Chapter 16: World War IIChapter Objective--Analyze the causes and results of World War II.• SECTION 1 Hitlers Lightning War Describe how Germany overran much of Europe and North Africa.• SECTION 2 Japans Pacific Campaign Explain how the Japanese expanded their power in the Pacific.• SECTION 3 The Holocaust Describe the results of the "Final Solution."• SECTION 4 The Allied Victory Summarize the Allied campaigns and the events that led to surrender.• SECTION 5 Europe and Japan in Ruins Compare postwar governments in Europe and Japan.
3 What Is Fascism?In the 1920s and 1930s, fascism meant different thingsin different countries. All forms of fascism, however,shared some basic features:• extreme nationalism• glorification of action, violence, discipline, and, above all, blind loyalty to the state• rejection of Enlightenment faith in reason and the concepts of equality and liberty• rejection of democratic ideas• pursuit of aggressive foreign expansion• glorification of warfare as a necessary and noble struggle for survival
Mussolini’s Italy POLITICAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL STRUCTURE POLICY POLICIESBy 1925, Mussolini had Mussolini brought The individual wasassumed the title Il unimportant except the economy under as a member of theDuce, “The Leader.” state control. state.In theory, Italy remained Men were urged to bea parliamentary Unlike socialists, ruthless warriors.monarchy. In fact, it Mussolini preserved Women were calledbecame a dictatorship capitalism. on to produce moreupheld by terror. children.The Fascists relied on Workers received Fascist youth groupssecret police and poor wages and were toughened childrenpropaganda. forbidden to strike. and taught them to obey strict military discipline.
4Adolf Hitler’s Rise to PowerHitler fought in the German army in World War I.In 1919, he joined a small group of right-wing extremists.Within a year, he was the leader of the National Socialist GermanWorkers, or Nazi, party.In 1923, he made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich. Hewas imprisoned for treason.In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It would laterbecome the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology.Nazi membership grew to almost a million. He will eventuallyreceive the support of the conservatives within the governmentand be elected into power. Chancellor Paul von Hindenburg wasold and saw which way the wind blew…In 1933, Hitler was made chancellor of Germany.Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He made Germany aone-party state and purged his own party.
1.2. War Ends with German Defeat - November 11, 1918 Hitler Joins German Workers Party - 1919 Hitler’s3. Nazi Party is Formed - 1920 Rise to4. Hitler Named Leader of Nazi Party - July 19215. The Beer Hall Putsch - November 9, 1923 Power6. Hitler on Trial for Treason - February 26, 19247. Hitlers Book "Mein Kampf"8. A New Beginning - February 26, 19259. Germans Elect Nazis - September 14, 193010. Success and a Suicide - 193111. Hitler Runs for President - 193212. The Republic Collapses13. Hitler Named Chancellor of Germany - January 30, 193314. The Reichstag Burns - February 27, 193315. Hitler Becomes Dictator of Germany - March 23, 1933
Chamberlain & • In 1938 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940), Conservative PM from 1937-40, made his gloomy trip Hitler to Munich to meet Chancellor Hitler in a last ditch effort to avoid war which resulted in the ill-fated Munich Agreement‘, an attempt at appeasement. • During that fateful trip Hitler invited him to his newly completed retreat in Berchtesgaden, Bavaria. • While there the Prime Minister explored the hill top lair of the Führer and found a reproduction of Matanias famous Marcoing painting depicting allied troops, puzzled by the choice of art Hitler explained, "that man came so near to killing me that I thought I should never see Germany again, providence saved me from such devilishly accurate fire as those English boys were aiming at us".
The Third Reich POLITICAL POLICIES ECONOMIC POLICIESHitler repudiated, or rejected, Hitler launched a large publicthe hated Treaty of Versailles. works program.Hitler organized a system of Hitler began to rearm Germany, interror, repression, and violation of the Versailles treaty.totalitarian rule. SOCIAL POLICIES CULTURAL POLICIESThe Nazis indoctrinated young School courses and textbookspeople with their ideology. were written to reflect Nazi racial views.Hitler spread his message ofracism. The Nazis sought to purge, or purify, German culture.The Nazis sought to limitwomen’s roles. Hitler sought to replace religion with his racial creed.
Hitler’s Campaign Against the Jews 4Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany.In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictionson Jews.Many German Jews fled Germany and sought refuge inother countries.In 1938, Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities allover Germany in what came to be called Kristallnacht, orthe “Night of Broken Glass.”Hitler sent tens of thousands of Jews to concentrationcamps, detention centers for civilians consideredenemies of the state. Some were work camps, othersdeath camps.Hitler planned the “final solution”—the extermination ofall Jews.
Kristallnacht• Kristallnacht literally "Crystal Night" or the Night of Broken Glass was an anti-Jewish pogrom in Nazi Germany and Austria on 9 to 10 November 1938.• Kristallnacht was triggered by the assassination in Paris of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German-born Polish Jew. In a coordinated attack on Jewish people and their property, 91 Jews were murdered and 25,000 to 30,000 were arrested and placed in concentration camps. 267 synagogues were destroyed, and thousands of homes and businesses were ransacked. This was done by the Hitler Youth, the Gestapo and the SS. Kristallnacht also served as a pretext and a means for the wholesale confiscation of firearms from German Jews.• While the assassination of Rath served as a pretext for the attacks, Kristallnacht was part of a broader Nazi policy of antisemitism and persecution of the Jews. Kristallnacht was followed by further economic and political persecutions.• It is viewed by many historians as the beginning of the Final Solution, leading towards the genocide of the Holocaust.
• This pogrom damaged, and in many cases destroyed, about 250 synagogues (constituting nearly all Germany had), many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish shops, and 29 department stores. Some Jews were beaten to death while others were forced to watch. More than 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and taken to concentration camps; primarily Dachau, Buchenwald, and Sachsenhausen. The treatment of prisoners in the camps was brutal, but most were released during the following three months on condition that they leave Germany.
Events in only recently annexedAustria were no less horrendous. Ofthe entire Kristallnacht only thepogrom in Vienna was completelysuccessful. Most of Viennas 94synagogues and prayer-houses werepartially or totally destroyed. Peoplewere subjected to all manner ofhumiliations, including being forcedto scrub the pavements whilst beingtormented by their fellow Austrians,some of whom had been their friendsand neighbors.
Nuremberg Laws• The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were anti-Semitic laws in Nazi Germany which were introduced at the annual Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg. The laws classified people as German if all four of their grandparents were of "German or kindred blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. A person with one or two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling, a crossbreed, of "mixed blood.“• The Nuremberg Laws deprived Jews of citizenship, certain careers, and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans.
The Laws• The Laws for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor (September 15, 1935) Entirely convinced that the purity of German blood is essential to the further existence of the German people, and inspired by the uncompromising determination to safeguard the future of the German nation, the Reichstag has unanimously resolved upon the following law, which is promulgated herewith:• Section 1 Marriages• between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad.• Proceedings for annulment may be initiated only by the Public Prosecutor.• Section 2 Extramarital sexual intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of Germany or related blood is forbidden. (Supplementary decrees set Nazi definitions of racial Germans, Jews, and half-breeds or Mischlinge --- see the latter entry for details and citations and Mischling Test for how such decrees were applied. Jews could not vote or hold public office under the parallel "citizenship" law.)
• Section 3 Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens under the age of 45, of German or kindred blood, as domestic workers. Section 4 Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors.• On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colors. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.• Section 5 A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 1 will be punished with hard labor.• A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 2 will be punished with imprisonment or with hard labor.• A person who acts contrary to the provisions of Sections 3 or 4 will be punished with imprisonment up to a year and with a fine, or with one of these penalties.• Section 6 The Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Deputy Führer and the Reich Minister of Justice will issue the legal and administrative regulations required for the enforcement and supplementing of this law. Section 7 The law will become effective on the day after its promulgation; Section 3, however, not until January 1, 1936.
1 Aggression, Appeasement, and War• How did dictators and the Spanish Civil War challenge world peace?• How did continuing German aggression lead Europe toward war?• What factors encouraged the coming of war?
1How Did Dictators Challenge World Peace?Throughout the 1930s, dictators took aggressiveaction but met only verbal protests and pleasfor peace from the democracies.Mussolini and Hitler viewed that desire forpeace as weakness and responded with new Der Führeracts of aggression. In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia. The League of Nations voted sanctions, or penalties, but had no power to enforce the sanctions.Il Duce Hitler built up the German military in defiance of the Versailles treaty. Then, in 1936, he sent troops into the demilitarized Rhineland bordering France — another treaty violation.
