SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Acids, Bases And Buffers Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-II (Part-I)

Acids, Bases And Buffers Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-II (Part-I) Acids, Bases are defined by Four main theories, 1.Traditional theory / concept 2.Arrhenius theory 3.Bronsted and Lowry theory 4.Lewis theory Importance of acids and bases in pharmacy Buffers: Buffer action Buffer capacity Buffers system Types of Buffers : Generally buffers are of two types: 1. Acidic buffers 2. Basic buffers There are some other buffer system: 3. Two salts acts as acid-base pair. Ex- Potassium hydrogen phosphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. 4. Amphoteric electrolyte. Ex- Solution of glycine. 5. Solution of strong acid and solution of strong base. Ex- Strong HCl with KCl Mechanism of Buffer action: Mechanism of Action of acidic buffers: Buffer equation-Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: Standard Buffer Solutions Preparation of Buffer Solutions: Buffers in pharmaceutical systems or Application of buffer: Stability of buffers Buffered isotonic solution Types of Buffer Isotonic solution 1. Isotonic Solutions: 2. Hypertonic Solutions: 3. Hypotonic Solution: Measurement of Tonicity: 1. Hemolytic method: 2. Cryoscopic method or depression of freezing point: Methods of adjusting the tonicity: Class I methods: In this type, sodium chloride or other substances are added to the solution in sufficient quantity to make it isotonic. Then the preparation is brought to its final volume withan isotonic or a buffered isotonic diluting solution. These methods are of two types: Cryoscopic method Sodium chloride equivalent method. Class II methods: In this type, water is added in sufficient quantity make the preparation isotonic. Then the preparation is brought to its volume with an isotonic or a buffered isotonic diluting solution. These methods are of two types: White-Vincent method Sprowls method.

1 of 61
Download to read offline
Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry
UNIT-II (Part-I)
Acids, Bases And Buffers
Presented By
Ms. Pooja D. Bhandare
(Assistant Professor)
DADASAHEB BALPANDE COLLEGE OF PHARMACY BESA NAGPUR
Acids, Bases are defined by Four main theories,
1.Traditional theory / concept
2.Arrhenius theory
3.Bronsted and Lowry theory
4.Lewistheory
1. Traditional theory / concept-Acid:
• Acids: are the substances
• Which converts blue litmus paper to red
• Having the PH<7
• Sour taste
• React with bases to form salts and water
• Eg:-Hydrochloric acid(HCl)
1. Traditional theory / concept-Base:
Base: are the substances
• Which converts red litmus paper to blue
• Having the PH>7
• Bitter taste
• React with Acids to form salts and water
• Eg: Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
2. Arrhenius theory:
The Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius proposed the first definition of acids
and bases
• According to Arrhenius Concept, Acid are substance which are capable of
providing
• Hydrogen ions (H+, proton) when dissolved in water and bases are
substances which are capable
• of providing hydroxide ions (OH-, hydroxyl ions) in aqueous solution.
• For example, Hydrochloric acid in the water, HCl undergoes dissociation
reaction to
• produce H+ ion and Cl– ion, as explained below. The concentration of the
H+ ions is increased by
• forming hydronium ion.
• HCl (aq) → H+(aq) + Cl– (aq)
• HCl (aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + Cl– (aq)
• Other examples of Arrhenius acids are listed below
• NHO3(aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+ (aq) + NO3–
• In this reaction, nitric acid dissolves in aqueous water to give hydrogen
and nitrate ions.
• Another example of Arrhenius Base is
NaOH + H2O → Na+ + OH- + H2O

Recommended

Major extra and intracellular electrolytes. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistr...
Major extra and intracellular electrolytes. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistr...Major extra and intracellular electrolytes. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistr...
Major extra and intracellular electrolytes. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistr...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptxGastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptx
Gastrointestinal agents.Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-III pptxMs. Pooja Bhandare
 
limit test for lead
limit test for leadlimit test for lead
limit test for leadTAUFIK MULLA
 
Gastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agentsESHA SHAH
 
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant...
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant...Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant...
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.
Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.
Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.EXCELRA
 
Sources and types of impurities
Sources and types of impuritiesSources and types of impurities
Sources and types of impuritiesjagan vana
 
pharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry
pharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistrypharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry
pharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistrynehla313
 
