Ticer Summer School


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Slides for my presentation at the 2009 Ticer Summer School, August 2009.

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  • This is a picture of the Sondrestrom research facility that is maintained by SRI International under contract with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The large antennae is the facilities Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). Other instruments at the site include a magnetometer, a LIDAR, all-sky camera, Fabry-Perot Inferometery, Imaging Riometer and Imaging Spectrometer, Normal Beam Riometer, etc. The facility’s Internet access is via NASA Science Internet by satellite to NASA Goddard.
  • An advanced users view of SPARC; lots of information in multiple SPARC pages! The typical SPARC collaboration features down the left hand side, page information, resource list, active user list, and chat Streaming video in the lower left. Lots of data and model views throughout the rest of the screen shot.
  • One of the major accomplishments of the past year is realizing there are some major categories of collaboratories. We focus on seven types, some of which, you will notice, are dead center in our definition of collaboratories, and some which relax some key features. The first set are clearly focused on research, the second more on practice. Our primary focus is on those that involve human-human interaction as well as access to instruments or information…but some, as you will see, are light on the human-human interaction, and some are loose, like the community of practice, and some have to do with learning or remote access to an expert, not centrally human-human interaction. So, these are the seven. We’re now going to go through the definition of each with an example.
  • Ticer Summer School

    1. 1. The Long and Winding Road to Success in Science Collaboratories Gary M. Olson Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences University of California, Irvine Ticer Summer School August 5, 2009
    2. 2. Many Collaborators <ul><li>G. Olson, PD </li></ul><ul><li>J. Olson </li></ul><ul><li>N. Bos </li></ul><ul><li>A. Zimmerman </li></ul><ul><li>S. Teasley </li></ul><ul><li>T. Finholt </li></ul><ul><li>J. Hardin </li></ul><ul><li>D. Cogburn </li></ul><ul><li>D. Atkins </li></ul><ul><li>M. Hedstrom </li></ul><ul><li>E. Yakel </li></ul><ul><li>P. Knoop </li></ul><ul><li>E. Hofer </li></ul><ul><li>D. Cooney </li></ul><ul><li>J. Herbsleb (CMU) </li></ul><ul><li>J. Trimble (Howard) </li></ul><ul><li>Zillions of grad students </li></ul>
    3. 3. What I Work On <ul><li>Last 20+ years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration in science and engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on geographically distributed collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging interest in scholarship more broadly, especially in social sciences and humanities </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Overview of Talk <ul><li>Collaboration in Science </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent social science & humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What We Know about Success </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Collaborative Scholarship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including roles for librarians </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Overview of Talk
    6. 6. Collaboration in Science & Engineering <ul><li>Increasingly complex problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse expertise, specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larger or specialized resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger data sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vast computational resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like to work with certain people </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Collaboration at a Distance <ul><li>Has been a feature of science and engineering for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous (hand-off) can be supported by many “old” technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous since late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Steady growth in capabilities available </li></ul>
    8. 8. Value of Colocation Clear <ul><li>Much research on why </li></ul><ul><li>Special case of “radical co-location” </li></ul><ul><li>But will not have a Manhattan Project again </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been proposed in some research areas (e.g., vaccine for HIV/AIDS) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Overview of Talk <ul><li>Collaboration in Science </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent social science & humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What We Know about Success </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Collaborative Scholarship </li></ul>
    10. 10. Definition of a Collaboratory <ul><li>A collaboratory is an organizational entity that spans distance , supports rich and recurring human interaction oriented to a common research area , and provides access to data sources, artifacts and tools required to accomplish research tasks. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Nomenclature <ul><li>Collaboratories – term of historical interest, especially in NSF Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W. Wulf in 1989 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Series of NSF reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But other roughly equivalent terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eScience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberscience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science Portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gridScience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual environments for science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Knowledge Work Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. What is Needed for Collaboration? <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice, video – e.g., VoIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail, IM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote access to Instruments – teleobservation, teleoperation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Availability of Computational Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shared Repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory notebooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared calendars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness tools </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Overview of Talk <ul><li>Collaboration in Science </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent social science & humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What We Know about Success </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Collaborative Scholarship </li></ul>
    14. 14. Some Classic Examples <ul><li>UARC/SPARC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Atmospheric Research Collaboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Physics and Aeronomy Research Collaboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEESgrid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network for Earthquake Engineering and Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IARC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International AIDS Research Collaboratory </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. UARC -- 1993 Sondrestrom, Greenland
    16. 17. UARC Multi-Instrument Screen Shot
    17. 18. SPARC Scope: 1998
    18. 20. <ul><li>George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>NSF program </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major Research Equipment (MRE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System Integration (NEESgrid collaboratory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000-2004 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consortium development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2004-2114 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>NEESgrid Collaboratory
    19. 22. UIUC U of Colorado
