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DEPTH STUDY GERMANY: NAZI REGIME - 01. FASCISM

FASCISM.

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DEPTH STUDY
NAZI GERMANY
HITLER DOMINATING
GERMANY BY 1934
FASCISM
01
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
FASCISM
• Liberalism,conservatism,socialismwere19th centuryideologies.
• Fascismisachildofthetwentiethcentury.
• Somepeoplebelievethatfascismwasan inter-warphenomenon.
• Fascistbeliefscanbetracedbacktothe19th century,butitwas
shapedbytheFirstWorldWar,bythebigmixtureofwarand
revolutionthatcharacterisedthisperiod.
• The2mostprominent manifestationsoffascismwere Mussolini’s
FascistdictatorshipinItaly(1922-1943) andHitler’sNazi
dictatorshipinGermany(1933-1945).
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
FORMSOFNEOFASCISM
• Formsof neofascismandneo-Nazismhaveresurfacedinthefinalyearsof
thelastcentury,becauseofthecombinationofeconomiccrisisandpolitical
instabilitythathasfollowedthecollapseofcommunism.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
WHATISFASCISM? • Fascismwasarevoltagainsttheideasandvalues
thathaddominatedwesternpoliticalthought since
theFrenchRevolution.
• Inthewordsof theItalianfascistslogan“1789is
dead”.
• Valuessuchasrationalism,progress,freedomand
equalitywereoverturnedinthenameof struggle,
leadership,power,heroismandwar.
• Fascismisdefinedlargelybywhatitopposes: itisa
formof anti-capitalism,anti-liberalism,anti-
individualismandanti-communism.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THECORETHEMEOFFASCISM
• Thecorethemeoffascismisthe
imageofanorganicallyunified
nationalcommunity.
• Thisisreflectedinabeliefin
“strengththroughunity”.
• Theindividualisnothing, asthe
individualidentitymustbeentirely
absorbedintothecommunity or
socialgroup.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THEIDEAL Thefascistidealisthe“newman”,the“hero”,motivatedby
duty,honourandself-sacrifice,preparedtodedicatehislife
tothegloryofhisnationorrace,andtogiveobediencetothe
supremeleaderwithoutquestioninghisauthority.

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DEPTH STUDY GERMANY: NAZI REGIME - 01. FASCISM

