Layout of the project of cotton textile industry of Pakistan.Raw materialProcessesOutput[products]Uses of productsLocationImportance of locationProblems faced by the industry faced by the people,environment,economyQuestion bank[2000-2007] Source: www.google.com www.cleo.net.uk
Process:At the textile mill, the bales are opened bymachines, and the lint is mixed and cleanedfurther by blowing and beating. The short lintthat comes out usually is separated and soldfor use in other industries
Carding:The combing action ofthe carding machinefinishes the job ofcleaning andstraightening thefibers, and makesthem into a soft,untwisted rope calleda sliver.
Spinning The spinning devices take fibers from the sliver and rotate it up to 2,500 revolutions in a second twist that makes fibers into a yarn for weaving or knitting into fabrics.
Weaving and knitting:Machines called looms weave cotton yarns into fabrics thesame way the first hand weaving frames did. Modernlooms work at great speeds.Until 1830 most weaving was done by hand on a wooden loomAfter 1830 the power loom was used in factories to weave cloth. Power loom Handweaving knitting frames
Final checking:Folding MachinesAfter the weaving is complete,the fabric is taken to thechecking department where itis checked and mended ifnecessary. After the fabrichas been woven and checkedthoroughly, it is folded byfolding machines . Finishing Finishing processes included dyeing, bleaching and printing. Some cotton goods are made by cotton manufacturers themselves.
By products:•The cottonseed which remains after thecotton is ginned, is used to producecottonseed oil, which after refining canbe consumed by humans like any othervegetable oil.•The cottonseed meal that is left, isgenerally fed to livestock.•Cotton linters are fine, silky fiberswhich adhere to the seeds of the cotton Lintplant after ginning. These curly fibersare typically less than 1/8in, 3mm long.Linters are traditionally used in themanufacture of paper and as a rawmaterial in the manufacture of cellulose Seeds
ProductsCotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth, used tomake highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim, used to make blue jeans; chambraypopularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts and corduroy, seersucker, andcotton twill.Socks and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets are often made from cotton.Cotton is also used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting.While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with otherfibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester.
Importance of cotton textile industry in Pakistan:• 1.3million farmers (out of a total of 5 million)cultivate cotton over 3 million hectares, covering15 per cent of the cultivable area in the country.•Cotton and cotton products contribute about 10per cent to GDP and 55 per cent to the foreignexchange earnings of the country.•Taken as a whole, between 30 and 40 per cent ofthe cotton ends up as domestic consumption offinal products. The remaining is exported as rawcotton, yarn, cloth, and garments.• The sector provides employment to a verylarge number of people•Pakistan is the fifth largest producer of cotton inthe world, the third largest exporter of rawcotton, the fourth largest consumer of cotton,and the largest exporter of cotton yarn.Cotton production supports Pakistan’s largest industrial sector, comprising some400 textile mills. It is by any measure Pakistan’s most important economic sector .
Problems faced by the industry:Shortage of raw materials: this is due to the crop and soildiseases.Market recession: this is due to immense competition.Over capitalization and hence unfeasible performance.Uncertain viability of spinning sector at international pricesof raw cottonFinancial constraints: this is due to low crop yield. Lack of timely modernization according to the market requirement: this is due to outdated machinery and lack of technical knowledgeIn-efficient management: this is due to the firm being too large to control by therelatively incapable supervisors .Labour problems: unskilled labour due to lack of training.Disputes amongst directors/family/share holders and various cases pending incourtsLaw and order situation: this is due to political instability and corruptionPower disconnection: this is due to frequent long hours of load shading whichresults in the damage of machinery.
Economic Problems In order to meet the increasing demand of cotton, cotton has to be imported and due to which a huge amount of foreign exchange has to be spent to import cotton. If cotton is destroyed by a lot of pests then local market and the export of cotton will be effected and Pakistan will be short of revenue. if cotton is destroyed because of alot of pests, this means that there would be a decrease in the crop yield and then export of cotton is dropped and the cotton industry is at a loss. It will have to invest more money to grow new crops which is a burden on the economy.Some cotton pests
Problems faced by the people,environment:Cotton is the top crop consuming around 85 % of applied pesticides.Heavy consumption of pesticides and poor irrigation practices turn the fields barren-contaminated with salt and pesticides. Drinking water pollution, childhood illness including blood diseases and birth defectsare observed.Cotton textile workers have an increased prevalence of both obstructive andrestrictive lung function patterns when compared to control subjects.Secondary pest outbreaks, ecosystem imbalance and crop failure are some other sideeffects.The experience of undesired effects from the application of pesticides in cottonfield had been a global reality. A full-time farm worker since the age of seven, Matthews is all too familiar with the effects of pesticides. In a single days work with plants saturated in heavy chemicals, Matthews has lost her finger and toenails.
Question bankb)1) Explain why Karachi is the largest cotton textilemanufacturing center in Pakistan. 2) Two of the three main cotton textile manufacturing centersof Pakistan are situated within areas which grow cotton. Nameone of these centers. 3)Quetta is a ‘market-oriented’ cotton textile manufacturingcenter.what does this mean? c)1)Compare transport by road and rail for raw cotton from thefarms to where it is processesed within Pakistan.