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Fascism

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Fascism

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Fascism

  1. 1. Fascism Benito Mussolini Hitler
  2. 2. Where? • Italy • Germany
  3. 3. Why? • Economic crisis of 1929 • Crisis of the democratic system. (Unable to solve the economic crisis). • Radicalisation of the society: Radical left and Radical Right. • Fear of Communism by bourgeoisie (who preferred and financed the radical right). • Frustration of soldiers of WWI – There were thousands of war amputees. – The soldiers were used to military ways for solving the problems.
  4. 4. • Desire of revenge by the Germans. (Because of the humiliation caused by the Treaty of Versailles) • Imperialism – Italy wanted to expand and control the Adriatic coast, including Albania. – Germany wanted to control Central Europe.
  5. 5. Italy claimed the territories of: -Nice, Tizzino and Dalmatia -Malta -Corsica -Savoy and Corfu -Albania
  6. 6. Extension of Germany 1935 – 1939. Author: JMPerez http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alemania_nazi#mediaviewer/Archivo:Extension_of_Germany_%281935-1939%29-es.svg
  7. 7. Crisis of 1929 in Germany Devaluation of the Deutsche Mark Communist Party in the elections of 1924, Germany
  8. 8. Socialist office fired by the black shirts of Mussolini. December, 1922.
  9. 9. What? • The term of fascism can only be applied to political systems with specific characteristics: • Cult of the leader – Duce (that means Duke) – Fuhrer (that means leader) • Control of the propaganda • Use of violence (special and trained forces) • Use of symbols of the workers movement. • Persecution and illegalisation of other political parties. • Racism
  10. 10. Fascism is also called a negationist movement because the were: •Anti-Communist •Anti-Capitalist •Anti-Democratic (they wanted to destroy the democratic systems). Example of Nazi propaganda made by Leni Riefenstahl: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XCUun_2z4dk
  11. 11. How? ITALY -Benito Mussolini in 1922 threatened with a march on Rome of all the black shirts. -The king Victor Emmanuel III named him Prime Minister. -By 1925 Italy was converted into a dictatorship. All the political parties and trade unions were illegal. -Only one political party was allowed: National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista) -Repression was spread all over Italy. -They used the violence in order to apply their ideas and repress other political parties and ideas.
  12. 12. How? Germany •The Republic of Weimar was incapable of solving the crisis. •Society was very radicalised. •In 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor (30th , January, 1933) •Hitler is going to manipulate the politic situation in order to achieve a complete dictatorship. These are the different steps:
  13. 13. • Reichstag fire (February 1933) => he accused the communists of this fire and declared the “state of emergency”. (Nowadays it is well-known that the fire was made by the SA, the special assault division of the Nazi party). • Hitler forced the President and new elections were convoked. • In the new elections Hitler had 44% of the votes • Night of the Long Knives (30th June – 2nd July, 1934). In these days a series of political murders inside the party were committed by the SS and the Gestapo. (Internal purge).
  14. 14. • Illegalisation of other political parties. • Persecution and repression was carried out against all non-nazi. • Concentration Camps. • Terror Policy (spies, physical aggressions, arrests, concentration camps, censorship…) • Kristallnacht / Night of Broken Glasses / Crystal Night (9th – 10th November 1938) Pogroms against the Jews. 91 Jews were assassinated, 30.000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps. The houses, hospitals and synagogues were destroyed.
  15. 15. Physical Damage after Kristallnacht
  16. 16. Interior of Berlin synagogue after Kristallnacht Broken shop windows after Kristallnacht
  17. 17. Conclusion THEY CAME FIRST for the Communists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Communist. THEN THEY CAME for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. THEN THEY CAME for the trade unionists, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a trade unionist. THEN THEY CAME for the Catholics, and I didn’t speak up because I was a Protestant. THEN THEY CAME for me, and by that time no one was left to speak up. Pastor Martin Niemöller (Text wrongly attributed to Bertol Brecht).

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