  • 1. DEPTH STUDY NAZI GERMANY HITLER DOMINATING GERMANY BY 1934 FASCISM 01
  • 2. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY FASCISM • Liberalism,conservatism,socialismwere19th centuryideologies. • Fascismisachildofthetwentiethcentury. • Somepeoplebelievethatfascismwasan inter-warphenomenon. • Fascistbeliefscanbetracedbacktothe19th century,butitwas shapedbytheFirstWorldWar,bythebigmixtureofwarand revolutionthatcharacterisedthisperiod. • The2mostprominent manifestationsoffascismwere Mussolini’s FascistdictatorshipinItaly(1922-1943) andHitler’sNazi dictatorshipinGermany(1933-1945).
  • 3. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY FORMSOFNEOFASCISM • Formsof neofascismandneo-Nazismhaveresurfacedinthefinalyearsof thelastcentury,becauseofthecombinationofeconomiccrisisandpolitical instabilitythathasfollowedthecollapseofcommunism.
  • 4. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY WHATISFASCISM? • Fascismwasarevoltagainsttheideasandvalues thathaddominatedwesternpoliticalthought since theFrenchRevolution. • Inthewordsof theItalianfascistslogan“1789is dead”. • Valuessuchasrationalism,progress,freedomand equalitywereoverturnedinthenameof struggle, leadership,power,heroismandwar. • Fascismisdefinedlargelybywhatitopposes: itisa formof anti-capitalism,anti-liberalism,anti- individualismandanti-communism.
  • 5. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THECORETHEMEOFFASCISM • Thecorethemeoffascismisthe imageofanorganicallyunified nationalcommunity. • Thisisreflectedinabeliefin “strengththroughunity”. • Theindividualisnothing, asthe individualidentitymustbeentirely absorbedintothecommunity or socialgroup.
  • 6. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THEIDEAL Thefascistidealisthe“newman”,the“hero”,motivatedby duty,honourandself-sacrifice,preparedtodedicatehislife tothegloryofhisnationorrace,andtogiveobediencetothe supremeleaderwithoutquestioninghisauthority.
  • 7. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ITALIANFASCISM • Italianfascismwas essentiallyanextremeform ofstatism,thatwasbasedon totalrespecttowardsa totalitarianstate. • TheFascistphilosopher GiovanniGentile(1875-1944) said: “Everythingforthestate, nothingagainstthestate, nothingoutsidethestate”
  • 8. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY COREFASCISTTHEORIES • Aryanism: thebeliefthattheGermanpeopleconstitutea“masterrace”and aredestinedforworlddomination. • Anti-Semitism: portrayedtheJewsasevilandaimedattheireradication. Thisonefoundexpressionin theFinalSolution.
  • 9. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY MUSSOLINI’S“DOCTRINEOFFASCISM”(1932) -1 • FascismdesirestheStatetobestrong andorganic,basedonbroadfoundationsof popularsupport. • Imperialismimpliesdiscipline,thecoordinationofefforts,adeepsenseofdutyand aspiritofself-sacrifice. • TodayFascismfillsuniversalrequirements;Fascismsolvesthethreefoldproblem ofrelationsbetweenStateandindividual,betweenStateandassociations, betweenassociationsandorganizedassociations. • Struggleisattheorigin ofallthings, forlifeisfullofcontrasts:thereisloveand hatred,whiteandblack,dayandnight, goodandevil;anduntilthesecontrasts achievebalance,strugglefatefullyremainsattherootofhumannature.
  • 10. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY MUSSOLINI’S“DOCTRINEOFFASCISM”(1932) -2 • LifefortheFascistisacontinuous,ceaselessfight,which weacceptwithease,with greatcourage,withthenecessaryintrepidity. • YoutouchthecoreofFascistphilosophy. WhenrecentlyaFinnishphilosopher askedmetoexpoundtohimthesignificanceof Fascisminonesentence,Iwrotein German:Weareagainstthe“easy,lift!”. • Ourbattleisanungratefulone,yetitisabeautifulbattlesinceitcompelsusto countonlyuponourownforces.Revealedtruthswehavetorntoshreds,dogmas wehavespatupon, wehaverejectedalltheoriesofparadise,wehavebaffled charlatanswhite,red,blackcharlatanswhoplacedmiraculousdrugsonthe markettogiveahappinessntomankind. Wedonotbelieveinprogram, inplans,in saintsorapostles,webelievenotinhappiness,salvationandPromisedLand.
  • 11. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY MUSSOLINI’S“DOCTRINEOFFASCISM”(1932) -3 • Wewerethefirsttostate,inthefaceofdemoliberalindividualism,thattheindividual existsonlyinsofarasheiswithintheStateandsubjectedtotherequirementsofthe stateandthat,ascivilizationassumesaspectswhich growmoreandmore complicated,individualfreedombecomesmoreandmorerestricted. • TheFasciststateclaimsitsethicalcharacter:itisCatholicbutaboveallitisFascist, infactitisexclusivelyandessentiallyFascist.CatholicismcompletesFascism,and thisweopenlydeclare,butletnoonethink theycanturnthetablesonus,undercover ofmetaphysicsorphilosophy. • Ibelievethatifapeoplewishtolive,theyshoulddevelopawilltopower,otherwise theyvegetate,livemiserablyandbecomepreytoastrongerpeople.
  • 12. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ACTIVITIES • Read“Thedoctrineoffascism”byBenito Mussolini(1932)andprovidealistwiththe10 mostimportantideasaboutfascism. Source: https://www.docdroid.net/e6o4FAc/the- doctrine-of-fascism-pdf
  • 13. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ACTIVITIES–TESTYOUR UNDERSTANDING –THE“PAXTONPARAGRAPH” ROBERTPAXTON,2005 Fascismmaybedefinedasaformofpoliticalbehaviour markedbyobsessivepreoccupationwithcommunitydecline, humiliation,orvictimhoodandbycompensatorycultsof unity,energy,andpurity,inwhichamass-basedpartyof committednationalistmilitants,workinginuneasybut effectivecollaborationwithtraditionalelites,abandons democraticlibertiesandpursueswithredemptiveviolence andwithoutethicalorlegalrestraintsgoalsofinternal cleansingandexternalexpansion. READTHE QUOTEANDWRITE APARAGRAPH TODESCRIBETHE AUTHOR’S VIEW
  • 14. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ACTIVITIES–TESTYOUR UNDERSTANDING –THE“GRIFFINPARAGRAPH” ROGERGRIFFIN Fascismshouldbeseenasarevolutionaryformof nationalismguidedbythemythoftheimminentrebirthofthe nationindecadence. READTHE QUOTEANDWRITE APARAGRAPH TODESCRIBETHE AUTHOR’S VIEW
  • 15. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ACTIVITIES–TESTYOUR UNDERSTANDING –THE“BOBBIOPARAGRAPH” NORBERTOBOBBIO,1981 Fascismisapoliticalsystemwhichaimstouniteasocietyin crisisinsideadynamicandtragicdimensionpromotingthe mobilizationofthemassesbyequatingsocialandnational demand. READTHE QUOTEANDWRITE APARAGRAPH TODESCRIBETHE AUTHOR’S VIEW
  • 16. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY QUESTION • Whatcircumstancesaremostconducivetotheriseoffascism? WRITEASMANYPARAGRAPHSASNECESSARYTOEXPLAIN.