• "The AAU shouts against the cruelties of the other nations and the brutalities in foreign climates, but conveniently forgets the things that sit on its own doorstep." The Philadelphia Tribune, December 19, 1935 The Chicago Defender, December 14, 1935, reported that African American track stars Jesse Owens, Eulace Peacock, and Ralph Metcalfe favored participating in the upcoming Olympics because they felt that their victories would serve to repudiate Nazi racial theories. Peacock was injured in trials held in July 1936 and was never able to compete in the Olympics. In 1935 The Defenders circulation was larger than that of any other African American newspaper. June 1936. AP/Wide World Photos
• Jesse Owens, "the fastest human being," captured four gold medals and became the hero of the Olympics. In the long jump he leaped 26 feet 5-1/2 inches, an Olympic record. Immediately after the Games, Owens hoped to capitalize on his fame and quit the AAUs European tour of post-Olympic meets; for this action, the AAU suspended him from amateur competition. August 4, 1936. Bundesarchiv Koblenz, Germany
Hitler Olympics • The American press reported widely on the friendship that developed between Owens and his German competitor in the long jump, Carl Ludwig ("Luz") Long. • Long was killed in action during World War II. http://youtu.be/XXIe5GbLSUs
• The Baltimore Afro-American (August 8, 1936) and other newspapers spread the story that Hitler refused to shake Jesse Owenss hand or congratulate other Black medalists. In fact, during the very first day of Olympic competition, when Owens did not compete, Olympic protocol officers implored Hitler to receive either all the medal winners or none, and the Fuhrer chose the latter. Whether he did this • JESSE OWENS -- With Adolf Hitler looking• " is unclear. Privately, Minister of on, Jesse Owens record-breaking Propaganda Goebbels called the victories performance at the 1936 Olympics in by Blacks "a disgrace." Ignoring censors Berlin, at the time the international orders to avoid offending foreign guests symbol of racism and fascism, shattered with racist commentaries, the radical Nazi the German dictators theory of Aryan newspaper Der Angriff (The Attack) wrote supremacy. He won gold medals in the on August 6: "If the American team had not 100- and 200-meter runs, broad jump brought along Black auxiliaries . . . (now called long jump) and the 400- one would have regarded the meter relay. By the time Owens reached the victors stand to receive his medals, Yankees as the biggest Hitler and his entourage had left the disappointment of the Games." stadium.
• Professional boxing was among the few integrated sports in the United States, and prize fighter Joe Louis was a hero to American Blacks. On June 19, 1936, after rain postponed the fight a day, the undefeated Louis was knocked out by Germanys Max Schmeling. • German Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels proclaimed Schmelings victory a triumph for Germany and Hitlerism. The Nazi weekly journal Das Schwarze Korps (The Black Corps) commented: "Schmelings victory was not only sport. It was a question of prestige for our race." In a 1938 rematch, Louis defeated Schmeling in one round.http://youtu.be/rJGOADcmwS4
1. The Road to Pearl Harbor 1. 1930s Isolationism World War II 2. Reactions to a Troubled World 3. War Breaks Out 4. The Arsenal of Democracy 5. Pearl Harbor2. America in the Second World War 1. Wartime Strategy 2. The American Homefront 3. D-Day and the German Surrender 3. Postwar Challenges 4. War in the Pacific 1. The Cold War Erupts 5. Japanese-American Internment 2. The United Nations 3. Containment and the Marsh 6. The Manhattan Project 4. The Berlin Airlift and NATO 7. The Decision to Drop the Bomb5. 6. The Korean War Domestic Challenges
1The Spanish Civil WarAlthough the Spanish Civil War was a localstruggle, it drew other European powersinto the fighting.• Hitler and Mussolini sent arms andforces to help Franco. Dress rehearsal!• Volunteers from Germany, Italy, theSoviet Union, and the westerndemocracies joined the InternationalBrigade and fought alongside theLoyalists against fascism.By 1939, Franco had triumphed.Once in power, he created a fascistdictatorship like those of Hitler andMussolini, but remained “neutral” duringWWII.
The Spanish Civil War 1936-37 • In 1931 the Spanish king, King Alfonso XII, was forced to stand down and retreat into exile, and a republic was established. The next five years saw the balance of power swing between the conservative reactionaries of the Spanish establishment and the progressive working class movement. • The rulers of Spain could see their power (and property) slipping away and on the 17th July 1936, a group of extreme right-wing Nationalist generals made their move, starting with a military rising in Morocco, led by Franco, a fascist, which spread immediately to the mainland. Working class militants armed themselves and the military coup was smashed in Barcelona and Madrid, although the generals troops did seize large areas. • General Francisco Franco called upon Hitler and Mussolini to help him gain military supremacy in Spain. This included the infamous destruction of Guernica in April 37 by German planes.Picasso, Guernica • The Spanish Republican army unconditionally8th - 23rd November 1936 surrendered to Francos fascist forces on 1st April 1939. • Everyone seemed happy that the communists had not won, and so Franco remained in power until his death in 1975. Prince Juan Carlos became king upon Franco’s death.
Francisco FrancoFrancisco Franco (1892-1975), was dictator of Spain from 1939 untilhis death in 1975. He came to power at the end of the Spanish CivilWar. In that war, he led the rebel Nationalist Army to victory overthe Republican forces. After the war ended in 1939, Franco heldcomplete control of Spain. His regime was similar to a Fascistdictatorship. He carried out the functions of chief of state, primeminister, commander in chief, and leader of the Falange Espanola,the only political party permitted. He adopted the title of El Caudillo(The Leader). In the early years of his regime, Franco tried toeliminate all opposition. He later eased restrictions. http://youtu.be/3m-7J3dtEBw
Francisco Franco• As dictator, Franco kept Spain officially neutral during World War II. But he sent "volunteers" to help Germany fight the Soviet Union. After the war, the victorious Allies would have little to do with Spain because of Francos pro-Fascist policies.• The Western powers became more friendly toward Franco during the Cold War with the Soviet Union, because he was against Communism. In 1953, Franco signed an agreement with the United States. He permitted the United States to build air and naval bases in Spain in exchange for economic and military aid. This aid helped bring about industrial expansion. Spains living standard rose dramatically during the 1960s. By the mid-1970s, Spain had become a relatively modern, industrialized country.• In the early 1960s, opposition to Franco became more outspoken. Miners and other workers went on strike, though strikes were illegal. Opposition groups organized in secret. Franco relaxed police controls and economic restriction somewhat. In 1966, strict press censorship was relaxed.• Franco declared, in 1947, that Spain would be ruled by a king after he left office. In 1969, Franco named Prince Juan Carlos to be king and head of state after Francos death or retirement. Juan Carlos is the grandson of King Alfonso XIII, who left Spain in 1931. Franco died on Nov. 20,1975, and Juan Carlos became
The Abraham Lincoln BrigadeThe Abraham Lincoln "No man ever enteredBrigade were a group of the earth morevolunteers who went to honorably than thoseSpain to fight in the who died in Spain."Spanish Civil War. It Ernest Hemingwaywas not their war, but itwas their fight—to savethe world from fascismand communism.
1 Why War Came…• Historians see the war as an effort to revise the 1919 peace settlement. The Versailles treaty had divided the world into two camps.• The western democracies might have been able to stop Hitler. Unwilling to risk war, however, they adopted a policy of appeasement, giving in to the demands of an aggressor in hope of keeping the peace.
Munich Pact 1938The Munich Pact was an agreementpermitting Nazi German annexation ofCzechoslovakias Sudetenland. TheSudetenland were areas along Czechborders, mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans.The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich,Germany, among the major powers of Europe without thepresence of Czechoslovakia.Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of appeasement againstNazi Germany. The agreement was signed in the early hours of 30September 1938 (but dated 29 September). The purpose of theconference was to discuss the future of Czechoslovakia in the faceof territorial demands made by Adolf Hitler. The agreement wassigned by Nazi Germany, France, Britain, and Italy.Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference.
Munich Pact 1938• Hitler took the Sudetenland which had been part of Germany pre-WWI and no one did anything regardless that it was part of Czechoslovakia now. England had decided that perhaps the terms of the Anschluss Österreichs Versailles Treaty were too was the occupation harsh. The people of the & annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938. Sudetenland were/had been The Austrians were “German” German previously, what could and so Hitler demanded the it hurt? Hmmmmm…. Anschluss.
