Salt hydrolysis

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  • NH4NO3 acidic because NH4 is a weak acid that can interact with water!KCl neutral because the salt is made from a strong acid and baseNaHCO3 is basic because HCO3- can act as a weak baseNa2SO3 is basic because SO32- can act as a weak base
  • Salt hydrolysis

    1. 1.  Salt Hydrolysis: reaction of the anions or cations in a salt with water to form an acidic or basic solution.
    2. 2. Salt + water = ? 1. Neutral solution 2. Basic solution 3. Acidic solution
    3. 3. Salt + water = ? 1. Neutral solution: Conjugate of strong Acid + conjugate of strong Base  neutral solution •Things to consider: –Metal hydroxides of group I and II except Be are strong bases –All other metal hydroxides are weak bases
    4. 4. Salt + water = ? 1. Neutral solution: 2. Basic solution: Conj. of weak acid + Conj. of strong base  basic solution
    5. 5.  Sodium Ethanoate (CH3COONa) › The salt of a weak acid (CH3COOH) and a strong base (NaOH) › Completely ionizes in solution: CH3COONa  CH3COO- + Na+ › CH3COO- acts as a base  Will take H+ from water! CH3COO- + H2O OH- CH3COOH +  Why is the resulting solution basic?
    6. 6. Salt + water = ? 1. Neutral solution: 2. Basic solution: 3. Acidic solution: Conj. of weak base + Conj. of strong acid  acidic solution
    7. 7.  Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) › NH4Cl is the salt of a strong acid (HCl) and a weak base (NH3) › Completely ionizes in solution: NH4Cl  NH4+ + Cl› NH4+ acts as an acid in water NH4+ + H2O H3O+ + NH3  Why is the resulting solution acidic?
    8. 8.  Determine if the following aqueous solutions will be acidic, basic or neutral: › NH4NO3 › KCl › NaHCO3 › Na2SO3
    9. 9. When the negative ion is from a weak acid then the salt is basic by hydrolysis  When the positive ion is from a weak base then the salt is acidic by hydrolysis  If the salt is formed from a strong acid and strong base then it is neutral  If the salt is formed from a weak acid and weak base then its hydrolysis is determined by the relative Ka and Kb values 
    10. 10.  This effect is typified in aluminium salts (the aluminium ion has a charge of 3+) which are very acidic in solution.

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