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYUnit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYSayali Powar
 
Limit test of Arsenic
Limit test of ArsenicLimit test of Arsenic
Limit test of ArsenicSonali Pawar
 
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal AgentsChapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal AgentsChetan Jain
 
Expectorant and emetics ppt
Expectorant and emetics pptExpectorant and emetics ppt
Expectorant and emetics pptJyotiGadade
 
Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)
  Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)  Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)
Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)Harshadaa bafna
 
UNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYUNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYSayali Powar
 
Non aqueous titrations
Non aqueous titrationsNon aqueous titrations
Non aqueous titrationsUday Deokate
 
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit TestLimt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit TestMs. Pooja Bhandare
 
Dental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.Pharm
Dental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.PharmDental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.Pharm
Dental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.PharmHimanshu Sharma
 
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances
Impurities in pharmaceutical substancesImpurities in pharmaceutical substances
Impurities in pharmaceutical substancesTushar Tukre
 
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)Yunesalsayadi
 
Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.Nidhi Sharma
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationmeraj khan
 
Gastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agents Gastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agents Afroj Shaikh
 

What's hot (20)

Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.
Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.
Modified limit tests for chlorides and sulphates.
 
Sources and types of impurities
Sources and types of impuritiesSources and types of impurities
Sources and types of impurities
 
pharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry
pharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistrypharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry
pharmacopoeia and monograph, pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry
 
7.limit test for arsenic
7.limit test for arsenic7.limit test for arsenic
7.limit test for arsenic
 
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYUnit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Unit 1 PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 
Sources of impurities
Sources of impuritiesSources of impurities
Sources of impurities
 
Limit test of Arsenic
Limit test of ArsenicLimit test of Arsenic
Limit test of Arsenic
 
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal AgentsChapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
Chapter No 3 : Gastrointestinal Agents
 
Expectorant and emetics ppt
Expectorant and emetics pptExpectorant and emetics ppt
Expectorant and emetics ppt
 
Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)
  Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)  Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)
Introduction to Pharmaceutical analysis - I (HRB)
 
UNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRYUNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
UNIT II PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
 
Non aqueous titrations
Non aqueous titrationsNon aqueous titrations
Non aqueous titrations
 
Limit Tests ppt
Limit Tests pptLimit Tests ppt
Limit Tests ppt
 
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit TestLimt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
Limt test Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-I (Part-III) Limit Test
 
Dental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.Pharm
Dental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.PharmDental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.Pharm
Dental Product Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B.Pharm
 
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances
Impurities in pharmaceutical substancesImpurities in pharmaceutical substances
Impurities in pharmaceutical substances
 
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
Conductometry (Pharmaceutical analysis)
 
Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.Non-aqueous titration.
Non-aqueous titration.
 
Non aqueous titration
Non aqueous titrationNon aqueous titration
Non aqueous titration
 
Gastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agents Gastrointestinal agents
Gastrointestinal agents
 

Similar to Acids, Bases And Buffers Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-II (Part-I)

Acidandbase chm141 thursday[1]goodday
Acidandbase chm141 thursday[1]gooddayAcidandbase chm141 thursday[1]goodday
Acidandbase chm141 thursday[1]gooddayDr Robert Craig PhD
 
Acid base and buffers
Acid base and buffersAcid base and buffers
Acid base and buffersabhishek rai
 
acids-and-bases-lecture.ppt
acids-and-bases-lecture.pptacids-and-bases-lecture.ppt
acids-and-bases-lecture.pptLiezlValiente1
 
UNIT II: Acid, Base and Buffer
UNIT II: Acid, Base and BufferUNIT II: Acid, Base and Buffer
UNIT II: Acid, Base and BufferSONALI PAWAR
 
unitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdf
unitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdfunitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdf
unitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdfKpParmar4
 
lectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptx
lectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptxlectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptx
lectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptxayeshafozan1
 
body fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptx
body fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptxbody fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptx
body fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptxbreenaawan
 
Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)
Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)
Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)Dr. Alex Martin
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02Cleophas Rwema
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02Cleophas Rwemera
 
Acids and bases
Acids and basesAcids and bases
Acids and basesdanhol1
 
Chapter 16
Chapter 16Chapter 16
Chapter 16ewalenta
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02Cleophas Rwema
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02Cleophas Rwemera
 