Only months into his reign, he caused Edward VIII later The Dukea constitutional crisis by proposing marriage of Windsor and Wallisto the American socialite Wallis Simpson, Warfield Simpson.who had divorced her first husband and was The Windsors on their wedding day.seeking a divorce from her second. Such amarriage would have conflicted withEdwards status as head of the Church ofEngland, which opposed the remarriage ofdivorced people if their ex-spouse was stillalive. Rather than give up Mrs. Simpson,Edward chose to abdicate. He wassucceeded by his younger brother Albert,who chose the regnal name George VI.With a reign of 325 days, Edward was one ofthe shortest-reigning monarchs inBritish history. After his abdication, he wascreated Duke of Windsor. He married WallisSimpson in France on 3 June 1937, afterher second divorce became final. Later thatyear, the couple toured Nazi Germany.During WWII , after private accusations that he held pro-Nazi sympathies, they movedto the Bahamas after his appointment as Governor. After WWII, he was never givenanother appointment. They lived in France for the rest of their lives.
The King’s Speech Tells the story of the man who became King George VI, the father of Queen Elizabeth II. After his brother, Edward abdicates, George (Bertie) reluctantly assumes the throne. Plagued by a dreaded stammer and considered unfit to be king, Bertie engages the help of an unorthodox speech therapist named Lionel Logue.Through a set of unexpected techniques, andas a result of an unlikely friendship, Bertie isable to find his voice and boldly lead thecountry through war.
BertieThe King’s Speech is an Elizabeth II’s (George VI) parents and theelegant, original, if slightly Queen Mumcreaking, film. But – as is oftenthe case – the dramatizedversion can’t beat the truth. Tolisten to George VI give hisspeech at the beginning of theWar on September 3rd 1939,on YouTube, is heart-breakingly But, once you know about the stutter,agonizing. You only have to you can hear his manful – andlisten to his brother’s successful – attempts to conquer itabdication speech, also on throughout the speech. He neverYouTube, to hear how much falters, but there are countless gapsmore self-assured a between words, in the middle ofspeaker Edward VIII was. sentences, which don’t chime with natural pauses. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAhFW_auT 20 Colin Firth is marvelous as George VI; George VI is even better.
German Aggression 1In 1938, Hitler used force to unite Austriaand Germany in the Anschluss. Thewestern democracies took no action.Hitler annexed the Sudetenland, a region inwestern Czechoslovakia.At the Munich Conference, British andFrench leaders again chose appeasement.In 1939, Hitler claimed the rest ofCzechoslovakia.The democracies realized thatappeasement had failed. They promised toprotect Poland, most likely Hitler’s nexttarget.Hitler formed a Nazi-Soviet non-aggressionpact with Stalin.German forces invaded Poland.Britain and France immediately declaredwar on Germany.
NAZI PARTYIn 1930 there were 129,583 members of the National Socialist German Workers Party or Nazi Party for short - NAtionalsoZIalstische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei - NSDAP). The word Nazi is an acronym formed from the first syllable of NAtional and the second syllable of SoZIalstische. By 1933 membership had jumped to 849,009 and in the early war years this had reached more than five million.THE ANCIENT SWASTIKA SYMBOLThe Swastika is a very old, sacred symbol from near-prehistoric times and referred to in Germany as the Hakenkreuz. Traditionally a sign of good fortune and well-being, its name is derived from the Sanskrit su meaning well and asti meaning being. It is well-known in Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Hitler displayed the symbol on a red background to win over the worker and it had an hypnotic effect on all those who supported the Nazi movement. In his book Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote In the red we see the social idea of the movement, in the white the Nationalist idea and in the swastika the vision of the struggle for the victory of the Aryan man.THE AXISAn alliance of the two countries, Germany and Italy. Benito Mussolini, the dictator of Fascist Italy, first used the term in 1923 when he wrote The axis of European history runs through Berlin. After his meeting with Hitler in October, 1936, at Berchtesgaden, he used the term again in a speech at Milan in November when he said This vertical line between Rome and Berlin is not a partition but rather an axis round which all European states animated by the will to collaboration and peace can also collaborate.‘Japan-Tokyo, Italy-Rome, Germany-Berlin= The Axis
War Terms auf Deutsche• Blitzkrieg—lightning war• Luftwaffe—German air force• Wehrmacht—German war machine; regular army• Gestapo—Nazi secret police in black leather trench coats• Schutzstaffel—the SS—Hitler’s bodyguard/ hit squad• Reichstag—Berlin governmentBuilding; symbol of the gov’t• Swastika—the Nazi logo
Aryan--The word Aryan was adopted to refer not only to the Indo-Iranian people, but also to native Indo-European speakers as a whole, including the Albanians, Kurds, Armenians, Greeks, Latins, and GermansGoebbels—propaganda minister HimmlerGöring—commander of the GestapoHimmler--Reichsführer of Göring the SSJodl--Chief of the Operations Goebbels Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Jodl Wehrmacht)
• The Maginot Line was named after French Minister of Defense André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defenses, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in the light of experience from World War I, and in the run-up to World War II.• The French established the fortification to provide time for their army to mobilize in the event of attack and/or to entice Germany to attack neutral Belgium to avoid a direct assault on the line. The success of static, defensive combat in World War I was a key influence on French thinking. The fortification system successfully dissuaded a direct attack. However, it was strategically ineffective, as the Germans did indeed invade Belgium, flanked the Maginot Line, and proceeded relatively unobstructed.
• BERLIN (Sept. 9, 2003) - Leni Riefenstahl, whose hypnotic depiction of Hitlers Nuremberg rally, "Triumph of the Will, was renowned and despised as the best propaganda film ever made, has died, a German magazine reported Tuesday, quoting a long-time friend. She was 101. A tireless innovator of film and photographic techniques, Riefenstahls career centered on a quest for adventure and for portraying physical beauty. Even as she turned 100 last year she was strapping on scuba gear to photograph sharks in turquoise waters, although she had begun to complain that injuries sustained in accidents over the years, including a Hitlers helicopter crash in Sudan in 2000, had taken their toll and caused her constant pain.Filmmaker Speaking to The Associated Press just before her 100th birthday on Aug. 22, 2002, Riefenstahl dramatically said she has ``apologized for ever being born but that she should not be criticized for her masterful films.Dies at 101 ``I dont know what I should apologize for, she said. ``I cannot apologize, for example, for having made the film ``Triumph of the Will - it won the top prize. All my films won prizes.Although she said she knew nothing of Hitlers ``Final Solution and learned of concentration campsonly after the war, Riefenstahl also said she openly confronted the Fuehrer about his anti-Semitism,one of many apparent contradictions in her claims of total ignorance of the Nazi mission.Likewise, she defended ``Triumph of the Will as a documentary that contained ``not one single anti-Semitic word, while avoiding any talk about filming Nazi official Julius Streicher haranguing thecrowd about ``racial purity laws.Many suspected Riefenstahl of being Hitlers lover, which she also denied. Nonetheless, as hisfilmmaker, Riefenstahl was the only woman to help shape the rise of the Third Reich.She made four films for Hitler, the best known of which were ``Triumph of the Will and ``Olympia, ameditation on muscle and movement at the 1936 Berlin Olympic games.
