Industrial Revolution


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These are notes for Mr. J. so he can keep things straight in his jumbled mind. :-)
If you want them, take them. It is rather long as it combines a couple of units.

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Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolution
  2. 2. Here is what will we cover in this unit <ul><li>Causes of industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Development of factory system and its effects on workers </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions in factories </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and problems of industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism as a response to industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Marx and his goals, socialist ideas in factories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social reform in Britain, France, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>How industrialization affected the balance of power, and liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific changes - Darwinism </li></ul><ul><li>The Arts –Romanticism, Impressionism, Realism </li></ul><ul><li>YEP, Your are right – it is a lot. (OH NO! I SAID IT!) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Traditional Farming Methods <ul><li>List all of the MACHINES in the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>How many POWER SOURCES are in the picture? </li></ul><ul><li>What SOCIAL CLASSES are represented here? </li></ul><ul><li>Using the picture, write a sentence describing life before industrialization. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Agricultural Revolution What happens when farmer Bob plants the same crop in his field year after year?
  5. 6. Wheat Middle Ages Crop rotation 3 field system Rotate Crops each year Nothing Wheat Problem – Only 2/3 of the land is used each year Wheat Nothing
  6. 7. Wheat Corn Clover Year one = Corn, Year 2 =wheat, Year 3= potatoes or clover Clover– puts nutrients back in the soil, cows love it. Cows add manure How about this? Instead of rotating the fields, we rotate what crops are grown in those fields. more cows = more meat = more protein = better diet = longer life = more people = exploding population                                                       Yum!
  7. 8. Inventions that help even more <ul><li>Jethro Tull and his “seed drill” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant in nice neat rows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants have more room to grow, more plants grow and survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which leads to more food </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Notice the Difference?
  9. 10. Results of these ideas <ul><li>More food leads to more people </li></ul><ul><li>More people leads to need for more jobs </li></ul>More food
  10. 11. Enclosure Movement <ul><li>Large landowners begin fencing in their property. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small farmers not allowed to graze cattle there or to farm there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small farmers go out of business and need to find other ways to make money. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result – people move to cites to find work </li></ul>
  11. 12. If ya don’t pay rent, then get off me land you lowlife peasant! This is for MY sheep only now! I wonder where the nearest city is? Enclosure Movement
  12. 13. 1500’s – Domestic System <ul><li>People make items – particularly cloth, at home. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs supply them with the wool and they spin it into thread and make it into cloth at home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often called “Cottage Industry” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By the 1700s – with more food leading to more people, there was a greater need for items such as cloth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cottage industry methods cant keep up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need a new idea </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Cottage Industry
  14. 15. Crimey! A man can’t even get a pair o’ trousers anymore!
  15. 16. Necessity is the Mother of Invention <ul><li>We need more cloth, so someone is bound to step up and figure out a way to make it faster. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make money. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Greed is good” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Out with the old… <ul><li>Water power begins to be used to speed up the process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers machines that can work faster than human hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spinning Jenny” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Textile industry takes off. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems - Need to set up near a water source. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cant do this at home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the Domestic System and beginning of the Factory System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>still use today. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Water powers shafts, Shafts power belts, which power the machines So, what do you think of the working conditions?
  18. 20. Working in a textile mill
  19. 21. Quick Review How did each of the items below lead to the Industrial Revolution? 3 Field System Crop Rotation Clover Jethro Tull’s Seed Drill Enclosure Movement Domestic System Textiles Factory System
  20. 22. The Problem of Fuel <ul><li>1700s England </li></ul><ul><li>Population rising. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People need fuel for heat, cooking etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional source of heat – wood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cut down trees for firewood. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More people = more trees cut down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soon, no more trees. Need a solution </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Tree Huggers Are Sad
  22. 24. More Fuel Problems <ul><li>More factories opening up. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally use water power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only so much space on the rivers and streams. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Blimey!, There’s no room left!!
  24. 26. More Fuel Problems <ul><li>Factories opening up. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally use water power. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only so much space on the rivers and streams. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do in the summer when the rivers get low? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you do in the winter when the rivers freeze over? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. The Solution - Coal <ul><li>Burns longer and hotter than wood. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England has plenty of it. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. The Solution - Coal <ul><li>Now you can build a factory anywhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where would YOU build? </li></ul></ul>NOW I’LL Show Them!!