Similar to Acids, Bases And Buffers Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-II (Part-I) (20)

Acidandbase chm141 thursday[1]goodday
Acidandbase chm141 thursday[1]gooddayAcidandbase chm141 thursday[1]goodday
Acidandbase chm141 thursday[1]goodday
 
Acid and bases
Acid and basesAcid and bases
Acid and bases
 
Acids and bases 13052020
Acids and bases 13052020Acids and bases 13052020
Acids and bases 13052020
 
Acid base and buffers
Acid base and buffersAcid base and buffers
Acid base and buffers
 
acids-and-bases-lecture.ppt
acids-and-bases-lecture.pptacids-and-bases-lecture.ppt
acids-and-bases-lecture.ppt
 
UNIT II: Acid, Base and Buffer
UNIT II: Acid, Base and BufferUNIT II: Acid, Base and Buffer
UNIT II: Acid, Base and Buffer
 
unitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdf
unitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdfunitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdf
unitiiaacidbaseandbuffer-210325063555.pdf
 
lectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptx
lectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptxlectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptx
lectures 17-20, Trimester 2, AY 22-23.pptx
 
Acid Base Buffer
Acid Base BufferAcid Base Buffer
Acid Base Buffer
 
body fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptx
body fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptxbody fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptx
body fluids (water, acid, base and buffers).pptx
 
Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)
Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)
Acid and bases (PCI Syllabus, B.Pharm)
 
Acid base and acid base titration
Acid base and acid base titrationAcid base and acid base titration
Acid base and acid base titration
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart1 120226122440-phpapp02
 
ph and buffers
 ph and buffers ph and buffers
ph and buffers
 
Acids and bases
Acids and basesAcids and bases
Acids and bases
 
Chapter 16
Chapter 16Chapter 16
Chapter 16
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
 
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
Apchemunit14presentationpart2 120227191453-phpapp02
 
Acids and bases
Acids and basesAcids and bases
Acids and bases
 

More from Ms. Pooja Bhandare

Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptx
Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptxPharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptx
Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptxMs. Pooja Bhandare
 
Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...
Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...
Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Introduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptx
Introduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptxIntroduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptx
Introduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptxMs. Pooja Bhandare
 
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...
Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...
Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T) Uni...
FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Uni...FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Uni...
FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T) Uni...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Cultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptx
Cultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptxCultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptx
Cultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptxMs. Pooja Bhandare
 
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...
Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...
Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptxPharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptxMs. Pooja Bhandare
 
Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5
Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5
Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...
Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...
Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...
Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...
Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Microbiological Assay of Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...
Microbiological Assay of  Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...Microbiological Assay of  Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...
Microbiological Assay of Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...
Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...
Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 
Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...
Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...
Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...Ms. Pooja Bhandare
 

More from Ms. Pooja Bhandare (20)

Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptx
Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptxPharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptx
Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-V Radiopharmaceutical.pptx
 
Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...
Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...
Types and Sources of impurities.pptx Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-...
 
Introduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptx
Introduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptxIntroduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptx
Introduction of Inorganic Chemistry, History of Pharmacopoeia.pptx
 
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants. PH...
 
Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...
Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...
Plant Growth Regulators Plant Harmone Phytoharmone. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochem...
 
FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T) Uni...
FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Uni...FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Uni...
FACTORS AFFECTING CULTIVATION. PHARMACOGNOSY & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T) Uni...
 
Cultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptx
Cultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptxCultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptx
Cultivation and collections of drugs of natural origin..pptx
 
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin. PHARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I ...
 
Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...
Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...
Classification of Crude Drugs. HARMACognosy & Phytochemistry-I (BP405T)Unit-I...
 
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptxPharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry-I Unit-IPart-1Introduction of Pharmacognosy..pptx
 
Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5
Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5
Applications of cell culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (BP303T)Unit-VPart-5
 
Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...
Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...
Animal Cell Culture: Growth of animal cells in culture. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROB...
 
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents. PHARMACEU...
 
Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...
Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...
Assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLO...
 
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical...
 
Microbiological Assay of Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...
Microbiological Assay of  Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...Microbiological Assay of  Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...
Microbiological Assay of Vitamin & Amino acid Assessment of a New Antibiotic...
 
