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Wikisym 2013 - Video Co-creation in Collaborative Online Communities


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Video Co-creation in Collaborative Online Communities, the case of Wiki Makes Video project in Wikipedia

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Wikisym 2013 - Video Co-creation in Collaborative Online Communities

  1. 1. Andrew  Lih Twitter:  Fuzheado     Email: Video  Co-­‐creation  in  Collaborative   Online  Communities Wikisym  2013 August  5,  2013 Associate  professor American  University School  of  Communication Monday, August 5, 13
  2. 2. Wikipedia and Video status Video patterns Experiments Guidelines,Wikipedia portal Ideas by bored-now@flickr, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution NC License Overview Monday, August 5, 13
  3. 3. Andrew  Lih Twitter:  Fuzheado cle view sourcediscussion history HOW A BUNCH OF NOBODIES CREATED THE WORLD’S GREATEST ENCYCLOPEDIA “Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That’s what we’re doing.” —Jimmy Wales With more than 2,000,000 individual articles on everything from Aa! (a Japanese pop group) to Zzyzx, California, written by an army of volunteer contributors, Wikipedia is the #8 site on the World Wide Web. Created (and corrected) by anyone with access to a computer, this impressive assemblage of knowledge is growing at an astonishing rate of more than 30,000,000 words a month. Now for the first time, a Wikipedia insider tells the story of how it all happened—from the first glimmer of an idea to the global phenomenon it’s become. Andrew Lih has been an administrator (a trusted user who is granted access to technical features) at Wikipedia for more than four years, as well as a regular host of the weekly Wikipedia podcast. In The Wikipedia Revolution, he details the site’s inception in 2001, its evolution, and its remarkable growth, while also explaining its larger cultural repercussions. Wikipedia is not just a website; it’s a global commu- nity of contributors who have banded together out of a shared passion for making knowledge free. Featuring a Foreword by Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales and an Afterword that is itself a Wikipedia creation. U.S. $24.99 pedia Revolution pedia, the free encyclopedia navigation, search s article is about the book. For the different, similar terms related to Wikipedia, see ipedia (terminology). Wikipedia’s non-encyclopedic visitor introduction, see Wikipedia:About. Revolution (pronunciation ) is the story of the free,[1] multilingual ency- roject supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. The website’s name anteau of the words wiki (a technology for creating collaborative websites) and dia. Wikipedia’s 10 million articles have been written collaboratively by volun- nd the world, and almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone who can Wikipedia website.[2] Launched in 2001 by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger,[3] it y the largest and most popular[1] general reference work on the Internet.[4][5][6] edia Revolution traces Wikipedia’s phenomenal success back to its roots, and e people who have contributed to its stated mission of giving every single person s to the sum of all human knowledge. THEWIKIPEDIAREVOLUTIONANDREWLIH HowaBunchofNobodies CreatedtheWorld’s GreatestEncyclopedia ISBN: 978-1-4013-0371-6 A N D R E W L I H e Introduction to The Wikipedia Revolution edia founder, Jimmy Wales ow, it’s hard not to use the Internet without experiencing Wikipedia in s and surfing. It has become an incredibly useful Internet resource in nguages. Yet when you use Wikipedia, you may not understand the phy behind it. book tells the story of how Wikipedia began and evolved from a traditional pedia into the intricate global community that it is today. Monday, August 5, 13
  4. 4. What I do • Weekly roundtable on PBS MediaShift podcast • Technology features for KCET in Los Angeles Monday, August 5, 13
  5. 5. Video @ Wikimania • Multimedia roundtable - Wednesday, 10 am. Fabrice Florin, WMF [[Submissions/ Multimedia_Roundtable]] • Towards a more visual encyclopedia - Saturday, 1130am. Andrew Lih • Wiki TV - Sunday, 200pm. Manuel Schneider Monday, August 5, 13
  6. 6. CHM • Computer History Museum curation advising - Wikipedia exhibit 2014 • Edit this Museum Exhibit @ Wikimania - Friday, 4pm. Monday, August 5, 13
  7. 7. Wikipedia  video  status Potential  for  great  video  storytelling How  many  videos  in  Wikipedia   articles? Monday, August 5, 13
  8. 8. Wikipedia  video  status Of  4.x  million  articles,  around  4,000 Only  0.1% Only  0.03%  of  high  quality Monday, August 5, 13