Triumph of the Will• Triumph of the Will was released in 1935 and rapidly became one of the best- known examples of propaganda in film history. Riefenstahls techniques, such as moving cameras, the use of telephoto lenses to create a distorted perspective, aerial photography, and revolutionary approach to the use of music and cinematography, have earned Triumph recognition as one of the greatest films in history. Riefenstahl won several awards, not only in Germany but also in the United States, France, Sweden, and other countries.• The film was popular in the Third Reich and elsewhere, and has continued to influence movies, documentaries, and commercials to this day.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtkUD9GEe9c
1 Section 1 AssessmentWho made up the International Brigade? a) volunteers fighting against the republic in Spain b) volunteers aiding injured soldiers in Spain c) volunteers fighting against fascism in Spain d) volunteer peacekeepers during the Spanish Civil WarWhich of the following immediately led to Britain and France declaringwar on Germany? a) Germany taking over the Sudetenland b) Germany annexing all of Czechoslovakia c) Germany annexing Austria d) Germany invading Poland
1 Section 1 AssessmentWho made up the International Brigade? a) volunteers fighting against the republic in Spain b) volunteers aiding injured soldiers in Spain c) volunteers fighting against fascism in Spain d) volunteer peacekeepers during the Spanish Civil WarWhich of the following immediately led to Britain and France declaring waron Germany? a) Germany taking over the Sudetenland b) Germany annexing all of Czechoslovakia c) Germany annexing Austria d) Germany invading Poland
Josef Stalin, aka Papa Joe• Stalin translates to Man of Steel.• Country: Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR - Soviet Union).• Kill tally: Approximately 20 million, including up to 14.5 million needlessly starved to death. At least one million executed for political "offences". At least 9.5 million more deported, exiled or imprisoned in work camps, with many of the estimated five million sent to the Gulag Archipelago never returning alive. Other estimates place the number of deported at 28 million, including 18 million sent to the Gulag.• In the Ukrainian Republic up to five million peasants starve to death in the "famine" of 1932-33 when the state refuses to divert food supplies allocated to industrial and military needs. About one million starve to death in the North Caucasus.• By 1937, the social upheaval caused by the "revolution from above" has resulted in the deaths of up to 14.5 million Soviet peasants.
The Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939• A Shock to the System• On 23 August, 1939, the world was shocked when, suddenly, Russia and Germany signed a Non- aggression Pact. People would have been even more shocked if they had known at the time that, in addition, the two countries had a secret agreement to invade and divide Poland between them.•
Nazi-Soviet Pact • Hitler and Russia • In August 1939, Hitler sent Ribbentrop, a senior Nazi, to Russia. He offered a Nazi- Soviet alliance – Russia and Germany would not go to war, but would divide Poland between them. • Stalin knew Hitler was lying, but he did not trust the British either – the Munich Agreement had convinced him that BritainGermany and Russia agreed to bury the hatchet; and France would never dare to go to warthey agreed to bury it in Poland. with Hitler. • Stalin had two choices: • if he made an alliance with Britain, he would end up fighting a war with Hitler over Poland. • if he made an alliance with Germany, he would get half of Poland, and time to prepare for the coming war with Germany. • He chose the latter. On 23 August 1939, he signed the Pact with Hitler.
• 1939 - On 23 August Stalin signs a nonaggression pact with Germanys Nazi dictator, Adolf Hitler, carving up Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence, with the USSR claiming Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, part of the Balkans and half of Poland.• Stalin quickly acts to secure the annexation of the Polish territory with mass arrests of soldiers and others who might resist. By 1945, about 550,000 have been imprisoned or deported. More than 20,000 Polish officers, soldiers, border guards, police, and other officials are executed, including 4,500 military personnel who are buried in mass graves in the Katyn Forest near the Russian city of Smolensk.• German troops invade Poland on 1 September. Britain and France declare war on Germany two days later. The Second World War has begun.• Stalin acts to secure the USSRs western frontier without antagonizing Hitler. Soviet forces seize eastern Poland in September and enter Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in October. War is declared on Finland at the end of November.• Stalin is named Time magazines man of the year for 1939 for switching the balance of power in Europe by signing the nonaggression pact with Hitler, a decision that is described as "world-shattering". "Without the Russian pact," the magazine says, "German generals would certainly have been loath to go into military action. With it, World War II began."• In December 1939, to celebrate his 60th birthday, he is awarded the Order of Lenin and given the title Hero of Socialist Labor.• 1940 - The war with Finland ends on 8 March. Finland loses some territory but retains its independence. In the south, the Soviets occupy part of Romania in June.
• 1941 - Sensing that Germany will soon attack the USSR, Stalin appoints himself as head of the government.• Japan and the Soviet Union sign the Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact on 13 April, removing the threat to the Soviets of invasion by Japan and allowing the Soviet military to concentrate on the German forces mounting in the west.• When Germany invades on 22 June, Stalin takes command of the Soviet forces, appointing himself commissar of defense and supreme commander of the Soviet Armed Forces in what comes to be know in the USSR as the Great Patriotic War.• On 3 July, Stalin makes a radio address to the nation. "Comrades, citizens, brothers, and sisters, fighters of our army and navy," he says, "We must immediately put our whole production to war footing. In all occupied territories partisan units must be formed."• He also announces that a "scorched earth" policy will be employed to deny the Germans "a single engine, or a single railway truck, and not a pound of bread nor a pint of oil."• The Germans advance swiftly but are halted on 6 December by a Russian counterattack just short of Moscow, where Stalin directs the Soviet campaign from his rooms in the Kremlin. His armies fight under the slogan Die, But Do Not Retreat.• To the north, the Germans reach Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) in August. The city is surrounded on 8 September, beginning a 900-day siege during which almost 1.5 million civilians and soldiers will die.• In order to encourage military aid from the Western Allies, Stalin agrees to release about 115,000 of the Poles imprisoned after the 1939 annexation.• 1942, Stalin is again named Time magazines man of the year, this time for stopping Hitler and opening the possibility of an Allied victory in Europe.
2 The Global Conflict: Axis Advances• What early gains allowed the Axis powers to control much of Europe?• What were the Battle of Britain and Operation Barbarossa?• How did Japan respond to growing American involvement?
2 Early Axis GainsBy 1941, the Axis powers or their allies controlled most ofWestern Europe. Germany and Russia conquered and divided Poland. Stalin’s armies pushed into Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Soviet forces seized Finland. Hitler conquered Norway and Denmark. Hitler took the Netherlands and Belgium. France surrendered to Hitler. Axis armies pushed into North Africa and the Balkans. Axis armies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia. Bulgaria and Hungary joined the Axis alliance.
THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN OPERATION BARBAROSSAIn 1940, Hitler ordered Operation In 1941, Hitler embarked onSea Lion, the invasion of Britain. Operation Barbarossa, the conquest of the Soviet Union.The Germans first bombedmilitary targets, then changed The Nazis smashed deep intotactics to the blitz, or bombing, Russia, but were stalled beforeof London and other cities. they could take Moscow and Leningrad.London did not break under theblitz. The bombing only Thousands of German soldiersstrengthened British resolve to froze to death in Russia’s winter.turn back the enemy. Russians also suffered appalling hardships.Operation Sea Lion was a failure. Stalin urged Britain to open a second front in Western Europe.
Benito Mussoliniwas an Italian politician who led the National FascistParty and is credited with being one of the keyfigures in the creation of Fascism. He became thePrime Minister of Italy in 1922 and began using thetitle Il Duce by 1925. After 1936, his official title was"His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head ofGovernment, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of theEmpire". Mussolini also created and held thesupreme military rank of First Marshal of the Empirealong with King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, whichgave him and the King joint supreme control overthe military of Italy. Mussolini remained in poweruntil he was replaced in 1943; for a short periodafter this until his death, he was the leader of theItalian Social Republic.Mussolini was among the founders of ItalianFascism, which included elements of nationalism,corporatism, national syndicalism, expansionism,social progress and anti-communism in combinationwith censorship and state propaganda. In the yearsfollowing his creation of the fascist ideology,Mussolini influenced, or achieved admiration from, awide variety of political figures. http://youtu.be/4mF4ZjJ88wU
Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years1924–1939 were: his public works programs such as the taming ofthe Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job opportunities, andpublic transport. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question byconcluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy andthe Holy See. He is also credited with securing economic successin Italys colonies and commercial dependencies. Although heinitially favored siding with France against Germany in the early1930s, Mussolini became one of the main figures of the Axispowers and, on 10 June 1940, Mussolini led Italy into World War IIon the side of Axis.Three years later, Mussolini was deposed at the Grand Council ofFascism, prompted by the Allied invasion. Soon after hisincarceration began, Mussolini was rescued from prison in thedaring Gran Sasso raid by German special forces.Following his rescue, Mussolini headed the Italian Social Republicin parts of Italy that were not occupied by Allied forces. In late April1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape toSwitzerland, only to be quickly captured and summarily executednear Lake Como by Italian partisans. His body was then taken toMilan where it was hung upside down at a petrol station for publicviewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.