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay, methods for standa...
 
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipment: Study of different source ...
 
Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...
Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...
Sterility testing products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile pro...
 
Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...
Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...
Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic (Disinfectant). PHARMACEUTICAL ...
 

Recently uploaded

Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
skeletal system details with joints and its types
skeletal system details with joints and its typesskeletal system details with joints and its types
skeletal system details with joints and its typesMinaxi patil. CATALLYST
 
Intuition behind Monte Carlo Markov Chains
Intuition behind Monte Carlo Markov ChainsIntuition behind Monte Carlo Markov Chains
Intuition behind Monte Carlo Markov ChainsTushar Tank
 
HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)
HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)
HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)Rabiya Husain
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...EduSkills OECD
 
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionPersuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionCorinne Weisgerber
 
UniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapitolTechU
 
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesTushar Tank
 
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYSOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYGloriaRamos83
 
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptxEvaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptxgarvitnanecha
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasAlexandraSwartzwelde
 
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaBTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaFaheema Hasan
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theorynivedithag131
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
 
skeletal system details with joints and its types
skeletal system details with joints and its typesskeletal system details with joints and its types
skeletal system details with joints and its types
 
Intuition behind Monte Carlo Markov Chains
Intuition behind Monte Carlo Markov ChainsIntuition behind Monte Carlo Markov Chains
Intuition behind Monte Carlo Markov Chains
 
HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)
HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)
HOW TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (FOR RESEARCH SCHOLARS)
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
 
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of PersuasionPersuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
Persuasive Speaking and Means of Persuasion
 
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptxfirst section physiology laboratory.pptx
first section physiology laboratory.pptx
 
UniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Fraser Coast library self-guided tour
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Feb 2024 Darrell Burrell.pptx
 
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tourUniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
UniSC Sunshine Coast library self-guided tour
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
 
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with ExamplesBayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
Bayesian Analysis Fundamentals with Examples
 
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
 
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYSOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
 
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptxEvaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
 
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaBTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
 
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
 

Acids, Bases And Buffers Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-II (Part-I)