  9. 9. Wikipedia  video  status Articles  on  [[soccer]]  and   [[dance]]  -­‐  NO  VIDEO Britannica  and  Encarta  are/were   better  in  these  areas Monday, August 5, 13
  10. 10. Ward Cunningham This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License Monday, August 5, 13
  11. 11. Citizen  Global Video  co-­‐creation  using  mobile  app “Footage  call”  to  the  crowd Low  quality  submissions Low  visual  literacy Monday, August 5, 13
  12. 12. Citizen  Global Monday, August 5, 13
  13. 13. Reading/writing  text Reading Writing Easy Hard Monday, August 5, 13
  14. 14. Video  creation Watch video Produce video Easy Hard Monday, August 5, 13
  15. 15. Video  experiments MTV  UNfiltered  (1993-­‐1998) Teens  and  Hi-­‐8  camcorders Very  low  signal/noise  ratio Monday, August 5, 13
  16. 16. Common mistakes • “Uncle Murray” video • Nauseating kids party style; painting the walls • Bad framing • Poor pans, zooms, tilts that fail to halt • Badly lit scenes, backlight • Too many wide shots, no closeups • Not walking out of frame (Let my people go!) Monday, August 5, 13
  17. 17. Desirable habits • Hold a shot, treat it like a still camera • Linger: create > 10 second long clips • Panning: start steady, end steady • Hands off the zoom • Have sequences and alternatives in mind • Meaningful, useful B-roll Monday, August 5, 13
  18. 18. Journalism Common  problem:  teaching  video   storytelling Solution:  BBC  5  shot  method Wall  Street  Journal,  NY  Times That’s  a  pattern! Monday, August 5, 13
  19. 19. Solution Wikis  started  out  to  share   programming  patterns How  about  video  patterns? Provide  templates/direction  for   content  creators Monday, August 5, 13
  20. 20. News  Language Monday, August 5, 13
  21. 21. Video  Grammar The  Daily  Show TV  Tropes Community  (TV  show) Monday, August 5, 13
  22. 22. Video  Grammar Interview B-­‐roll  -­‐  secondary  footage Cutaway Line  of  action Rule  of  thirds Monday, August 5, 13
  23. 23. BBC  5  Shot  method Pattern  pioneered  by  Michael   Rosenblum,  NYT  Television,  NY1,   BBC,  CurrentTV Monday, August 5, 13
  24. 24. Five  Shot  method Closeup  on  hands Closeup  on  face Wide  shot Over  the  shoulder Unusual/side  shot Monday, August 5, 13
  25. 25. 25 Example:  Venice  Pier  Gets  its   Fill Monday, August 5, 13
  26. 26. Closeup of the hands Closeup of the face Wide shot Over the shoulder Unusual/ alternative WHAT!is!being!done?! Mystery!is!good:!half!the! frame!should!be!hands WHO!is!doing!it?! Show*TWO*EYES,*not*a* profile*shot WHERE!is!it!being!done?! Respect*the*LINE*OF*ACTION HOW!is!it!done?! Combine*into*POVClike*shot WHAT*ELSE!should! viewer!know? 1 2 3 4 5 Monday, August 5, 13
  27. 27. Five  Shot  basics Start  with  best  shot Get  audience  to  ask  questions Monday, August 5, 13
  28. 28. Why  it  works Engages  audience   Lighten  cognitive  load  with  good   continuity Monday, August 5, 13
  29. 29. Why  it  works Sequence  always  cuts  together Usable  B-­‐roll  all  the  time Mystery  closeups  draw  viewers  in Monday, August 5, 13
  30. 30. Method Compels  shooters  to  get  close Provides  known  game  plan Frees  brain  for  story  decisions Web  video  demands  closeups Monday, August 5, 13
  31. 31. Wikipedia  video  status How  do  we  use  this  to  get  more  video   in  Wikipedia? Monday, August 5, 13
  32. 32. Wiki  Makes  Video Spring  video  contest (Renamed  from  Lights  Camera  Wiki) Challenge  for  low-­‐hanging  fruit  topics Train  Wikimedians  on  video  literacy/ shooting Monday, August 5, 13
  33. 33. Monday, August 5, 13
  34. 34. Tiers  of  Video (Chet  Rhodes,  WaPost) Tier  1  -­‐  one-­‐take,  raw  video Tier  2  -­‐  light  production Tier  3  -­‐  heavy  production Monday, August 5, 13
  35. 35. Tier  1 Serbian  dessert Monday, August 5, 13
  36. 36. Tier  2 Berlin  Wall Monday, August 5, 13
  37. 37. Tier  2 Chris  Burden Monday, August 5, 13
  38. 38. Tier  3 Tie  Dye Monday, August 5, 13
  39. 39. Tier  3 Airstream Monday, August 5, 13
  40. 40. Tier  3 Spring  roll Monday, August 5, 13
  41. 41. Tier  3 Internet  Archive,  Brewster  Kahle Monday, August 5, 13
  42. 42. Patterns Food Finished  dish Ingredients Prep Cooking Final  dish Static  objects Closeup Wide  shot Detail Interesting/unusual Finale Human Hands Face Wide OTS Unusual Monday, August 5, 13
  43. 43. Wiki  Makes  Video  participation Clip  -­‐  existing  archives Shoot  -­‐  original  content Suggest  -­‐  recommendations Monday, August 5, 13
