreasonable; </li></ul><ul><li>Something which tends to substitute at the moral; </li></ul>HOME
  11. 11. The best works: <ul><li>The battle of the Books: analysed the contrast between moder and classical writers; </li></ul><ul><li>A tale of a Tub : attached reliogious movements as Dissenters and Catholics; </li></ul><ul><li>A modest Proposal : a pamphlet, a polemic work </li></ul><ul><li>to denounce the injustices that Ireland suffered </li></ul><ul><li>in fact in this with irony and bitterness, </li></ul><ul><li>he suggested that the poverty of the people should be relieved by the sale of their children as food for the rich; </li></ul><ul><li>Gulliver’s Travels : four books </li></ul><ul><li>each dealing with the various adventures </li></ul><ul><li>of the ship’s surgeon Lemuel Gulliver, </li></ul><ul><li>with illustrated maps of the places he visited. </li></ul>

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