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Annealing

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Description of three stages of Annealing.

Annealing

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY- GAURAV SHUKLA
  2. 2. Annealing is one of the heat treatment process in which the metal is heated to a temperature above its recrystallization temperature, kept at that temperature some time and then very slow cooling to develop equilibrium structure in the metal or alloy. Annealing is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and to make it more workable.
  3. 3. To -  Increase ductility  Reduce hardness  Remove internal stresses  Increase toughness  Decrease brittleness  Decrease electrical resistance etc.
  4. 4. Annealing process consists of three stages such as– 1. Recovery 2. Recrystallization 3. Grain Growth
  5. 5. No change occurs in microstructures. It occurs at low temperature. During this point defects are created.  Dislocations of opposite sign come together annihilate each other. Point imperfections and dislocations are associated with strain energy.
  6. 6. Fig-1 Rearrangement of dislocations Recovery
  7. 7. Strained grains becomes stress free, strain free grains. Microstructure at the end of recrystallization is much similar to the original structure prior to the cold working. Recrystallization temperature- The temperature at which the normal cold worked material recrystallizes in one hour. Recrystallization temperature is high in case of metal having high melting point. Recrystallization temperature - Iron-450oc Steel- 727oc
  8. 8. Degree of cold work Initial Grain size Temperature of Cold Working Purity or composition
  9. 9. It occurs due to the heating the metal beyond the time given for recrystallization. Diffusion occurs between grain boundaries. This results in increase in grain size. Due to Grain growth larger grains reduces the strength and toughness of metal and curve boundary becomes planar. Grain growth is useful for single crystal. Fig-1
  10. 10. Fig-2 Changes in Microstructure during different stages of Annealing
  11. 11. Fig-3 Schematic Representation of cold worked and Anneal cycle showing the effects of Properties and Microstructures
  12. 12. Textbook of Material Technology by O.P. Khanna http://www.brighthhubengineering.com/manufacturing-technology http://www.engineersedge.com/materials/annealing http://info.lu.farmingdale.edu/depts/met/met205/ANNEALING.html
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Description of three stages of Annealing.

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