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DEPTH STUDY GERMANY: WEIMAR REPUBLIC - 03. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES IMPACT ON THE REPUBLIC

Thanks to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany's ability to produce revenue-generating coal and iron ore decreased. As war debts and reparations drained its coffers, the German government was unable to pay its debts. Some of the former World War I Allies didn't buy Germany's claim that it couldn't afford to pay.

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DEPTH STUDY
WEIMAR REPUBLIC
THE IMPACT OF THE
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
03
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THE STAB IN THE BACK THEORY
• The German Government agreed to sign the Treaty of
Versailles in June 1919, to make peace.
• This action was very unpopular in Germany.
• Leaders of the German military did not admit that they
would be beaten on the battlefield or did not want to take
responsibility for this.
• They placed the blame for defeat on the politicians who
agreed the treaty.
• They claimed these officials had 'stabbed Germany in the
back' by ending the war.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
WEIMAR GOVERNMENT = NOVEMBER
CRIMINALS
• The armistice was signed by representatives of the new,
civilian government, including Ebert and members of the
SPD.
• This meant that later, their opponents started to call them
the 'November Criminals' – people who had signed the
armistice behind the Germany army’s back, accused them
of betraying the German army and people.
• This became known as the Dolchstoßlegende – the ‘stab-in-
the–back’ theory.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
DAMAGING TERMS
• The terms of the Treaty were very damaging to Germany
for some reasons:
• Land was taken from Germany and given to other
countries.
• Germany had to accept responsibility for starting the
war.
• Germany had to pay fines of £6.6 billion.
• Germany's armed forces were reduced, and they were
not allowed an air force.
• It left many Germans feeling humiliated.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
BLAME THEORIES
• The ideas of the ‘November Criminals’ and the ‘Stab in the
Back’ were used in many of Hitler’s speeches to turn people
against the Government.

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DEPTH STUDY GERMANY: WEIMAR REPUBLIC - 03. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES IMPACT ON THE REPUBLIC

  • 1. DEPTH STUDY WEIMAR REPUBLIC THE IMPACT OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 03
  • 2. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THE STAB IN THE BACK THEORY • The German Government agreed to sign the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919, to make peace. • This action was very unpopular in Germany. • Leaders of the German military did not admit that they would be beaten on the battlefield or did not want to take responsibility for this. • They placed the blame for defeat on the politicians who agreed the treaty. • They claimed these officials had 'stabbed Germany in the back' by ending the war.
  • 3. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY WEIMAR GOVERNMENT = NOVEMBER CRIMINALS • The armistice was signed by representatives of the new, civilian government, including Ebert and members of the SPD. • This meant that later, their opponents started to call them the 'November Criminals' – people who had signed the armistice behind the Germany army’s back, accused them of betraying the German army and people. • This became known as the Dolchstoßlegende – the ‘stab-in- the–back’ theory.
  • 4. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 5. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY DAMAGING TERMS • The terms of the Treaty were very damaging to Germany for some reasons: • Land was taken from Germany and given to other countries. • Germany had to accept responsibility for starting the war. • Germany had to pay fines of £6.6 billion. • Germany's armed forces were reduced, and they were not allowed an air force. • It left many Germans feeling humiliated.
  • 6. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY BLAME THEORIES • The ideas of the ‘November Criminals’ and the ‘Stab in the Back’ were used in many of Hitler’s speeches to turn people against the Government.
  • 7. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY EARLY CHALLENGES • The Weimar Republic was created at a time of confusion and chaos after Germany had lost World War One. People were starving, the Kaiser had fled, and the new Republic got off to a troubled start for two reasons. • Many Germans hated the government for signing the armistice in November 1918 - they called them the November criminals. • The defeat in the war came as a huge surprise to the German people, and many ordinary German soldiers, which led to a theory that the brave German army had been ‘stabbed in the back’ by the politicians.
  • 8. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY HOW TO PUNISH GERMANY? • In early 1919 the victorious Allies met to discuss how to punish Germany and on 28 June 1919 the new German government was forced to sign a peace settlement called the Treaty of Versailles. • The treaty punished Germany militarily, territorially and financially. Many Germans felt their country had received a very harsh deal in the treaty and resented the government for agreeing to its conditions. • German government had been given an ultimatum – sign within five days or risk invasion.
  • 9. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY BLAME • Germany was forced to accept the blame for starting the war under Article 231 of the treaty, known as the War Guilt Clause.
  • 10. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY REPARATIONS • This was the name given to the money Germany had to pay for the damage suffered by Britain and France during the war. • In 1922 the amount to be paid was set at £6.6 billion.
  • 11. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ARMED FORCES • Germany’s army and navy were significantly reduced in size and its air force abolished. • This meant that a maximum of 100,000 troops were allowed in the army and conscription (compulsory service) and tanks were banned. • Germany’s navy was reduced to 15,000 personnel, allowed only 6 battleships and no submarines.
  • 12. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY TERRITORY Germany lost land on all sides of its borders as well as its overseas colonies (other countries under Germany’s control). • Alsace-Lorraine went back to France. Eupen-Malmedy was recognised as Belgian. France also took the coal from the Saar region, which became a League of Nations protectorate for 15 years. Ruhr would also be occupied by the French. • Upper Silesia went to the newly formed Czechoslovakia, and some to Poland. • East Prussia was cut off from the rest of Germany. • The Rhineland was demilitarised – this would provide France with an extra ‘buffer zone’ of protection. • The agreements that had been made when Russia left the war in 1917 (Brest-Litovsk) were overturned. Land that Germany would have taken from Russia now became the independent Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Some land also went to Poland.
  • 13. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY CHALLENGES TO THE NEW GOVERNMENT
  • 14. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THE THREAT FROM THE LEFT: UPRISINGS • During 5 – 12 January 1919, 50,000 members of the post- World War One Communist Party, known as the Spartacists, rebelled in Berlin, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. • The government was saved when the Freikorps defeated the Spartacist rebels. • In the aftermath, communist workers' councils seized power all over Germany, and a Communist People's Government took power in Bavaria. • Liebknecht and Luxemburg were killed by the Freikorps after being arrested on the 15th. Luxemburg’s body was dumped in a canal. • By May 1919 the Freikorps had crushed all of these uprisings.
  • 15. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THE THREAT FROM THE RIGHT: KAPP PUTSCH • In crushing the Communists, the Freikorps had saved the government, but the terms of the Treaty of Versailles meant Germany’s army had to be significantly reduced and the Freikorps had to be disbanded. • During 13 - 17 March 1920, as a reaction to this, the right- wing nationalist, Dr. Wolfgang Kapp led a Freikorps takeover in Berlin. • The regular army refused to attack the Freikorps; Kapp was only defeated when the workers of Berlin went on strike and refused to cooperate with him.
  • 16. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY OTHER VIOLENCE • Nationalist terrorists assassinated 356 government politicians, including Walter Rathenau (June 1922), the foreign minister, and Matthias Erzberger, the finance minister. • Judges in their trials, many of whom preferred the Kaiser's government, consistently gave these terrorists light sentences, or let them go free. • Rathenau’s killers only got 4 years in prison, despite the fact that over a million people had marched through Berlin in mourning over his death.
  • 17. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 18. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY