Value of Fertilizers to• Pakistan Most of the agriculturally important regions have soils lacking in nitrogenous matter – an essential component required for healthy and high yields• High yielding variety (HYV) seeds use a lot of nutrients and some bulky crops like sugar cane exhaust soils of nutrients• To solve these problems and to maintain and increase high yields especially of cash cops are fertilizers essential to Pakistan.• The increase in water logging and salinity has also increased fertilizer use as farmers want to maintain and even increase crop production in reduced area.
A mustard plant growing in nitrate deficient soilEffects of various mineraldeficiencies on a wheat seedling
Through this process,ammonia is formed.Hydrogen and nitrogenare heated to 400-500°Cat a pressure of 130-300atmospheres in thepresence of iron catalystto form ammonia.Ammonia is cooled andliquefied for the nextstep.
Sindh - 92Kg per hectarePunjab – 61Kg per hectareNWFP – 37 Kg per hectareBalochistan – 15Kg perhectare
• All types of fertilizers formed are palletized• They are packed in plastic bags• Fertilizer bags are transported via road (on trucks and lorries) and via railway to agricultural lands• Farmers manually or mechanically spread it out on lands after ploughing and before planting the seeds• Palletized fertilizer spreads to a large area
These areas are on generally flat lands of plain areas whichenabled easy construction of factories due to more accessibility.There was also proper infrastructure because of the samereason.Nitrogen and mineral rocks are available virtuallyeverywhere in Pakistan but natural gas isn ’ t. This iswhy these factories are situated either near gas fields
with high population density meaning cheap labor is available. Although a capital intensive These factories are majorly situated in areas with high population density meaning cheap labor is available. Although a capital intensive large-scale industry, fertilizer industry still requires labor for various tasks (e.g. loading and unloading raw materials and fertilizer bags) Being a large-scale industry, it is largely mechanized for which power supply is essential. These factories are located along national grid and near thermal power plants (those in Punjab and Sindh) and the factory in Haripur is near Tarbela HEP plant. These factories are located where there is a proper infrastructure. There is a dense road and railway network near the factories. This enables raw materials to be rapidly supplied to them and fertilizers to be supplied from them.
These factories are situated in the middle of agriculturally important regions especially for cash crops like wheat, cotton, sugar-cane and rice. To increase their yields fertilizers are essential and an increase in fertilizer use has resulted in higher output production.MAPS : Labour(Population) Electricity Supply
- Pakistan has limited natural gas reserves so fertilizerindustry cannot consume more than a fixed portionbecause more of it is needed for further industrialization.- There is a lack of skilled labor.- It is a capital intensive industry and a lot of it isneeded for improvements in machinery or to set up morefactories.- Although power is available, frequent load sheddinghinders output.- Due to lack of skilled labor, institutional
-Deforestation had to be carried out to establish factories.-Eutrophication occurs when nitrate fertilizers leech into soil andcause algal blooms which deplete rivers of oxygen. This polluteswater and fish die.-Pollutant gases such as oxides of carbon and nitrogen areemitted during fertilizer preparation which cause air pollution.-Drinking water into which nitrates have leeched is toxic at highconcentrations- results in several disorders.-Ammonia can leak into air. It can cause respiratory disorders.-Fertilizers are expensive to buy and only large landowners can useit sufficiently.
- It uses a lot of power and since most of powergenerated in Pakistan is thermal, it indirectlyincreases petroleum import bills.- Fertilizers have to be imported as Pakistan is notself sufficient in fertilizer production. This furtherburdens the economy. Eutrophication
1) a) Explain why most fertilizer factories are in the Punjab and Northern Areas of Sindh? 2) Name the two raw materials (apart from natural gas) which are used to make fertilizers? 3) Why is it important that Pakistan manufactures its own fertilizers?  *P2/M/J/07*1) What environmental damage can occur when a new fertilizer factory is built in the rural areas?