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Chapter Four Lecture- Ecosystems

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Chapter Four Lecture- Ecosystems

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Chapter Four Lecture- Ecosystems

  1. 1. Chapter Four Ecosystems & Communities
  2. 2. 4.1 The Role of Climate
  3. 3. Weather 4.1 The Role of Climate The condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place Weather changes
  4. 4. Climate 4.1 The Role of Climate Describes the average temperature and precipitation for an area Relatively unchanging
  5. 5. The Greenhouse Effect 4.1 The Role of Climate Certain gases in the atmosphere trap heat on Earth’s surface. CO2 H2O CH4
  6. 6. Climate & Latitude 4.1 The Role of Climate Earth has three main climate zones polar zones temperate zones tropical zone
  7. 7. Climate & Latitude 4.1 The Role of Climate Sunlight hits the Earth more directly at the equator.
  8. 8. Climate & Latitude 4.1 The Role of Climate Sunlight is spread over greater area at the poles, so it is less intense.
  9. 9. Climate & Latitude 4.1 The Role of Climate Temperate zones have distinct seasons.
  10. 10. Heat Flow on Earth 4.1 The Role of Climate Warmed air rises at the equator and falls as it cools near the poles. CONVECTION
  11. 11. Heat Flow on Earth 4.1 The Role of Climate
  12. 12. Heat Flow on Earth Ocean currents are caused by convection and wind. 4.1 The Role of Climate
  13. 13. Habitat 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? A habitat is where an organism lives.
  14. 14. Habitat 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Both biotic and abiotic factors affect organisms and ecosystems.
  15. 15. Habitat 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  16. 16. 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  17. 17. Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Competition- Organisms compete for resources, like water, food, or space.
  18. 18. Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Competitive Exclusion Principle No two species can occupy the same niche
  19. 19. Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Predation- One organism feeds on another
  20. 20. Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Symbiosis- close relationships between species mutualism commensalism parasitism
  21. 21. Mutualism- both species benefit Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  22. 22. Mutualism- both species benefit Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  23. 23. Mutualism- both species benefit Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  24. 24. Mutualism- both species benefit Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  25. 25. Commensalism One species benefits, one is unaffected Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  26. 26. Commensalism One species benefits, one is unaffected Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  27. 27. Parasitism- One species benefits, the other is harmed Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  28. 28. Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Parasitism- One species benefits, the other is harmed
  29. 29. Community Interactions Affect Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Parasitism- One species benefits, the other is harmed
  30. 30. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances.
  31. 31. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Ecological succession describes changes that occur as a new ecosystem develops.
  32. 32. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
  33. 33. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Occurs when there is no soil Primary succession
  34. 34. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? pioneer plants are lichens Primary succession
  35. 35. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Dead lichen produce soil where tiny plants can grow Primary succession
  36. 36. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Small plants grow when soil is present Secondary succession
  37. 37. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? pioneer plants are often lichens Primary succession
  38. 38. Changing Ecosystems 4.2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? pioneer plants are often lichens Primary succession
  39. 39. Biomes 4.3 Biomes A biome covers a large area and is characterized by certain soil and climate conditions and particular types of plants and animals. Desert Biome
  40. 40. Biomes 4.3 Biomes tropical rain forest tropical dry forest tropical savanna desert temperate grassland temperate woodland and shrubland temperate forest northwestern coniferous forest boreal forest tundra Tundra Biome

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