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Research Methods for Mobile Messaging




           Dean Eckles                                                       Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto
           Research Scientist and Designer                                   http://deaneckles.com/blog




  February 29, 2008    Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   1
Overview

Motivations & focus


Methods & examples
• Diary studies
• Wizard-of-Oz techniques
• Field experiments


Enabling technologies




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   2
Focus
Research
Design-oriented research
   Informing application-specific decisions
   Finding needs, evaluating solutions


and/or


Scientific research
   Creating generalizable knowledge
   Motivated by phenomena and theory




    February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   3
Focus
Mobile Messaging
About mobile messaging
  and using mobile messaging


and/or


About something else
  but using mobile messaging




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   4
About something else, but using mobile messaging

Shopping
   Information needs and communication in shopping decisions
Self-disclosure
   Factors that influence self-disclosure
Influence strategies
   Comparing different strategies and implementations
Media consumption
   Desires for finding photo media
Health




    February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   5
About mobile messaging interactions

This research area has implications for using mobile messaging for
   research and interventions in other domains.


Some research questions
• What factors influence compliance in surveys administered via
  mobile messaging?
• What new diary methods are enabled by mobile messaging
  technology (e.g. two-step diary methods, event detection)?
• How do people orient to proximal and distal sources of messages
  (e.g. their own mobile phone, the human or computer sender)?




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   6
Overview

Motivations & focus


Methods & examples
• Diary studies
• Wizard-of-Oz techniques
• Field experiments


Enabling technologies




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   7
Diary methods

Participants record events as they happen, or shortly after
Designed to reduce revision in retrospection, forgetting events
Widely used in human-computer interaction research and product
  development, as well as e.g. psychology and medicine


Taxonomy: What triggers entries? (Wheeler & Reis 1991)
•   Interval-contingent
•   Signal-contingent
•   Event-contingent


Burden on participants, sometimes in demanding contexts



    February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   8
Diary studies with mobile messaging

4l8r with snippets technique (Brandt, Weiss, & Klemmer 2007)
   Participants (1) capture text, MMS, or voice snippets
                       (2) annotate snippets later the same day on the Web




Example: Information and communication needs in shopping
   Entries coded and analyzed by researcher
   Entries used to ground interviews with a subset of participants


   February 29, 2008    Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   9
Wizard-of-Oz techniques

Wizard-of-Oz techniques
  A human “wizard” simulates functions of the computer
  Widely used for prototyping recognition- and AI-based interactions


With post-use interviews
  Can use logs of interaction to ground interviews




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   10
Mobile messaging studies using wizards

Suited to mobile messaging, e.g.
  Easy for wizards to interact
  Participants use their own devices


Example: Photo-consumption study
  Needfinding for photo browsing and search
  Participants could make unbounded requests for photos
  WOZ prototype provided realistic motivations for requests
  Wizards reviewed request on the Web, responses sent via MMS




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   11
Field experiments with text messaging

Manipulate features of mobile messaging interactions experimentally
Can range from product-optimizing “A-B testing for text messages” to
   scientific experiments testing theory


Example: Self-disclosure and influence strategies (Eckles et al. 2007)
   2 (sender: computer or human) x 3 (influence strategy) design
   Deception about humanity of sender is possible
   Participants signed up on a Web-based form
   Received text messages with questions of increasing intimacy
   Analyzed breadth (length) of disclosures



   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   12
Enabling technologies

Sending and receiving messages
  Web server running PHP & MySQL
  NowSMS
  GSM modem


Other software
  4l8r service
  PhotoFinder prototype


Participants’ mobile phones



   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   13
Contributors

Diary studies
   Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto: Yan Xu, Mirjana Spasojevic
   Stanford University: Joel Brandt, Scott Klemmer
Wizard-of-Oz techniques
   Yahoo! Research Berkeley: Shane Ahern, Simon King, Mor Naaman
Field experiments
   Stanford University: Douglas Wightman, Claire Carlson, Attapol
   Thamrongrattanarit, Marcello Bastea-Forte, BJ Fogg, Leila Takayama,
   Clifford Nass




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   14
References

Brandt, J., Weiss, N., & Klemmer, S. R. (2007). txt 4 l8r: lowering the
   burden for diary studies under mobile conditions. Proc. CHI '07
   Extended Abstracts.
Eckles, D., Wightman, D., Carlson, C., Thamrongrattanarit, A., Bastea-
   Forte, M., & Fogg, B.J. Self-disclosure via mobile messaging: influence
   strategies and social responses to communication technologies.
   Adjunct Proc. Ubicomp 2007.
Wheeler, L., & Reis, H. (1991). Self-recording of everyday life events:
  origins, types, and uses. Journal of personality, 59 (3).