  44. 44. Challenges Video  standards... Open  source  standards  WebM  and   Ogg  Theora  not  widely  used No  collaborative  editing Storage  of  intermediate  work? Monday, August 5, 13
  45. 45. Video  Standards Patent  encumbered/ proprietary Open  source/open  standard Codec/container AVCHD,  MPEG-­‐2,  MPEG-­‐4,   Xvid,  AVI,  MOV Ogg  Theora,   WebM  (VP6)  -­‐  Google Embedding Flash HTML5 Availability Out-­‐of-­‐the-­‐box  commercial   support  (Apple,  Microsoft,   Samsung,  Sony,  Panasonic,   et  al) Limited  codec  support  (iOS   especially),  plugins  needed.   Chrome  built-­‐in Ubiquity Widespread,  both   professionals  and  amateurs Limited,  mostly  open  source   communities Monday, August 5, 13
  46. 46. Articles  Upgraded Sandbag Contact  lens African  penguin Longan Space  shuttle Airstream Monday, August 5, 13
  47. 47. Wiki  Makes  Video Define  sample  video  patterns Identify  topic  areas  for  video Train  novices  on  shooting/editing Tutorial  on  uploading/embedding Monday, August 5, 13
  48. 48. Video  Patterns Five  shot  pattern  (BBC) Food  pattern  (ingredients,  prep,   product) Monuments  pattern Monday, August 5, 13
  49. 49. Prime  topics Art/dance/sport  -­‐  bodies  in  motion Food  -­‐  cross-­‐cultural Monuments/architecture  -­‐  WLM Wildcard Monday, August 5, 13
  50. 50. Issues Best  way  to  get  high  participation? Best  way  to  describe  patterns? Over-­‐instruction  is  a  risk Best  way  to  track  progress,  tag? Best  way  to  judge? Monday, August 5, 13
  51. 51. Issues Video  still  a  “singleton”  effort Wikimedia  Foundation  had  a  video   initiative  (circa  2009) Partnered  with  Kaltura  for  web-­‐based   collaborative  editing:  effort  stalled Monday, August 5, 13
  52. 52. Issues Legal  problem:  freedom  of   panorama,  right  of  publicity Probably  should  do  model  release   forms  for  all  human  subjects Public  art  copyright  confusion   (ownership,  display,  et  al) Monday, August 5, 13
  53. 53. Future  work National  Geographic  2.0 Generic  XML-­‐based  “storyboard”   language  for  patterns Mobile  app Collaborative  editing,  storing   intermediate  work Partners? Monday, August 5, 13
  54. 54. Future  work Apps  and  software-­‐assisted   workflows Monday, August 5, 13
  55. 55. Examples  for  Citizen  Journalism CNN  iReport Rawporter Videolicious Wikinews/Wikipedia Monday, August 5, 13
  56. 56. Examples  for  video  apps Vine Instagram  video Viddy Monday, August 5, 13
  57. 57. Case:  Videolicious Requesting  user-­‐generated  videos   for  lifestyle  brands Unfortunately,  text-­‐heavy   descriptions Monday, August 5, 13
  58. 58. 58 Monday, August 5, 13
  59. 59. 59 Monday, August 5, 13
  60. 60. 60 #FAIL Too  much  text  instruction Wouldn’t  a  visual  system  be  desirable? Monday, August 5, 13
  61. 61. Case:  Rawporter Crowdsourced  videojournalism #FAIL Unclear  on  what  styles  of   video  footage  desired  by   news  organizations. Clip-­‐based,  not  story-­‐ based. Monday, August 5, 13
  62. 62. Materials Field  checklists Monday, August 5, 13
  63. 63. Challenge Checklist-­‐based,  two-­‐handed  operation   can  be  cumbersome Combine  these  two! Monday, August 5, 13
  64. 64. Evolution Paper  book Text/Photo Audio/Video Media  capture,   analysis,  transmission • Source: Monday, August 5, 13
  65. 65. Evolution Paper  book E-­‐textbook Text/Photo Audio/Video Media  capture,   analysis,  transmission • • • Source: Monday, August 5, 13
  66. 66. Evolution Paper  book E-­‐textbook E-­‐workbook Text/Photo Audio/Video Media  capture,   analysis,  transmission • • • • • • Source: Monday, August 5, 13
  67. 67. Instead  of  paper  instruction... Build  the  5  shot  method  into  device iPad  screen  ridiculously  big,  so take  advantage  of  its  UI  space Monday, August 5, 13
  68. 68. Prototype  interfaces Shot  list,  instruction  and  camera Monday, August 5, 13
  69. 69. Prototype  interfaces Analysis,  checklist,  camera  location Monday, August 5, 13
  70. 70. Prototype  interfaces Storyboard  of  shots  needed Provide  instruction/analysis 54321 Hands Face OTSWide Unusual Closeup on face WHO is doing it? • Frame with rule of thirds • Give “talk space” in front of eyes/nose. • Can cut off top of head, but not the chin. • SHOW TWO EYES! 2 FRAMING EYES NOSEROOM e-workbook REC Analyze Module: BBC 5 Shot Monday, August 5, 13
  71. 71. Interested  Parties Vericorder iPhone  hardware/software Five  shot  materials  used  in   video  training  at: Notre  Dame  University,   West  Virginia  University,   WTOP  in  Washington  DC Monday, August 5, 13
  72. 72. Android? Investigating  Open  Data  Kit (Apache  license) Monday, August 5, 13
  73. 73. 73 Monday, August 5, 13