Geographical distribution of Rice Ecologies in Ghana• Rainfed lowlands are distributed in all 10 administrative regions and across all the agro- ecological zones• Upland: Distributed across all the regions except Greater Accra. However, upland rice production is concentrated mostly in Volta and Western regions• Irrigated: There are 22 irrigation schemes distributed in nine regions. Only 13 schemes are being used for rice production
Table 1: Categorization of paddy fields in Ghana Lowland rain- Upland rain- Irrigated Total fed fedPlanted Area 93,750 18,750 10,200 122,700 (Ha) Paddy 2.4 1.0 4.5 2.4 (MT/Ha) Paddy 224,700 18,750 45,900 289,350 Production (MT) % of Total 76 15 8 100 Area % of Total 78 6 16 100 ProductionSource: “The study on the Promotion of Domestic Rice in the Republic of Ghana,”MoFA and JICA, (Final Report, March 2008).
Table 2: Distribution of irrigated rice schemes in GhanaName of scheme Location (Region) Agro-ecological Main biotic stresses zoneAfife Volta Coastal savannah salinityAveyime Volta Coastal savannah salinityAnum valley Ashanti Forest Submergence, Fe toxicityBotanga Northern SavannahGolinga Northern SavannahLibga Northern SavannahAshiaman Greater Accra Coastal savannah SalinityDawhenya Greater Accra Coastal savannah SalinityOkyereko Central Coastal savannah Salinity, Fe toxicityKikam Western Rain forest Fe toxicityVea (ICOUR) Upper East Guinea savannahKpong Greater Accra Coatal savannahTono (ICOUR) Upper East Guinea savannah
Rain-fed Lowland Ecology• This ecology has water management problems as a result of frequent flooding from ground water and precipitation.• When well developed (with simple water management techniques) and mechanized, its yield potential can be substantially enhanced.• Studies undertaken in 1996 (confirmed in 2000) showed that the rain-fed lowland ecology is the most profitable for rice production provided water management and cultural practices are improved
Irrigated Ecology• This ecology records the highest rice yields• Levels of technology utilization are higher than in both rain-fed lowland and upland ecologies (improved land preparation, improved varieties, fertilizer application and weed control through water management).
Rain-fed Upland Ecology• This ecology is characterized by an erratic rainfall pattern.• There are also problems of weed competition, low soil fertility and pest damage• Rice varieties suitable for the ecology are short duration and drought-tolerant types
Table 3a: Major Abiotic & Biotic Stresses for Rice EcologiesEcology Abiotic Stress Biotic Stress Drought, poor seedling Weeds, brown spot,Upland establishment, phosphorus, narrow leaf spot, blast, N and Zn deficiencies bird damage, stem borers, nematodes
Table 3b: Major Abiotic & Biotic Stresses for Rice EcologiesEcology Abiotic Stress Biotic Stress Submergence, flash Weeds, brown spot,Rainfed floods, terminal drought, narrow leaf spot,Lowlands Fe toxicity, salinity, blast, bird damage, declining soil fertility stem borers, nematodesIrrigated Salinity, Fe toxicity Weeds, bird damage, stem borers, nematodes
Primary Processing– Pre-drying Primary processing occurs in all the ecologies in the major rice– Bulking growing regions in Ghana. In the– Threshing irrigated fields there is better access to machinery/equipment.– Winnowing– Drying Processing Standards are– Paddy storage therefore high. Small holder farmers in the rain-fed lowland and upland ecologies manually engage in these primary processing activities
Secondary Processing •In very remote area milling is still done with Steel hullers •Individuals own mini rubber roll– Parboiling mills and offer services on custom basis– Milling •Parboiling of paddy rice is done– Grading exclusively by women processes in– Packaging the Northern part of the country where rain-fed lowland rice& marketing production is predominant •Standard mills quipped with destoners, graders occur in irrigated areas
Major Processing Constraints• The poor quality of paddy produced• Inadequate and inefficient processing and milling equipment resulting in poor quality milled rice• Inadequate and poor post harvest infrastructure (e.g.. storage/warehousing facilities -refer to pic below)• Poor Access roads and utility services in production & processing areas• Inadequate funding/credit facilities for value chain actors• Others - Market access
Recent achievements on technology development - processing & value addition• Capacity building of value chain actors to produce quality rice through improved post production handling of rice• Packaging, branding and Promotion of the locally produced rice (comes with its additional cost) e.g. Gbewa, Worawora, Rhema Perfume
Recent achievements on technology development - processing & value addition (con’t)• Building of linkages between value chain actors• Installation of standard mills at strategic positions (through projects and government efforts)• Capacity building of artisanal parboilers in improved parboiling techniques
On-going research activities processing & value addition1. Development of Rice Varieties with Enhanced Nitrogen-Use Efficiency and Salt Tolerance (NUE- EST-AATF) • Milling and Sensory tests on Nerica 4 and Lowland Nerica 91. Expanded Rice Programme • Improved post harvest handling and marketing1. Enhancing Food Security in Africa through the Improvement of Rice Post-Harvest Handling, Marketing and the Development of New Rice-Based Products