  • 1. Pharmaceutical Inorganic chemistry UNIT-II (Part-I) Acids, Bases And Buffers Presented By Ms. Pooja D. Bhandare (Assistant Professor) DADASAHEB BALPANDE COLLEGE OF PHARMACY BESA NAGPUR
  • 2. Acids, Bases are defined by Four main theories, 1.Traditional theory / concept 2.Arrhenius theory 3.Bronsted and Lowry theory 4.Lewistheory
  • 3. 1. Traditional theory / concept-Acid: • Acids: are the substances • Which converts blue litmus paper to red • Having the PH<7 • Sour taste • React with bases to form salts and water • Eg:-Hydrochloric acid(HCl)
  • 4. 1. Traditional theory / concept-Base: Base: are the substances • Which converts red litmus paper to blue • Having the PH>7 • Bitter taste • React with Acids to form salts and water • Eg: Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
  • 5. 2. Arrhenius theory: The Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius proposed the first definition of acids and bases • According to Arrhenius Concept, Acid are substance which are capable of providing • Hydrogen ions (H+, proton) when dissolved in water and bases are substances which are capable • of providing hydroxide ions (OH-, hydroxyl ions) in aqueous solution. • For example, Hydrochloric acid in the water, HCl undergoes dissociation reaction to • produce H+ ion and Cl– ion, as explained below. The concentration of the H+ ions is increased by • forming hydronium ion.
  • 6. • HCl (aq) → H+(aq) + Cl– (aq) • HCl (aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + Cl– (aq) • Other examples of Arrhenius acids are listed below • NHO3(aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+ (aq) + NO3– • In this reaction, nitric acid dissolves in aqueous water to give hydrogen and nitrate ions. • Another example of Arrhenius Base is NaOH + H2O → Na+ + OH- + H2O
  • 7. Neutralization reaction Acid react Base Salt &Water Eg: Hydrochloric acid react sodium hydroxide Sodium chloride (Salt) & water NaOH + HCl------------------- NaCl + H2O
  • 8. • “Neutralization as the process in which hydrogen ion and hydroxyl ion combine to form unionized molecule or water” • NaOH + HCl------------------- NaCl + H2O • HCl (aq) → H+(aq) + Cl– (aq) • NaOH + → Na+ + OH- • H+ + OH- → H2O
  • 9. Application 1. Non-metallic Oxides are arrhenius acidic in nature eg CO2, SO2, SO3, N2O5, P4O10 • CO2 + H2O ------------------- H2CO3------ H+ + HCO3 • SO3 + H2O ---------------------H2SO4 -------H+ + HSO4- 2. metallic Oxides are arrhenius bases eg CaO, Na2O
  • 10. Limitations of Arrhenius theory: • The Arrhenius theory is applicable only in aqueous solution; for example, according to the theory, HCl is an acid in the aqueous solution but not in benzene, even though it donates H+ ion to the benzene. Also, under Arrhenius’s definition, the solution of sodium amide in liquid • ammonia is not alkaline, even though amide ion deprotonates the ammonia. • Basisity of Ammonia (No OH-ion)is not explained • Acidity of BF3,AlCl3 (No H+ ion)is not explained • Acidity of oxides of P block element (CO2) is not explained • Basicity of oxides of S block element (Na2o)is not explained • Neutralization with out absence of solvent is not explained
  • 11. 3.Bronsted -Lowry concept: Bronsted -Lowry concept: In 1923 the Danish chemist Johannes Nicolaus Bronsted and the English chemist Thomas Martin Lowry, proposed the theory. • According to Bronsted-Lowry theory, An acid is any substance (molecular or ionic) that can donate a proton to any other substance (molecular or ionic) and a base is any substance that can accept a proton from anyother substance. • HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl • In the above example what is the Bronsted acid? What is the Bronsted base? In reality, the reaction of HCl with H2O is an equilibrium and occurs in both directions, although in this case the equilibrium lies far to the right. HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-
  • 12. • For the reverse reaction Cl- behaves as a Bronsted base and H3O+ behaves as a Bronsted acid. • The Cl- is called the conjugate base of HCl. Bronsted acids and bases always exist as conjugate acid-base pairs. Their formulas differ by only one proton. • Acid Base conjugate acid conjugate base HCl + NH3 NH4+ + Cl-
  • 13. 1.Amphoteric: a species that can act as an acid or a base water is an example of an amphoteric species. 2.Conjugatebase: species that remains after an acid donates its H+. 3.Conjugateacid: species that forms after a base accepts a H+ • 14
  • 14. • Every Arrhenius Acid is Bronsted Acid • Every Arrhenius Base is not Bronsted Base e.g., NaOH is Arrhenius base because it gives • OH- ion in aqueous solution but not a Bronsted base because it cannot accept proton. • Limitations of Bronsted Lowry Concept: • The protonic definition cannot be used to explain the reactions occurring in non-protonic solvents such as COCl2, SO2, N2O4, etc. • Substances like BF3, AlCl3 etc, do not have any hydrogen and hence cannot give a proton but are known to behave as acids
