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DEPTH STUDY GERMANY: NAZI REGIME - 04. HITLER BECOMING CHANCELLOR 1933

Hitler was not immediately appointed chancellor after the success of the July 1932 elections, despite being leader of the largest party in the Reichstag. It took the economic and political instability (with two more chancellors failing to stabilise the situation) to worsen, and the support of the conservative elite, to convince Hindenburg to appoint Hitler. Hitler was sworn in as the chancellor of Germany on the 30 January 1933. The Nazis were now in power.

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DEPTH STUDY
NAZI GERMANY
HITLER BECOMING
CHANCELLOR BY 1933
04
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THENAZISANDWORLDECONOMICDEPRESSION
• TheworlddepressiontransformedtheprospectsoftheNaziParty.
• InGermanytherewerewagecuts,short-time working, unemployment,
homelessness,andpovertyonascaleneverseenbefore.
• TheestablishedpartiesthatmadeuptheWeimarcoalitions,suchasSocial
Democrats,tooktheblame.
• Voterschangedsupporttothepartiesthathadbeenthemostcriticalofthe
Weimarcoalitions,theCommunistsandtheNazis.
• ThebreakthroughpointfortheNaziscameinthegeneralelectionof
September1930.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
INCREASINGNUMBEROFVOTES
• Unemploymentstoodatmorethan2millionandthe Nazispolledover6million
votes,making themthesecondlargestpartyintheReichstagnexttotheSocial
Democrats.
• TheCommunists,with morethan4.5millionvoteswerethethirdlargestparty.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
GENERALELECTIONRESULTS1930-1932
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
1930 September 1932 July 1932 November
Percentage of the Nazis and Communists
Nazis Communists
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
NAZISLIKEANARMY!
• TheNaziswerereallyorganisedunderseveralleadingkeyfigures.
• ThePartyalsohaditsownparamilitaryforces.
• HermannGoeringwasaWorldWar1air-race.
• JosefGoebbelstookchargeofpropagandaintheParty.
• Heinrich Himmler oversawtheSSstormtroopers.
• ErnstRohm wastheleaderoftheSturmabteilung(SA).Theywereamilitaryforce
ofbrown shirtedstormtrooperswhoprotectedtheNazileadersandharassedthe
politicalopponents.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
NAZISANDPROPAGANDA
• Overthenext18months, theeconomycontinuedtodeteriorate,andtheNazis
usedanyopportunitytoattackthecoalition.
• Thepropagandamachine,ledbyJosefGoebbels,wasworkingatfullcapacity as
thePartymessagewasspreadbythousandsofposters,pamphlets.
• ThosealreadyfaithfultothePartywereinvitedtoattendtorch-litparadesand
massrallies.
• TheNaziswerethemastersofspectacleandtechnology.
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DEPTH STUDY GERMANY: NAZI REGIME - 04. HITLER BECOMING CHANCELLOR 1933

  • 1. DEPTH STUDY NAZI GERMANY HITLER BECOMING CHANCELLOR BY 1933 04
  • 2. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THENAZISANDWORLDECONOMICDEPRESSION • TheworlddepressiontransformedtheprospectsoftheNaziParty. • InGermanytherewerewagecuts,short-time working, unemployment, homelessness,andpovertyonascaleneverseenbefore. • TheestablishedpartiesthatmadeuptheWeimarcoalitions,suchasSocial Democrats,tooktheblame. • Voterschangedsupporttothepartiesthathadbeenthemostcriticalofthe Weimarcoalitions,theCommunistsandtheNazis. • ThebreakthroughpointfortheNaziscameinthegeneralelectionof September1930.
  • 3. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY INCREASINGNUMBEROFVOTES • Unemploymentstoodatmorethan2millionandthe Nazispolledover6million votes,making themthesecondlargestpartyintheReichstagnexttotheSocial Democrats. • TheCommunists,with morethan4.5millionvoteswerethethirdlargestparty.
  • 4. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY GENERALELECTIONRESULTS1930-1932 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1930 September 1932 July 1932 November Percentage of the Nazis and Communists Nazis Communists
  • 5. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY NAZISLIKEANARMY! • TheNaziswerereallyorganisedunderseveralleadingkeyfigures. • ThePartyalsohaditsownparamilitaryforces. • HermannGoeringwasaWorldWar1air-race. • JosefGoebbelstookchargeofpropagandaintheParty. • Heinrich Himmler oversawtheSSstormtroopers. • ErnstRohm wastheleaderoftheSturmabteilung(SA).Theywereamilitaryforce ofbrown shirtedstormtrooperswhoprotectedtheNazileadersandharassedthe politicalopponents.
  • 6. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY NAZISANDPROPAGANDA • Overthenext18months, theeconomycontinuedtodeteriorate,andtheNazis usedanyopportunitytoattackthecoalition. • Thepropagandamachine,ledbyJosefGoebbels,wasworkingatfullcapacity as thePartymessagewasspreadbythousandsofposters,pamphlets. • ThosealreadyfaithfultothePartywereinvitedtoattendtorch-litparadesand massrallies. • TheNaziswerethemastersofspectacleandtechnology.
  • 7. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY NAZISANDPROPAGANDA • Duringthe1932presidentialelection,whenHitlerstoodagainstHindenburg, the Nazileaderwasflownbyaeroplanefromonespeakingvenuetothenextone, visiting5citiesperday. • ThedepressionalsoboostedthefortunesoftheCommunists,who arguedthatthe rootoftheproblemisthecapitalistsystem. • Nazisportrayedthemselvesasthedefenderoftheactualsystem,callingthe Communistas“schemingrevolutionaries”togetherwiththeJews. • Wealthyindustrialistsbegancontributing totheNaziPartyinordertopreventthe Communistsfromtakingpower.
  • 8. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY GERMANYHADNOSTRONGGOVERNMENT • ByApril 1932, conditions wereseriousinGermany. • 6millionpeoplewereunemployed,andthecountrywasdesperateforastrong Government. • PresidentHindenburg hadtostandforre-election,becausehistermofofficehad runout. • Hitlerstoodagainsthim, togetherwithanotherCommunistcandidate. • Hindenburgwasanationalwarheroandhewoninthesecondballot,against Hitler.Scorewas:53%to37%, plus10%fortheCommunistcandidate. • Naziswon 230seatsandHitlerdemandedtobechancellor.
  • 9. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY POLITICALMANOEUVERINGS1932-1933 • NazisbecamethelargestpartyintheReichstagwith13 millionvotes. • Normally,theleaderofthelargestpartywasexpectedtobecomeachancellor, butPresidentHindenburg hadnointentionsofappointing amanhehadprivately describedas“thevulgarlittlecorporal”. • Instead,FranzvonPapen(from CentreParty)wasinvitedtoformagovernment. • VonPapenwasinexperienced.HitlerwasofferedtheVice-Chancellorposition, butherefused. • WithoutNazicooperation,vonPapenwasunabletodeviseastablecoalitionthat wouldbesupportedintheReichstag. • AsecondgeneralelectionwasheldinNovember.
  • 10. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 11. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY SCHEMINGS1932-1933 • TheNazislost2millionvotesand34seatsinthiselection;buttheyremainedthe largestpartyintheReichstag. • VonPapencouldn’tform thegovernmentandVon Schleicher(formergeneral) triedtoformthenextgovernment. • TowardstheendofJanuary,vonPapen(vonSchleicher’srival)persuaded HindenburgtoappointHitleraschancellorandhimselfasvice-chancellor. • Hitlerwastobeoffered3positionsinatotalof12ministers.
  • 12. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY Franz von Papen Kurt von Schleicher