Sheep Heart Dissection


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Sheep Heart Dissection

  1. 1. TJ Medical Society 2008 A Presentation brought to you by: Alison Jarmas, Jerry Liu, Nikhil Prakash, Jimmy Wu, Judy Zeng, and the Officer Corps.
  2. 2. Blood Circulation and Atria
  3. 3. <ul><li>Blood enters heart through veins: Superior vena cava and Inferior vena cava. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart muscles in atria contract- push blood into ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Ventricles force blood through the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood, oxygenated by lungs, flows into left chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Aorta pushes blood from heart to the body </li></ul>
  4. 4. Blood Flow  Deoxygenated Blood  Oxygenated Blood Blood from tissues throughout body  Superior and Inferior vena cava  Right Atrium  Tricuspid Valve  Right Ventricle  Pulmonary Semilunar Valve  Pulmonary Artery  Lungs 
  5. 5. Blood Flow  Deoxygenated Blood  Oxygenated Blood Pulmonary Veins  Left Atrium  Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve  Left Ventricle  Aortic Semilunar Valve  Aorta  Body Tissue 
  6. 7. <ul><li>Hearts have right and left atria </li></ul><ul><li>Atria relax to fill with blood </li></ul><ul><li>Atria contract to release blood to body </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers of heart with thin walls </li></ul>
  7. 8. Diastole and Systole
  8. 9. <ul><li>Consists of cyclic periods of high or low blood pressure, measured in mmHg </li></ul><ul><li>Systole – all four heart chambers simultaneously contract to propel blood through the cardiovascular system; causes increased pressure on arterial walls </li></ul><ul><li>Diastole – the period of relaxation during which blood flows back into the atria and ventricles; causes decreased pressure on arterial walls </li></ul><ul><li>Represented as systole/diastole (ie. 120/80) </li></ul>
  9. 10. RED – aortic pressure BLUE – left ventricular pressure YELLOW – left atrial pressure
  10. 11. Ventricles and the “Cardiums”
  11. 12. <ul><li>Ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardium – muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Endocardium – tissue that lines the interior of heart </li></ul><ul><li>Pericardium – sac that contains heart and roots of great blood vessels </li></ul>
  12. 13. Valves, Muscles, Tendinae
  13. 14.
  14. 15. <ul><li>Allows blood to enter ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents backflow into atriums </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to papillary muscles by chordae tendinae </li></ul><ul><li>Tricuspid (right AV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 membrane flaps between right atrium and ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bicuspid (mitral or left AV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 membrane flaps between left atrium and ventricle </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Prevents backflow from arteries to ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>3 small membranous pockets; crescent-shaped flaps of endocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary (right) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects pulmonary trunk to right ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aortic (left) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects aorta to left ventricle </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Flaps of muscles connected to various valves on one end by chordae tendinae and to ventricular walls on the other </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilize valves </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>“ heartstrings” </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissues connecting valves to papillary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent valves from being turned inside out </li></ul>
  18. 19.
  19. 20. Aorta
  20. 21. <ul><li>The largest artery in the body: stems from LV and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of body in systemic circulation. </li></ul>Diagram of Aorta in SHEEP
  21. 22. Pulmonary Circulation
  22. 23. <ul><li>Serves to oxygenate the depleted blood </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit led in to by the pulmonary trunk (artery) </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic circulation  vena cava  right atrium  right ventricle  pulmonary artery (right and left)  lungs (capillary beds)  pulmonary veins (right and left)  left atrium  left ventricle  aorta  systemic circulation </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Arterioles intertwined with tubular bronchioles bring deoxygenated blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary beds in the saclike alveoli have increased surface area for gas exchange by diffusion (facilitated by a partial pressure gradient) </li></ul><ul><li>Venules carry newly </li></ul><ul><li>oxygenated blood </li></ul><ul><li>back to the heart </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>A blood vessel that ALWAYS carries blood toward the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Generally contains deoxygenated blood, except for the pulmonary and umbilical veins </li></ul><ul><li>Path: Right Atrium  Right Ventricle  Pulmonary Arteries  Lungs  Becomes oxygenated </li></ul><ul><li>Very low blood pressure- rely on skeletal-muscle pump </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest veins are the venules </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Three Layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica Adventitia: Outer covering of vessel; composed of connective tissue, collagen, and elastic fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica Media: Middle layer; composed of smooth muscle and elastic fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica Intima: Inner layer; composed of an elastic membrane lining and smooth endothelium </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Portal and Nonportal </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial and Deep </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary and Systemic </li></ul><ul><li>Major Ones: </li></ul><ul><li>Great Saphenous vein (GSV) – located in lower limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary veins: carry oxygenated air to the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Jugular Vein </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior and Superior Vena Cava </li></ul>
  27. 29. Cranial/Caudal Vena Cava
  28. 30. Cranial/Caudal Vena Cava
  29. 31. Arteries
  30. 32. <ul><li>Arteries are a type of blood vessel in the circulatory system. They generally carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The further away from the heart, the smaller the arteries get until they become arterioles </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Arteries are tough on the outside, muscular in the middle to help force blood throughout, and smooth on the inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally arteries are thicker than veins because they need to withstand greater pressure </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Common carotids </li></ul><ul><li>Common iliacs </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary trunk </li></ul>
  33. 35. Arterioles, Venules, Capillaries
  34. 36. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries are the connectors between arterioles and venules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest blood vessels that are involved in regulation of osmotic pressure (internal body heat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillary wall consists of only the endothelium. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Venules are small blood vessels that allow deoxygenated blood to flow from capillary beds to veins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has endothelial membrane, muscle/elastic tissue, and fibrous connective tissue. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>Arterioles are the blood vessels from the arteries to the capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure in arteries = result o work needed to pump cardiac output through the vascular resistance. </li></ul>
  36. 38. © TJHSST Medical Society 2007-2008