  • 15. Lewis Theory • In 1923 of scientist G.N. Lewis proposed the theory in terms of chemical structure. • Lewis Acids: • Lewis acids accept an electron pair. Lewis Acids are Electrophilic meaning that they are electron attracting. • Various species can act as Lewis acids. All cations are Lewis acids since they are able to accept electrons. (e.g., Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+) • Lewis acids- H+, NH4+, Na+, K+, Cu2+, Al3+, etc.
  • 16. • Lewis Bases • Lewis Bases donate an electron pair. Lewis Bases are Nucleophilic meaning that they “attack” a positive charge with their lone pair. An atom, ion, or molecule with a lonepair of electrons can thus be a Lewis base. • Lewis base- NH3, H2O, OH-, Cl-, CN-, S2-, etc. • (Lewis base) (Lewis acid) • Boron trifluoride accepts the electron pair, so it is a Lewis acid. Ammonia makes available (donate) the electron pair, so it is the Lewis base.
  • 17. Importance of acids and bases in pharmacy • Acids, bases and their reaction play vital role in pharmacy practice. Some of the main application of the these are as follows: • Acid-base neutralization reaction finds use in preparative procedures for the preparation of suitable salt, and for conversion of certain salts into more suitable forms. • Acid-base is used in analytical procedure which is involving acid-base titrations. • Acids and bases find use as therapeutic agents in the control of and adjustment of pH of the GI tract, body fluids and urine.
  • 18. Buffers: • A buffer is a solution that can resist pH change upon the addition of an acidic or basic components. • It is able to neutralize small amounts of added acid or base, thus maintaining the pH of the solution relatively stable. • •This is important for processes and/or reactions which require specific and stable pH ranges.
  • 19. • Buffers: Buffers are defined as a compound or a mixture of compounds that resists the pH upon the addition of small quantities of acid or alkali. Buffer have definite pH value. • The pH will not change after keeping it for a long period of time. The pH value altered negligibly by the addition of small quantities of acid or base. • Buffer action: The resistance to a change in pH is known as buffer action. So buffers can be added to show buffer action. • Buffer capacity: The amount of acid/base required to produce a unit change in pH in a solution is called buffer capacity.
  • 20. Buffers system: • A buffer system can be made of a weak acid and its salt or a weak base and its salt. • A classic example of a weak acid based buffer is acetic acid (CH3COOH) and sodium acetate(CH3COONa). • A common weak base buffer is made of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)
  • 21. Types of Buffers : Generally buffers are of two types: 1. Acidic buffers 2. Basic buffers There are some other buffer system: 3. Two salts acts as acid-base pair. Ex- Potassium hydrogen phosphate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. 4. Amphoteric electrolyte. Ex- Solution of glycine. 5. Solution of strong acid and solution of strong base. Ex- Strong HCl with KCl.
  • 22. 1. Acidic Buffers: • An acidic buffer is a combination of weak acid and its salt with a strong base. i.e. Weak acid & salt with strong base (conjugate base). • EXAMPLES: CH3COOH / CH3COONa H2CO3 / NaHCO3 H3PO4 / NaH2PO4 HCOOH / HCOONa
  • 23. 2. Basic Buffers: • A basic buffer is a combination of weak base and its salt with a strong acid.i.e. Weak base & salt with strong acid (conjugate acid). • EXAMPLES: NH4OH / NH4Cl NH3 / NH4Cl NH3 / (NH4)2CO3
  • 24. Mechanism of Buffer action: Mechanism of Buffer action: • The resistance of a buffer solution to a change in pH is known as buffer action. • In a buffer solution, the components interact with each other and produce a dynamic equilibrium. • When a small quantity of acid or base is added, the dynamic equilibrium shifts and nullifies the effect of the addition.
  • 25.  Mechanism of Action of acidic buffers: • Consider a buffer system of CH3COOH (Weak electrolyte) and CH3COONa (Strong electrolyte). There will be a large concentration of Na+ ions, CH3COONa – ions, and undissociated CH3COOH molecules. When an acid is added: • If a strong acid (HCl) is added in CH3COOH / CH3COONa buffer, the changes that will occur may be represented as: CH3COONa Na + COO H + Cl CH3COOH • The hydrogen ions yielded by the HCl are quickly removed as unionized acetic acid, and the hydrogen ion concentration is therefore only slightly affected (because acetic acid produced is very weak as compared to HCl added). - - + +
  • 26. When a base is added: • If a strong base (NaOH) is added in NH4OH / NH4Cl buffer, the changes that will occur may be represented as: CH3COOH CH3COO + H OH + Na NaOH H2O • The hydroxyl ions yielded by the NaOH are therefore removed as water. The supply of hydrogen ions needed for this purpose being constantly provided by the dissociation of acetic acid.. + + - -