    February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   15
Photo credits

Creative Commons photos
• Slide 1: http://flickr.com/photos/yewenyi/539606563/




   February 29, 2008   Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University   16

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Research Methods Mobile Messaging

  • 1. Research Methods for Mobile Messaging Dean Eckles Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto Research Scientist and Designer http://deaneckles.com/blog February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 1
  • 2. Overview Motivations & focus Methods & examples • Diary studies • Wizard-of-Oz techniques • Field experiments Enabling technologies February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 2
  • 3. Focus Research Design-oriented research Informing application-specific decisions Finding needs, evaluating solutions and/or Scientific research Creating generalizable knowledge Motivated by phenomena and theory February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 3
  • 4. Focus Mobile Messaging About mobile messaging and using mobile messaging and/or About something else but using mobile messaging February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 4
  • 5. About something else, but using mobile messaging Shopping Information needs and communication in shopping decisions Self-disclosure Factors that influence self-disclosure Influence strategies Comparing different strategies and implementations Media consumption Desires for finding photo media Health February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 5
  • 6. About mobile messaging interactions This research area has implications for using mobile messaging for research and interventions in other domains. Some research questions • What factors influence compliance in surveys administered via mobile messaging? • What new diary methods are enabled by mobile messaging technology (e.g. two-step diary methods, event detection)? • How do people orient to proximal and distal sources of messages (e.g. their own mobile phone, the human or computer sender)? February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 6
  • 7. Overview Motivations & focus Methods & examples • Diary studies • Wizard-of-Oz techniques • Field experiments Enabling technologies February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 7
  • 8. Diary methods Participants record events as they happen, or shortly after Designed to reduce revision in retrospection, forgetting events Widely used in human-computer interaction research and product development, as well as e.g. psychology and medicine Taxonomy: What triggers entries? (Wheeler & Reis 1991) • Interval-contingent • Signal-contingent • Event-contingent Burden on participants, sometimes in demanding contexts February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 8
  • 9. Diary studies with mobile messaging 4l8r with snippets technique (Brandt, Weiss, & Klemmer 2007) Participants (1) capture text, MMS, or voice snippets (2) annotate snippets later the same day on the Web Example: Information and communication needs in shopping Entries coded and analyzed by researcher Entries used to ground interviews with a subset of participants February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 9
  • 10. Wizard-of-Oz techniques Wizard-of-Oz techniques A human “wizard” simulates functions of the computer Widely used for prototyping recognition- and AI-based interactions With post-use interviews Can use logs of interaction to ground interviews February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 10
  • 11. Mobile messaging studies using wizards Suited to mobile messaging, e.g. Easy for wizards to interact Participants use their own devices Example: Photo-consumption study Needfinding for photo browsing and search Participants could make unbounded requests for photos WOZ prototype provided realistic motivations for requests Wizards reviewed request on the Web, responses sent via MMS February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 11
  • 12. Field experiments with text messaging Manipulate features of mobile messaging interactions experimentally Can range from product-optimizing “A-B testing for text messages” to scientific experiments testing theory Example: Self-disclosure and influence strategies (Eckles et al. 2007) 2 (sender: computer or human) x 3 (influence strategy) design Deception about humanity of sender is possible Participants signed up on a Web-based form Received text messages with questions of increasing intimacy Analyzed breadth (length) of disclosures February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 12
  • 13. Enabling technologies Sending and receiving messages Web server running PHP & MySQL NowSMS GSM modem Other software 4l8r service PhotoFinder prototype Participants’ mobile phones February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 13
  • 14. Contributors Diary studies Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto: Yan Xu, Mirjana Spasojevic Stanford University: Joel Brandt, Scott Klemmer Wizard-of-Oz techniques Yahoo! Research Berkeley: Shane Ahern, Simon King, Mor Naaman Field experiments Stanford University: Douglas Wightman, Claire Carlson, Attapol Thamrongrattanarit, Marcello Bastea-Forte, BJ Fogg, Leila Takayama, Clifford Nass February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 14
  • 15. References Brandt, J., Weiss, N., & Klemmer, S. R. (2007). txt 4 l8r: lowering the burden for diary studies under mobile conditions. Proc. CHI '07 Extended Abstracts. Eckles, D., Wightman, D., Carlson, C., Thamrongrattanarit, A., Bastea- Forte, M., & Fogg, B.J. Self-disclosure via mobile messaging: influence strategies and social responses to communication technologies. Adjunct Proc. Ubicomp 2007. Wheeler, L., & Reis, H. (1991). Self-recording of everyday life events: origins, types, and uses. Journal of personality, 59 (3). February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 15
  • 16. Photo credits Creative Commons photos • Slide 1: http://flickr.com/photos/yewenyi/539606563/ February 29, 2008 Research Methods for Mobile Messaging, Dean Eckles, Texting 4 Health, Stanford University 16