Haile Selassie, Ras Tafari • In 1936, with the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, Mussolini proclaimed Victor Emmanuel III to be the Emperor of Ethiopia - a title considered illegitimate by parts of the international community, and lasted only five years. • Haile Selassie returned to power with the British conquest of the Italian East Africa during WWII. • In January 1942 he was officially reinstated to power in Ethiopia by the British government.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ma3yBnD3P0&feature=related
The Second Italo–Abyssinian War/Second Italo-Ethiopian War was a brief colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936. The war was fought between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno dItalia) and the armed forces of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia). The war resulted in the military occupation of Ethiopia and its annexation into the newly created colony of Italian East Africa (AOI). However, Ethiopia never capitulated or surrendered.Politically, the war is best remembered for exposing the inherent weakness of the League of Nations. The Abyssinia Crisis in 1934 is often seen as a clear example of the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations. Both Italy and Ethiopia were member nations and yet the League was unable to control Italy or to protect Ethiopia when Italy clearly violated the Leagues own Article X. The war is also remembered for the illegal use of mustard gas and phosgene by the Italian armed forces.The positive outcome of the war for the Italians coincided with the zenith of the international popularity of dictator Benito Mussolinis Fascist regime, in a phase called "the age of consensus" during which foreign leaders, including Winston Churchill, praised him for his achievements, it must not be ignored that during the fascist period slavery was abolished in Ethiopia.
On 3 October 1935, Italian soldiers commanded by General Emilio De Bono invaded Ethiopia from Eritrea and started the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. The war lasted seven months before Haile Selassie I went into exile and the Italians declared victory. The invasion was condemned by the League of Nations, Italy was named as the aggressor, and some sanctions were imposed. However, not much was ever done to end hostilities. In May 1936, Ethiopia became part of Italian East Africa and remained as part of the colony until World War II. In 1941, the Ethiopian Empire was liberated by a combination of Ethiopian partisans and British and Commonwealth forces. The major offensives launched against the Italian colonial forces came from the Anglo- Egyptian Sudan and from British East Africa. Haile Selassie re-entered Addis Ababa five years to the day from when he was forced into exile. After World War II, Eritrea was incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire. Eritrea remained a part of EthiopiaInternational Fascism: even after the dissolution of the monarchy. In 1993,The Italian Empire in 1939. Eritrea won its independence from Ethiopia.
3 Occupied LandsWhile the Germans rampaged across Europe, the Japanese conqueredan empire in Asia and the Pacific. Each set out to build a “new order” inthe occupied lands.• Hitler set up puppet governments in countries that were peopled by “Aryans.” (like the Vichy government in France)• Eastern Europeans were considered an inferior “race,” and were thus shoved aside to provide “living space” for Germans. Seeking “lebensraum” and “a place in the sun.”• To the Nazis, occupied lands were an economic resource to be looted and plundered.• German leaders worked to accomplish the “final solution of the Jewish problem” — the genocide, or deliberate murder, of all European Jews.• Japan’s self-proclaimed mission was to help Asians escape imperial rule. In fact, its real goal was a Japanese empire in Asia.• The Japanese treated conquered people with great brutality, having no respect for those they defeated.
Cash/Carry and Lend/Lease• The US tried to maintain neutrality as the danger in Europe grew. To revise the strict principles of neutrality, cash and carry and lend-lease acts will be introduced.• The US response was divided after Italy took Ethiopia and Franco conquered Spain. Strong isolationist forces controlled Congress (although most Congressmen did not favor extreme isolationism) and passed a series of Neutrality laws. The laws, passed in 1939, taken together, forbade Americans from sending arms or loans to countries engaged in wars (including civil wars like Spain). Later, the law was changed so that Americans could sell arms on a "cash and carry" basis--meaning that the country needed to pay for the arms in cash and needed to ship it in their own ships. The object was to stop incidents like the sinking of American ships and support for one side in any war that might break out so that America would not be tempted to enter the war. Once the Allies had lost too many ships to Nazi subs (by October of 1941), FDR upgraded the plan to the Lend/Lease. We would loan any materiel that would "Further to promote the defense of the United States, and for other purposes.". In a famous fireside chat, FDR proposed, ”Suppose your neighbor’s house were on fire…would you lend him your garden hose to put out the fire?” In short FDR convinced his listeners that to help England might actually be to US benefit and keep us out of war. system by which the United States aided its World War II allies with war materials, such as ammunition, tanks, airplanes, and trucks, and with food and other raw materials. President Franklin D. Roosevelt had committed the United States in June 1940 to materially aiding the opponents of fascism, but, under existing U.S. law, Great Britain had to pay for its growing arms purchases by leasing geographic locations for naval and airbases around the globe.
The Battle of Dunkirk• The Battle of Dunkirk was a battle in the Second World War between the Allies and Germany. A part of the Battle of France on the Western Front, the Battle of Dunkirk was the defense and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe from 24 May to 4 June 1940.• A series of Allied counter-attacks, including the Battle of Arras, failed to sever the German spearhead, which reached the coast on 20 May, separating the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) near Armentières, the French First Army, and the Belgian Army further to the north from the majority of French troops south of the German penetration. After reaching the Channel, the Germans swung north along the coast, threatening to capture the ports and trap the British and French forces before they could evacuate to Britain.• "Nothing but a miracle can save the BEF now," wrote General Brooke in his diary. And General Lord Gort told Anthony Eden, the British Secretary of State for War: "I must not conceal from you that a great part of the BEF and its equipment will inevitably be lost even in the best circumstances." On 23 May, he put the army on half-rations. In Britain, 26 May was designated a "Day of National Prayer" for the Army.• In one of the most widely-debated decisions of the war, Adolf Hitler ordered his generals to halt for three days, in a successful effort to maintain control over them, giving the Allies time to organize an evacuation and build a defensive line. Despite the Allies gloomy estimates of the situation, in the end, over 330,000 Allied troops were rescued.
The Miracle of Dunkirk• What happened at Dunkirk in May and June 1940 must rank as one of the greatest maritime evacuations in history.• Told from the perspective of the decision makers and the soldiers, sailors and civilians caught up in the events of those desperate days, this factual drama follows the race against time to save the Allied armies trapped in France.• As British and French troops were forced into a shrinking pocket by the relentless onslaught of the German army, the Royal and Merchant navies, helped by a fleet of small civilian craft, launched a momentous effort to rescue them - and miraculously managed to save more than 338,000 men in just ten days.
The Fall of France, 1940• Hitler unleashes his blitzkrieg invasion of the Low Countries and France with a fury on May 10, 1940. Within three weeks, a large part of the British force, accompanied by some of the French defenders, is pushed to the English Channel and compelled to abandon the continent at Dunkirk.• The German advance continues to sweep southward driving before it not only the retreating French army, but an estimated 10 million refugees fleeing for their lives. The French abandon Paris, declaring it an open city. This allows the Germans to enter the French capital on June 14 without resistance.• The French government calls on the Germans for an armistice that will end the fighting. Hitler dictates that the French capitulation take place at Compiegne, a forest north of Paris. This is the same spot where twenty-two years earlier the Germans had signed the Armistice ending World War I. Hitler intends to disgrace the French and avenge the German defeat. To further deepen the humiliation, he orders that the signing ceremony take place in the same railroad car that hosted the earlier surrender.• The Armistice is signed on June 22. Under its terms, two thirds of France is to be occupied by the Germans. The French army is to be disbanded. The Nazis set up a puppet government in Vichy. In addition, France must bear the cost of the German invasion.
Hitler’s Silly Dance and a bit of Propaganda On June 21, 1940, Hitler accepted the surrender of the French government at a ceremony in Compiegne, France. Hitler intends to disgrace the French and avenge the German defeat. He melodramatically insisted on receiving Frances surrender in the same railroad car in which Germany had signed the 1918 armistice that had ended World War One. Following the war, it was revealed that John Grierson, director of the Canadian information and propaganda depart- ments, had manufactured this film clip after noticing that Hitler had raised his leg rather high up while stepping backwards. He realized that this moment could be looped repeatedly to create the appearance that Hitler was jumping with joy.
Dear Eva, Wish you were here! Love, AdolphThe Nazis set up a“puppet government” in Vichy, France.http://youtu.be/yrrcOB8yYUEhttp://youtu.be/pICq35lQ5WY
Winston Churchill• Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill• (1874-1965), became one of the greatest statesmen in world history. Churchill reached the height of his fame as the heroic prime minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. He offered his people only "blood, toil, tears, and sweat" as they struggled to keep their freedom. Churchill also was a noted speaker, author, painter, soldier, and war reporter.• Early in World War II, the United Kingdom stood alone against Nazi Germany. The British people refused to give in despite the tremendous odds against them. Churchills personal courage, the magic of his words, and his faith in victory inspired the British to "their finest hour."• The mere sight of this stocky, determined man—a cigar in his mouth and two fingers raised high in a "V for victory" salute—cheered the people. Churchill seemed to be John Bull, the symbol of the English people, come to life.