  27. 29. Hehehe, eat my soot!!!!
  28. 30. The Problem - Water <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice where the coal is? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English coal mines keep flooding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get rid of the water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a pump. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonus -The pump can be powered by coal. Pretty ingenious huh? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. You said Watt?? <ul><li>James Watt – creates a pump that works. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps water out of coal mines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>YEEEEAAAAHHHH!!!! Now we can get the coal!!! </li></ul>
  30. 32. Importance of the Steam Engine <ul><li>Invention radically transformed the world from an agricultural society into an industrial one. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moved our modern world from a 90% rural basis to a 90% urban basis. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. OK, next step – getting the coal to the houses that need it. Copied from <ul><li>Coal is in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>Main city (London) is in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you get coal from the point of production to the point of use? </li></ul>
  32. 34. The First Solution <ul><li>First step – put it on boats. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canals dug throughout England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coal shipped throughout Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powers and heats houses and factories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of course it has its problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barges are pulled by horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only move as fast as a walking horse </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Coal’s Effect on Industry <ul><li>Now look what happens: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal is the new super fuel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron foundries use that coal to produce more iron. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factories need more and more coal to keep up </li></ul></ul></ul>                            
  34. 36. Enter the “Rocket”
  35. 37. Need to get coal to foundries faster <ul><li>1829 George Stephenson uses Watts steam engine and hooks wheels up to it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a locomotive – “The Rocket.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steam engine powered by coal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 49. Need to get coal to foundries faster <ul><li>1829 George and Robert Stephenson use Watts steam engine and hook wheels up to it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a locomotive – “The Rocket.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steam engine powered by coal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rides along on iron rails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now they can use trains to transport the coal to London even faster. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem – the iron rails don’t hold up well. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What to do? </li></ul></ul>
  37. 50. Bessemer to the Rescue!! <ul><li>1850s Henry Bessemer creates new process for making iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Turns out his iron is much stronger than ordinary iron. He has made STEEL </li></ul><ul><li>Voilla!! The solution is at hand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace the iron rails with steel rails. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOW we have the beginnings of modern trains. </li></ul></ul>                             
  38. 51. Meanwhile, over in the US <ul><li>Robert Fulton hooks Watts steam engine up to a set of paddle wheels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invents the first ship powered by steam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Clermont” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now transportation between US and Europe is cut considerably </li></ul></ul>
  39. 52. About the same time… <ul><li>Samuel Morse invents telegraph and code to send messages. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1851 a cable from England to Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capable of sending messages quickly from England to the continent. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 53. Long Term Effects We Will See <ul><li>British Empire Expanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies in Africa, Middle East, India and Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>using Watts steam engine and Fulton's ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>steam powered warships </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraphs enable British to send messages quickly around their empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always know what is happening around their empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ships can travel throughout the empire more quickly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUT they need coaling stations every few hundred miles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies develop from coaling stations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 55. Some Fringe Benefits <ul><li>Coal gas used to light street lights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities not as dark anymore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories can work longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make more stuff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No longer work from Sunrise to Sunset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now we work according to the clock </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The whole cycle feeds off of itself </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 56. Look at the Chain of Events <ul><li>Agricultural advancements lead to more people </li></ul><ul><li>Growing population needs cloths </li></ul><ul><li>Water powered mills make cloths </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough room for mills </li></ul><ul><li>Mills powered by coal </li></ul><ul><li>Need to pump water out of coal mines </li></ul><ul><li>Steam powered pump </li></ul><ul><li>More coal to power factories – which then need more coal </li></ul><ul><li>Steam powered trains to transport the coal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam powered ships to transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British navy using coal / steam </li></ul><ul><li>Need for coaling stations to refuel ships going to India / Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Development of new colonies (in Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Height of British Empire </li></ul>
  43. 57. Thus Leading to the Next Unit <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more on this to follow </li></ul></ul>
  44. 58. So, here is the question: <ul><li>Why did it start in Britain and not somewhere else in Europe? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why not France, or Germany or Austria or Italy or Russia? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British had many advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stable Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>government Laissez Faire policies provide easy chance for industries to grow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growing population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plenty of resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>overseas colonies which will provide British with a market for goods (mercantilism) </li></ul></ul></ul>