  • 27.  Buffer equation-Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: • The buffer equation is also known as Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, with the help of this equation it is possible to calculate the pH of a buffer solution of known concentration or to makebuffer solution of known pH. • Two separate equations are obtained for each type of buffer, acidic and basic • pH of acidic buffer: The hydrogen ion concentration obtained from the dissociation of weak acid HA is given by equation,
  • 28. HA H+ + A- 𝐾𝑎 = [H+][A−] [HA] Ka = equilibrium constant [H+] = 𝐾𝑎 [HA] [A−] Taking logarithms of both sides of the equation & multiplying throughout by -1 gives -log[H+] = -log𝐾𝑎-log [HA] [A−] pH= pKa + log [A−] [HA] 𝑝𝐻 = 𝑝𝐾𝑎 + log [congugated base] [Acid]
  • 29. pH of an alkaline buffer: The ionization of a weak base BOH is given by, BOH B+ + OH- 𝐾b = [B+][OH−] [BOH] Kb = equilibrium constant [OH−] = 𝐾b [BOH] [B+] Taking logarithms of both sides of the equation & multiplying throughout by -1 gives -log[OH−] = -log𝐾𝑎-log [BOH] [B+] pH= pKa + log [B+] [BOH] 𝑝𝐻 = 𝑝𝐾𝑎 + log [Congugated acisd] Base]
  • 30. Buffer capacity: • Buffer capacity may also be defined as “The maximum amount of either strong acid or strong base that can be added before a significant change in the pH will occur”. • The maximum amount of strong acid that can be added is equal to the amount of conjugate base present in the buffer whereas the maximum amount of base that can be added is equal to the amount of weak acid present in the buffer.
  • 31. • Buffer capacity is depend on the factors: 1. The concentration of the acid or base component of the buffer (Direct relation) 2. The pH of the buffer • Buffer can act best at pH = pKa and buffering range is pH = pKa +1 • Or It may be defined as the moles of strong acid or strong base required to change the pH of 1000 ml of buffer solution by one unit. • The magnitude of the resistance of a buffer to pH changes is referred to as the buffer capacity, β. • Where, ΔB is the small increment in gram equivalents (g Eq)/liter of strong base added to the buffer solution and ΔpH: change in a pH
  • 32. Standard Buffer Solutions: • The standard buffer solutions of pH ranging from 1.2-10 are possible to prepare by appropriate combinations of 0.2N HCl or 0.2N NaOH or 0.2M solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, boric acid, potassium chloride. • Standard buffers with pH range: Buffer pH Hydrochloric acid buffer 1.2-2.2 Acid Phthalate buffer 2.2-4.0 Neutralised phthalate buffer 4.2-5.8 Phosphate buffer 5.8-8.0 Alkaline Borate buffer 8-10
  • 33.  Preparation of Buffer Solutions: Weak acid with pKa = desired pH should be selected ↓ Ratio of salt and acid needed should be calculated using buffer equation ↓ Individual concentration of buffer salt and acid determined. ↓ Ingredients are dissolved in carbon dioxide free water ↓ Buffer capacity of 0.01-0.1 is adequate ↓ Concentration of 0.05-0.5 M is sufficient ↓ Allowed to establish equilibrium ↓ pH verified.
  • 34.  Buffers in pharmaceutical systems or Application of buffer: 1. Solubility enhancement: The pH of the pharmaceutical formulations are adjusted to an optimum value so that the drug remains solubilised though out its shelf-life and not precipitated out.Eg. Sodium salicylate (Asprin) precipitates as salicylic acid in acidic environment. 2. Increasing stability: To prevent hydrolysis and for maximum stability, the pH of the medium should be adjusted suitably. Eg. Vitamins 3. Improving purity: The purity of proteins can be identified from its solubility at their isoelectric point as they are least soluble at this point. The isoelectric pH can be maintained using suitable buffers . Eg. Insulin precipitates from aqueous solution at pH 5.0-6.0. 4. Optimising biological activity: Enzymes have maximum activity at definite pH values. Hence buffer of desired pH is added to the preparation.
  • 35. 5. Comforting the body: The pH of the formulations that are administered to different tissues of the body should be optimum to avoid irritation (eyes), haemolysis (blood) or burning sensation (abraded surface). The pH of the preparation must be added with suitable amount of buffers to match with the pH of the physiological fluid. Eg: buffer in various dosage forms Dosage Form Application Buffer used Solids (Tablets, Capsules, powder) Control pH for release. Reduce gastric irritation Citrate buffer, Phosphate buffer Semisolids (Creams, Ointments) Stability Citric acid and sodium citrate Parenteral Products pH maintenance (pH high: tissue, necrosis pH low: pain) Citrates, glutamate, acetate, phthalate Opthalamic products Drug solubility and stability Borates, carbonates, phosphates