“We shall defend ourisland, whatever the costmay be. We shall fight onthe beaches, weshall fight on the landinggrounds, we shall fight inthe fields and in thestreets, we shall fight inthe hills; we shall neversurrender.” —Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s address to the House of Commons, June 4, 1940Never in the field of human conflictwas so much owed by so many toso few.Never, never, never give up.
Children of an eastern suburb of London, made homeless by the Blitz.The undamaged St Pauls Cathedral surroundedby smoke and bombed-out buildings in December 1940. Firefighters tackling a blaze amongst Coventry city centre following 14/15 ruined buildings in London after an November 1940 raid. air raid during The Blitz in 1941.
Sink the Bismarck!• The German battleship Bismarck was one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. The lead ship of her class, named after the 19th century German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, Bismarck displaced more than 50,000 tonnes fully loaded and was the largest warship then commissioned.• Bismarck only took part in one operation during her brief career. She and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen left Gotenhafen on the morning of 19 May 1941 for Operation Rheinübung, during which she was to have attempted to intercept and destroy convoys in transit between North America and Great Britain. When Bismarck and Prinz Eugen attempted to break out into the Atlantic, the two ships were discovered by the Royal Navy and brought to battle in the Denmark Strait. During the short engagement, the British battlecruiser HMS Hood, flagship of the Home Fleet and pride of the Royal Navy, was sunk after several minutes of firing. In response, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill issued the order to "Sink the Bismarck," spurring a relentless pursuit by the Royal Navy.
Two days later, withBismarck almost in reach ofsafer waters, Fleet Air ArmSwordfish biplanes launchedfrom the carrier HMS ArkRoyal torpedoed the shipand jammed her rudder,allowing heavy British unitsto catch up with her.In the ensuing battle on the morning of 27 May1941, Bismarck was heavily attacked for almosttwo hours before sinking.
• The British had learned from Ultra intelligence (deciphered Enigma code messages) about German air surveillance of the Denmark Strait and the Royal Navys home base at Scapa Flow, as well as the April 1941 delivery of charts for the Atlantic to the Bismarck.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1Ufc2hI4FM&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EdngnDdjCo
Sink the Bismarck The Hood found the Bismarck and on that fatal day The Bismarck started firing fifteen miles away We gotta sink the Bismarck was the battle sound But when the smoke had cleared away the mighty HoodIn May of 1941 the war had just begun went downThe Germans had the biggest ship that had the For six long days and weary nights they tried to find her trailbiggest guns Churchill told the people put every ship asailThe Bismarck was the fastest ship that ever sailed Cause somewhere on that ocean I know shes gotta bethe sea We gotta sink the Bismarck to the bottom of the sea Well find the German battleship...On her decks were guns as big as steers and shells The fog was gone the seventh day and they saw theas big as trees morning sunOut of the cold and foggy night came the British Ten hours away from homeland the Bismarck made its runship the Hood The Admiral of the British fleet said turn those bowsAnd every British seaman he knew and understood aroundThey had to sink the Bismarck the terror of the sea We found that German battleship and were gonna cut her downStop those guns as big as steers and those shells as The British guns were aimed and the shells were comingbig as trees fastWell find the German battleship thats makin such The first shell hit the Bismarck they knew she couldnt lasta fuss That mighty German battleship is just a memoryWe gotta sink the Bismarck cause the world Sink the Bismarck was the battle cry that shook thedepends on us seven seas We found the German battleship twas makin such aYeah hit the decks a runnin boys and spin those fussguns around We had to sink the Bismarck cause the world dependsWhen we find the Bismarck we gotta cut her down on us We hit the deck a runnin and we spun those guns around http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M1Ufc2hI4FM&feature=related Bismarck and then we cut her Yeah we found the mighty down We found the German battleship...
2 Section 2 AssessmentOperation Sea Lion referred to Hitler’s planned invasion ofa) Russia.b) Britain.c) France.d) Poland.When the war began in 1939, the United Statesa) immediately sided with Allies.b) joined the Axis powers.c) declared war on Germany.d) declared neutrality.
2 Section 2 AssessmentOperation Sea Lion referred to Hitler’s planned invasion of a) Russia. b) Britain. c) France. d) Poland.When the war began in 1939, the United States a) immediately sided with Allies. b) joined the Axis powers. c) declared war on Germany. d) declared neutrality.
Norman Rockwell’s Art in The Saturday Evening Post The Four Freedoms 19411. Freedom of Speech2. Freedom of Religion3. Freedom from Want4. Freedom from Fear
2Growing American Involvement When the war began in 1939, the United States declared its neutrality. Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the President to supply arms to those who were fighting for democracy. Roosevelt and Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter, which called for the “final destruction of the Nazi tyranny.” Japan advanced into French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies. To stop Japanese aggression, the United States banned the sale of war materials to Japan. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. The United States declared war on Japan. Germany and Italy, as Japan’s allies, declared war on the United States.
4 Toward Victory• How was the Pacific war fought?• How did the Allies defeat Nazi Germany?• What debates surrounded the defeat of Japan?
Plato told—e.e. Cummingsplato toldhim:he couldnt not)youbelieve it(jesus told him:i told him;we told himtold him;he (he didnt believewouldnt believeit)lao it,no sir)it tooktsze a nipponized bit ofcertainly told the old sixthhim,and general avenue(yesmam) el;in the top of hissherman; head:to telland even him(believe itor
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3XLdfVY2p4&feature=fvw Pearl Harbor• Dec. 7, 1941—at five minutes to eight oclock, 183 Japanese warplanes ruined a perfectly fine Sunday morning on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. The first attack wave had reached the U.S. Pacific Fleet stationed at Oahus Pearl Harbor and for all intents and purposes, World War II began for the United States. Although the U.S. military forces in Pearl Harbor had been recently strengthened, the base was not at a state of high alert. Many people were just waking when the first bombs were dropped. No one was prepared to do battle. Japanese aircraft had flown 230 miles from the north, originating from an attack force comprising six aircraft carriers and 423 planes.• The assault was the complete surprise the Japanese wanted, even though at 7:02 a.m., almost an hour before the first wave of planes arrived, two Army radar men on Oahus northern shore had detected the attack approaching. They contacted a junior officer, who disregarded their reports, assuming they had instead spotted American B-17 bombers expected in from the West Coast of the U.S. The first wave of Japanese planes, made up of 51 Val dive bombers, 50 high level bombers, 43 Zero fighters and 40 Kate torpedo bombers, attacked when flight commander Mitsuo Fuchida gave the now infamous battle cry "Tora! Tora! Tora!" ("Tiger! Tiger! Tiger!") The second wave arrived shortly thereafter. Almost simultaneously, five Japanese "minisubs" began their attack from underwater, but were able to do little damage.• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZbWlbuDcYs&feature=fvw• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0NTXN3Wkro&feature=related
December 7, 1941 On the sleepy Sunday morningof December 7, 1941, the military complex atPearl Harbor was suddenly jolted awake by a surpriseattack. Planes screamed down from the sky, droppingbombs and torpedoes. Americans were shockedand horrified by the attacks. How did Pearl Harborchange the isolationist policies of the United States?
"A date which will live in infamy"• Pearl Harbor, on the southern coast of Oahu, housed the bulk of the Pacific Fleet at the time of the attack.• Less than two hours later, 2,280 American servicemen and 68 civilians were dead, 1,109 were wounded, eight battleships were damaged and five sunk. Three light cruisers, three destroyers, and three smaller boats were lost, along with 188 aircraft. The biggest loss that day was the USS Arizona, on which 1,177 crewmen were killed when a 1,760 pound bomb smashed through her decks and ignited her forward ammo magazine causing a terrible explosion. Fewer than nine minutes later she was underwater.• Pearl Harbor was the principal but not sole target of the Japanese attack that day. Other military installations on Oahu were hit. Hickam, Wheeler, and Bellows airfields, Ewa Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe Bay Naval Air Station, and Schofield Barracks suffered varying degrees of damage, with hundreds of planes destroyed on the ground and hundreds of men killed or wounded.• While the attack that day was a huge blow to the U.S. military presence in the Pacific, it was not a total victory for the Japanese. Not only were the attacks biggest targets, the American aircraft carriers, out of port at the time and therefore saved, but the attack galvanized the nations support for involvement in the war, ultimately contributing to the defeat of the Axis powers. Today, 64 years later, more than 1.5 million people a year visit the memorial that floats over the sunken Arizona to pay respects to the loss of life that occurred on what President Franklin D. Roosevelt would call "a date which will live in infamy."
Doris Miller, known as "Dorie" to shipmates and friends, was born inWaco, Texas, on 12October 1919, to Henrietta and Conery Miller. He had three brothers,one of which served in the Army during World War II. Whileattending Moore High School in Waco, he was afullback on the football team. He worked on his fathers farm beforeenlisting in the U.S Navy as Mess Attendant, Third Class, at Dallas,Texas, on 16 September 1939, to travel, and earn money for hisfamily. He later was commended by the Secretary of the Navy, wasadvanced to Mess Attendant, Second Class and First Class, andsubsequently was promoted to Ships Cook, Third Class. Doris MillerFollowing training at the Naval Training Station, Norfolk, Virginia,Miller was assigned to the ammunition ship USS Pyro (AE-1) where heserved as a Mess Attendant, and on 2 January 1940 was transferredto USS West Virginia (BB-48), where he became the shipsheavyweight boxing champion. In July of that year he had temporaryduty aboard USS Nevada (BB-36) at Secondary Battery GunnerySchool. He returned to West Virginia and on 3 August, and was Captured Japanese pixserving in that battleship when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor of Battleship Row whileon 7 December 1941. Miller had arisen at 6 a.m., and was collecting Hickam Field burnslaundry when the alarm for general quarters sounded. He headed for in the backgroundhis battle station, the antiaircraft battery magazine amidship, only todiscover that torpedo damage had wrecked it, so he went on deck.Because of his physical prowess, he was assigned to carry woundedfellow Sailors to places of greater safety. Then an officer ordered himto the bridge to aid the mortally wounded Captain of the ship. Hesubsequently manned a 50 caliber Browning anti-aircraft machinegun until he ran out of ammunition and was ordered to abandonship.
• He returned to West Virginia and was serving in that battleship when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Miller had arisen at 6 a.m., and was collecting laundry when the alarm for general quarters sounded. He headed for his battle station, the antiaircraft battery magazine amidship, only to discover that torpedo damage had wrecked it, so he went on deck. Because of his physical During the attack, Japanese aircraft prowess, he was assigned to carry wounded dropped two armored piercing bombs fellow Sailors to places of greater safety. Then through the deck of the battleship and an officer ordered him to the bridge to aid the launched five 18-inch aircraft mortally wounded Captain of the ship. He torpedoes into her port side. Heavily subsequently manned a 50 caliber Browning damaged by the ensuing explosions, anti-aircraft machine gun until he ran out of and suffering from severe flooding ammunition and was ordered to abandon ship. below decks, the crew abandoned ship Miller described firing the machine gun during while West Virginia slowly settled to the battle, a weapon which he had not been the harbor bottom. Of the 1,541 men trained to operate: "It wasnt hard. I just pulled on West Virginia during the attack, 130 the trigger and she worked fine. I had watched were killed and 52 wounded. the others with these guns. I guess I fired her Subsequently refloated, repaired, and for about fifteen minutes. I think I got one of modernized, the battleship served in those Jap planes. They were diving pretty close the Pacific theater through to the end to us." of the war in August 1945.
• On 13 December 1941, Miller reported to USS Indianapolis (CA-35), and subsequently returned to the west coast of the United States in November 1942. Assigned to the newly constructed USS Liscome Bay (CVE-56) in the spring of 1943, Miller was on board that escort carrier during Operation Galvanic, the seizure of Makin and Tarawa Atolls in the Gilbert Islands. Liscome Bays aircraft supported operations ashore between 20-23 November 1943. At 5:10 a.m. on 24 November, while cruising near Butaritari Island, a single torpedo from Japanese submarine I- 175 struck the escort carrier near the stern. The aircraft bomb magazine detonated a few moments later, sinking the warship within minutes. Listed as missing following the loss of that escort carrier, Miller was officially presumed dead 25 November 1944, a year and a day after the loss of Liscome Bay. Only 272 Sailors survived the sinking of Liscome Bay, while 646 died.• Miller was commended by the Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox on 1 April 1942, and on 27 May 1942 he received the Navy Cross, which Fleet Admiral (then Admiral) Chester W. Nimitz, the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet personally presented to Miller on board aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) for his extraordinary courage in battle. Speaking of Miller, Nimitz remarked:• This marks the first time in this conflict that such high tribute has been made in the Pacific Fleet to a member of his race and Im sure that the future will see others similarly honored for brave acts.• In addition to the Navy Cross, Miller was entitled to the Purple Heart Medal; the American Defense Service Medal, Fleet Clasp; the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal; and the World War II Victory Medal.
Bataan Death MarchOne of the earliest and most severe mistreatment ofprisoners of war became known to the world as the DEATHMARCH. All troops, both Filipino and American, gatheredafter the April 1942 surrender to the Japanese and thenwere forced to march 65 miles under conditions that noone believed could happen. "Along the way, numbers ofthem were slaughtered by bayonet, sword, gun, truck,whatever the Japs could use to kill. Many wounded wereburied alive, their moans smothered by hastily-shoveledearth. There was no rhyme or reason to the killings. Theyoccurred as the fancy hit the individual Japanese soldier."
Daniel K. Inouye• Senator Daniel K. Inouye was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on September 7, 1924, and was named after a Methodist minister who had adopted his mother. He was Nisei, or first generation American born to Japanese parents. Young Dan Inouye attended Honolulu public schools and earned pocket money by parking cars at the old Honolulu Stadium and giving haircuts to fellow students. Most of his earnings were spent on a flock of homing pigeons, a postage stamp collection, parts for crystal radio sets and chemistry sets.• On December 7, 1941, the fateful day of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 17-year-old Dan Inouye was one of the first Americans to handle civilian casualties in the Pacific war. He had taken medical aid training and was pressed into service as head of a first-aid litter team. He saw a "lot of blood" and did not go home for a week.• In March 1943, 18-year-old Dan Inouye, then a freshman in pre-medical studies at the University of Hawaii, enlisted in the U.S. Armys 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the famed "Go For Broke" regiment.
Daniel K. Inouye • Born in Honolulu, Hawaii, Inouye is a Nisei (second-generation) Japanese-American and a son of Kame Imanaga and Hyotaro Inouye. He grew up in the Bingham Tract, a Chinese-American enclave within the predominantly Japanese-American community of Moiliili in Honolulu. • He was at the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941 as a medical volunteer. • Inouye as a lieutenant in the U.S. Army“Go For • Medal of Honor • In 1943, when the U.S. Army dropped its ban on Japanese- Broke” Americans, Inouye curtailed his premedical studies at the University of Hawaii and enlisted in the Army. He was assigned to the Nisei 442nd Regimental Combat Team, which became the most-highly decorated unit in the history of the Army. During the World War II campaign in Europe he received the Bronze Star, the Purple Heart, and the Distinguished Service Cross, which was later upgraded, by President Clinton in June 2000, to the Medal of Honor. “Go For Broke”
Doolittles Raid Fact Sheet• In the beginning of 1942, gloom was descending over the United States like a winter twilight.• On all fronts, the United States and its allies were reeling from the blows of the Axis powers.• In the Pacific, Japan had taken Malaya, Singapore, Java, Guam and Wake Island and was threatening the lifeline with Australia. On April 9, 1942, the "Battling Bastards of Bataan" in the Philippines finally laid down their arms.• In the Atlantic, German U-boats were sinking American ships within sight of the U.S. coast. Britain was being strangled, and the German Wehrmacht was in the suburbs of Moscow.• The Axis powers looked invincible.• In the midst of these dark days burst the light of the Doolittle Raid on Japan.• The U.S. Navy conceived the raid as a way to raise morale. It entailed launching Army twin- engine bombers from the deck of an aircraft carrier to bomb selected cities in Japan. It was a way to strike back. It was a way to demonstrate that no matter how bleak the future looked; the United States would not give up. Leading the attack was Army Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle.• Jimmie Doolittle was an aviation pioneer and daredevil racer. He pioneered instrument flying. He won the Schneider Race for the Army in 1925. He pushed for higher-octane gasoline for aircraft in the 1930s. This medal was wired to a 500-lb. bomb for return to Japan "with interest."
