19.3

Previously, on HCHEM….

THE LARGER THE Ka THE STRONGER
THE ACID!!

The larger the Kb the more dissociation
occurs, s...
19.5
Salts can be acidic or basic if one of the
 ions is a conjugate of something weak.
19.5
Salts can be acidic or basic if one of the
 ions is a conjugate of something weak.

Ex.
NH4Cl is an acidic salt becau...
19.5
Salts can be acidic or basic if one of the
 ions is a conjugate of something weak.

Ex.
NH4Cl is an acidic salt becau...
To determine whether a salt solution is acidic
 or basic, remember the following rules:




 Not because the strong ones g...
Would the following salts create acidic
or basic solutions when dissolved in
water?



    NaCl
    KC2H3O2
    NH4NO3
Would the following salts create acidic
or basic solutions when dissolved in
water?
                  cation      anion
  ...
19.5
Vapors of the strong acid HCl(aq) and
 the weak base NH3(aq) combine to
 form the acidic white salt ammonium
 chlorid...
A buffer is a solution that resists changes in
  pH when moderate amounts of acids or
               bases are added.
Buffer solutions are prepared by mixing
  a weak acid with its conjugate base
                   or
  a weak base with its...
Buffer solutions are prepared by mixing
  a weak acid with its conjugate base
                   or
  a weak base with its...
A buffer solution can be prepared by
using the weak base ammonia, NH3, and
   an ammonium salt, such as NH4Cl.
A buffer solution can be prepared by
 using the weak base ammonia, NH3, and
    an ammonium salt, such as NH4Cl.

• When a...
A buffer solution can be prepared by
 using the weak base ammonia, NH3, and
    an ammonium salt, such as NH4Cl.

• When a...
Another buffer system contains the weak
 acid acetic acid, HC2H3O2, and the salt
       sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2.
Another buffer system contains the weak
  acid acetic acid, HC2H3O2, and the salt
        sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2.
• If b...
Another buffer system contains the weak
  acid acetic acid, HC2H3O2, and the salt
        sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2.
• If b...
The buffer capacity is the
 amount of acid or base that
 can be added to a buffer
 solution before a significant
 change i...
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Lecture 19.5- Buffers & salts HONORS

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Lecture 19.5 for Honors Chemistry

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Lecture 19.5- Buffers & salts HONORS

  1. 1. 19.3 Previously, on HCHEM…. THE LARGER THE Ka THE STRONGER THE ACID!! The larger the Kb the more dissociation occurs, so the stronger the base. The conjugates of weak acids & bases are strong.
  2. 2. 19.5 Salts can be acidic or basic if one of the ions is a conjugate of something weak.
  3. 3. 19.5 Salts can be acidic or basic if one of the ions is a conjugate of something weak. Ex. NH4Cl is an acidic salt because NH4+ is the conjugate of a weak base.
  4. 4. 19.5 Salts can be acidic or basic if one of the ions is a conjugate of something weak. Ex. NH4Cl is an acidic salt because NH4+ is the conjugate of a weak base. NaCH3COO is a basic salt because CH3COO- is the conjugate of a weak acid
  5. 5. To determine whether a salt solution is acidic or basic, remember the following rules: Not because the strong ones give more ions. In a neutralization weak acids and bases will give all of their ions because they are neutralized. (shifts equilibrium towards dissociation) It is because of the acid/base properties of the conjugates.
  6. 6. Would the following salts create acidic or basic solutions when dissolved in water? NaCl KC2H3O2 NH4NO3
  7. 7. Would the following salts create acidic or basic solutions when dissolved in water? cation anion from base from acid NaCl weak weak KC2H3O2 weak basic NH4NO3 acidic weak
  8. 8. 19.5 Vapors of the strong acid HCl(aq) and the weak base NH3(aq) combine to form the acidic white salt ammonium chloride (NH4Cl).
  9. 9. A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when moderate amounts of acids or bases are added.
  10. 10. Buffer solutions are prepared by mixing a weak acid with its conjugate base or a weak base with its conjugate acid
  11. 11. Buffer solutions are prepared by mixing a weak acid with its conjugate base or a weak base with its conjugate acid Buffers can neutralize both OH– and H+ when one of these ions is added to the buffered solution.
  12. 12. A buffer solution can be prepared by using the weak base ammonia, NH3, and an ammonium salt, such as NH4Cl.
  13. 13. A buffer solution can be prepared by using the weak base ammonia, NH3, and an ammonium salt, such as NH4Cl. • When acid is added, NH3 reacts with H+. NH3 + H+  NH4+
  14. 14. A buffer solution can be prepared by using the weak base ammonia, NH3, and an ammonium salt, such as NH4Cl. • When acid is added, NH3 reacts with H+. NH3 + H+  NH4+ • If a base is added, the NH4+ ion from the – salt reacts with the OH . NH4+ + OH-  NH3 + H2O
  15. 15. Another buffer system contains the weak acid acetic acid, HC2H3O2, and the salt sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2.
  16. 16. Another buffer system contains the weak acid acetic acid, HC2H3O2, and the salt sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2. • If base is added, the weak acid reacts to neutralize the addition. HC2H3O2 + OH-  C2H3O2- + H2O
  17. 17. Another buffer system contains the weak acid acetic acid, HC2H3O2, and the salt sodium acetate, NaC2H3O2. • If base is added, the weak acid reacts to neutralize the addition. HC2H3O2 + OH-  C2H3O2- + H2O • If acid is added, the acetate ion from the NaC2H3O2 will neutralize the added H+. C2H3O2- + H+  HC2H3O2
  18. 18. The buffer capacity is the amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs.

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