    20. 23. Electronic Notebook
    21. 25. Challenge: Collaboratories in Africa? <ul><li>Less developed technical infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>More mixed experience with relevant applications </li></ul><ul><li>But very high motivation </li></ul>
    22. 26. Two Similar Projects in Southern Africa <ul><li>Basic research on the nature of HIV-C </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother-infant transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care workers </li></ul></ul>
    23. 27. South Africa 1. Project Participants Partners AIDS Research Center, Harvard U Nuffield Dept. of Clinical Medicine, U of Oxford Nelson Mandela College of Medicine, U of Natal, Durban
    24. 28. Botswana 2. Project Participants School of Public Health, Harvard University Ministry of Health, Republic of Botswana
    25. 29. What is being supported? <ul><li>Lab meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Remote colloquium speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Our own project coordination with collaborators in the region </li></ul>
    26. 31. Increasing use of Tools
    27. 32. Overview of Talk <ul><li>Collaboration in Science </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent social science & humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What We Know about Success </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Collaborative Scholarship </li></ul>
    28. 38. www.collate.de
    29. 43. Overview of Talk <ul><li>Collaboration in Science </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent social science & humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What We Know about Success </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Collaborative Scholarship </li></ul>
    30. 44. What Have We Learned So Far? www.scienceofcollaboratories.org NSF CISE ITR grant
    31. 45. MIT Press, 2008
    32. 46. Breadth & Depth Strategy <ul><li>Collaboratories at a Glance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect a large set of collaboratories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We have identified more than 200 examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect a basic set of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-depth studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few projects documented in detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews, observations, site visits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 18 so far </li></ul></ul>
    33. 47. Taxonomy of Collaboratories <ul><li>Research focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed Research Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared Instrumentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Data Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Community Contribution System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practice focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Community of Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Learning Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert Consultation </li></ul></ul>
    34. 48. What is Success? <ul><li>Use of the collaboratory tools </li></ul><ul><li>Software technology </li></ul><ul><li>Direct effects on the science </li></ul><ul><li>Science careers </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on learning, science education </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration for other collaboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Learning about collaboratories in general </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on funding, public perception </li></ul>
    35. 49. Challenges to collaboration <ul><li>Alignment of goals and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of common ground </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of mutual trust among participants </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of coordination and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate division of labor , with associated allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate technology (user-centered) & support infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Effective management plan </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Legal & regulatory issues </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural issues </li></ul>
    36. 50. Summary of These Factors <ul><li>Theory of Remote Scientific Collaboration (TORSC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 4 in book </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refinement in progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to weight the factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions, tradeoffs among them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wizard – on-line survey with feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Extension to Corporate Collaboration (CorpTORC) </li></ul>
    37. 51. Overview of Talk <ul><li>Collaboration in Science </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboratories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent social science & humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What We Know about Success </li></ul><ul><li>Future of Collaborative Scholarship </li></ul>
    38. 52. Future of Collaborative Scholarship (1) <ul><li>Consolidation of knowledge about successful collaborations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOC findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wizard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several other recent books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cummings & Kiesler study of NSF ITR, KDI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More sophistication  more realistic expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding agencies </li></ul></ul>
    39. 53. <ul><li>The technology itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computational power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Especially re data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul></ul>Future of Collaborative Scholarship (2)
    40. 54. <ul><li>Social technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider range of communication tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better support for informal interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation of emerging social tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially understanding sociotechnical interplay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better social ergonomics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video – eye contact, gaze direction, quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audio – 3D </li></ul></ul></ul>Future of Collaborative Scholarship (3)
    41. 55. <ul><li>Cohort changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Striking differences among age groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration skills from game world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grudin vs. Palen & Grudin studies of calendaring </li></ul></ul></ul>Future of Collaborative Scholarship (4)
    42. 56. Distributed Scholarship <ul><li>Will spread to all areas of scholarship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sciences & humanities are beginning to see the opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disappear as infrastructure? </li></ul><ul><li>But, distance will always matter </li></ul>
    43. 57. Roles for Academic Libraries <ul><li>Management of digital repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond just books and journals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies vs taxonomies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expertise on emerging search technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much uninformed behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intercultural collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise on collaborative technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOW Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UM Library </li></ul></ul>
    44. 58. Further information <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.scienceofcollaboratories.org </li></ul>