Doolittles Raid• Doolittle trained the volunteer crews to take off their B-25B Mitchell bombers in only 450 feet instead of the usual 1,200. The planes were loaded aboard the USS Hornet in March 1942.• The plan was to launch the bombers within 400 miles of the Japanese coast. They would then bomb their targets and continue to airfields in China. But Japanese picket boats discovered the task force about 800 miles off the coast, and the Army planes were launched immediately. The 16 bombers struck Tokyo, Kobe, Nagoya and Yokohama. Because of the added distance, no plane was able to make the Chinese airfields.• Most of the planes crash-landed in China with one plane landing in the Soviet Union. Of the 75 fliers who landed in China three died in accidents and the Japanese captured eight. The rest returned to the United States.• The raid inflicted little physical damage to Japan, but it gave a needed lift to morale in the• United States. In Japan, the psychological damage of the attack was more important. The Doolittle Raid convinced Adm. Isoruku Yamamoto, chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet,• that he had to extend Japans defensive perimeter. He aimed the extension at Midway Island. If Japan held that strategic mid-Pacific atoll, no carrier task force could approach. The battle• of Midway in June 1942, was a decisive victory for the United States.• Many called Midway the turning point of the war in the Pacific.• For his leadership of the raid, Jimmy Doolittle received the Medal of Honor.
<object width="425" height="344"><param name="movie" The Doolittle Raid value="http://www.youtube.com/v/yxqU_WH8Cd0&hl=en_US&fs=1&"></ param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="http://www.youtube.com/v/yxqU_WH8Cd0&hl=en_US&fs=1&" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="425" height="344"></embed></object>• To show that Japan could be beaten, the United States staged a daring bombing raid on the Japanese homeland. On April 18, 1942, Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle led 16 B-25 bombers in a surprise attack on Tokyo and other Japanese cities. The bombers took off from the deck of the Hornet, an aircraft carrier more than 600 miles (960 kilometers) east of Japan. The raid did very little damage. But it alarmed Japans leaders, who had believed that their homeland was safe from Allied bombs. To prevent future raids, the Japanese determined to capture more islands to the south and the east and so extend the countrys defenses. They soon found themselves in trouble. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxqU_WH8Cd0
Japanese-American Intern http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aqmx2XhHxeY• Japanese-American Internment was a World War II action decided on by FDR and his advisers in February 1942, following Japans attack on Pearl Harbor, and carried out under Executive Order 9066. Federal officials, fearing groundlessly that Americans of Japanese ancestry might cooperate with a West Coast invasion by Japan, forcibly relocated over 100,000 Japanese-Americans, including U.S. citizens, to internment camps inland and seized their property. In 1944, the order was rescinded by Pres. Truman and by 1945 the camps were closed. The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (under Reagan)provided compensation of $20,000 each to the 60,000 surviving internees.
A total of 110,000 persons of Japaneseancestry (70,000 of whom were native-bornAmerican citizens) were incarcerated andforced into Concentration Camps. More than2,200 ethnic Japanese in 13 Latin Americancountries were taken from their homes and putinto camps as well.
Korematsu v. United States323 U.S. 214 (1944)Docket Number: 22Abstract Argued:October 11, 1944Decided:December 18, 1944Facts of the CaseDuring World War II, Presidential Executive Order 9066 and congressional statutes gave the military authority to exclude citizens of Japanese ancestry from areas deemed critical to national defense and potentially vulnerable to espionage. Korematsu remained in San Leandro, California and violated Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34 of the U.S. Army.Question PresentedDid the President and Congress go beyond their war powers by implementing exclusion and restricting the rights of Americans of Japanese descent?ConclusionThe Court sided with the government and held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Korematsus rights. Justice Black argued that compulsory exclusion, though constitutionally suspect, is justified during circumstances of "emergency and peril."
1941Dec. 7 Japan bombed U.S. military bases at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.Dec. 8 The United States, Great Britain, and Canada declared war on Japan. 1942Feb. 15 Singapore fell to the Japanese.Feb. 26-28 Japan defeated an Allied naval force in the Battle of the Java Sea.April 9 U.S. and Philippine troops on Bataan Peninsula surrendered.April 18 U.S. bombers hit Tokyo in the Doolittle raid.May 4-8 The Allies checked a Japanese assault in the Battle of the Coral Sea.June 4-6 The Allies defeated Japan in the Battle of Midway.Aug. 7 U.S. marines landed on Guadalcanal.
1943Nov. 20 U.S. forces invaded Tarawa. 1944June 19-20 A U.S. naval force defeated the Japanese in the Battle of the Philippine Sea.July 18 Japans Prime Minister Tojo resigned.Oct. 20 The Allies began landing in the Philippines.Oct. 23-26 The Allies defeated Japans navy in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Philippines. 1945March 16 U.S. marines captured Iwo Jima.June 21 Allied forces captured Okinawa.Aug. 6 An atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.Aug. 8 The Soviet Union declared war on Japan.Aug. 9 An atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.Aug. 14 Japan agreed to surrender unconditionally.Sept. 2 Japan signed surrender terms aboard the battleship U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
Operation Torch• The job that General Patton was talking about was Operation Torch, which was the Allied invasion of North Africa that began in the early hours of November 8, 1942. Plans of the operation began in the spring and summer of 1942 between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill. The two leaders, however, disagreed on where the operation would commence. Roosevelt, along with General Eisenhower, wanted to open a "second front" to help relieve the Russians who were bitterly defending their homeland against the invading Germans on the Eastern front. Roosevelt wanted a cross-channel invasion of northwest France and strike quickly so as to avoid a long drawn out war with Germany. Churchill, on the contrary, was opposed to a cross- channel invasion because he felt the Germans were too heavily fortified to make a cross-channel invasion successful. Churchill proposed that the Allies take a less direct attack and invade North Africa instead. This, Churchill thought, would put pressure on Rommel and if successful in pushing him out, North Africa would provide a solid base for the Allies to invade southern Europe, possibly southern France or Italy.• French Northwest Africa, not northwest France, would be the locale of the Allied blow to relieve the pressure on the Russian army. And so we land at Casablanca.
• The classic and much-loved romantic melodrama Casablanca (1942), always found on top-ten lists of films, is a masterful tale of two men vying for the Casablanca same womans love in a love triangle. The story of political and romantic espionage is set against the backdrop of the wartime conflict between democracy and totalitarianism. [The date given for the film is often given as either 1942 and 1943.• With rich and smoky atmosphere, anti-Nazi propaganda, Max Steiners superb musical score, suspense, unforgettable characters (supposedly 34 nationalities are included in its cast) and memorable lines of dialogue (e.g., "Heres lookin at you, kid," and the inaccurately-quoted "Play it again, Sam"), it is one of the most popular, magical (and flawless) films of all time - focused on the themes of lost love, honor and duty, self-sacrifice and romance within a chaotic world. Woody Allens Play It Again, Sam (1972) paid reverential homage to the film, as have the lesser films Cabo Blanco (1981) and Barb Wire (1996), and the animated Bugs Bunny short Carrotblanca (1995).• The sentimental story, originally structured as a one-set play, was based on an unproduced play entitled Everybody <iframe width="425" height="349" Comes to Ricks by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison - the src="http://www.youtube.com/embe films original title. Its collaborative screenplay was mainly d/EJvlGh_FgcI" frameborder="0" the result of the efforts of Julius J. and Philip G. Epstein and Howard Koch. allowfullscreen></iframe>
George Stevens, director• Stevens entered the U.S. Army in February 1943 and served as a major in the Signal Corps. He first covered combat in the North Africa campaign and then was stationed in England, where he shot footage of the plans being made for the D-Day invasion, which he covered from the deck of the HMS Belfast. He was then put in charge of the Special Coverage Motion Picture Unit, which landed in Europe after the invasion and covered, among other events, the liberation of Paris, the freeing of prisoners at the Dachau concentration camp, the taking of Hitlers Berchtesgaden headquarters, and the meeting of American and Russian forces at the Elbe River. He was demobilized in March 1946 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and returned to Hollywood.
It’s hard to findcamouflage pix—if it is any good
North Africa with Rommel and the Afrika K • German forces, under the command of Rommel, met the British forces, under the command of General Montgomery at El Alamein. Montgomery had a two-to- one advantage in tanks, and was victorious. The victory in El Alamain eliminated the German threat to the Suez Canal and the Middle East. Panzer tank