  • 36. Stability of buffers • Treat buffer solution with care. • The typical shelf-life for commercial technical buffer is 2 years unopened and 3-6 month open. • The typical shelf life of alkaline buffer is 1 month open. • Alkaline buffer = change with dissolved air and form carbonic acid which decreased pH of the solution. • Maintain at 25°C • Preserved in colored bottle. • Storage condition maintain for inhibition of growth of microorganism.
  • 37. Buffered isotonic solution: • Isotonic buffered solution is defined as a solution which maintains the isotonicity and the pHas that of the body fluids. Isotonic buffer solution should be compatible with the body fluids for the following reasons. • Blood and lacrimal fluids are in vivo buffer systems. Any solution that comes in contact with these fluids should be buffered to a desired pH, so that these are compatible with the body fluids. • Some solutions are meant for the application on delicate membranes of the body. Such solutions may cause haemolysis, tissue irritation, necrosis and tissue toxicity. In such cases, solutions must be just to the same osmotic pressure and tonicity as that of the body fluids.
  • 38. • Osmosis is the diffusion of solvent through a semi-permeable membrane. • Water always flows from lower solute concentration [dilute solution] to higher solute concentration until a balance is produced • Osmotic pressure is the force that cause this diffusion . • Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure of two solutions separated by a semi-permeable membrane.
  • 39. Types of Buffer Isotonic solution
  • 40. 1. Isotonic Solutions: • Isotonic solutions are those solutions which produce the same osmotic pressure as that of the cell contents in question, without net gain or loss of both solutions, provided the cell membraneis impermeable to the solutes. • Isotonic solutions are iso-osmotic as well as isotonic with the cells and membranes. Some of the standard isotonic solutions are: 0.9% w/v Normal saline (sodium chloride) solution 5.0% w/v Dextrose solution 2.0% w/v Boric acid solution These solutions do not cause swelling or shrinking of tissues when applied. Therefore, discomfort would not be caused when instilled into the eyes, nasal tract and when injected intoblood or other body fluids.
  • 41. • In the human body, different types of cell membranes are available. All are not having same- level of permeability to a single substance. For example, red blood cell membrane and mucous lining of the eye are not the same. • Therefore, isotonic solutions of 0.9% w/v sodium chloride also need not necessarily be isotonic with respect to all the living membranes, but many of them are roughly isotonic.
  • 42. 2. Hypertonic Solutions: • Hypertonic solutions are defined as those solutions containing the solute in higher concentration than that is required for isotonic solutions. Some hypertonic solutions are: • 2.0% w/v Normal saline (sodium chloride) solution (concentration > 0.9 % w/v). • 10.0 % w/v Dextrose solution (concentration > 5.0% w/v). • 3.0 % w/v Boric acid solution (concentration > 2.0% w/v).
  • 43. • When red blood cells are suspended in a 2.0 % w/v solution of sodium chloride, the water within the cells passes out through the cell membranes in an attempt to dilute the surrounding salt solution. • This process continues until the salt concentrations on both sides of the erythrocyte membrane are equal. • Thus outward passage of water causes the cells to shrink and becomes wrinkled or crenated. Such a salt solution is said to be hypertonic with respect to blood.
  • 44. 3. Hypotonic Solution: • Hypotonic solutions are defined as those solutions containing the Solute in lower concentration than that is required for isotonic solutions • Some hypotonic solutions are: 0.2% w/v Normal saline (sodium chloride) solution (concentration < 2.0 % w/v). • When blood cells are suspended in a 0.2 % w/v solution of sodium chloride (or in distilled water), water enters the blood cells causing them to swell and finally burst with the liberation of haemoglobin. • This process is known as haemolysis. Such a weak salt solution is said to be hypotonic with respect to blood
  • 46. Measurement of Tonicity • Isotonicity value is defined as the concentration of an aqueous sodium chloride solution having same colligative properties as the solution in blood. • Apart from sodium chloride, a number of chemicals and drugs are also included in the formulations. These ingredients also contribute to the tonicity of the solution. Therefore, methods are needed for verifying the tonicity and adjusting the tonicity
  • 47. 1. Hemolytic method: • Red blood cells (RBCs) are suspended in various drug solutions and the swelling of RBCs is observed bursting, shrinking and wrinkling of the blood cells. • In hypotonic solutions, oxyhemoglobin is released, which is in direct proportion to the number of cells hemolyzed. • In hypertonic solutions, the cells shrink and become wrinkled or crenated • In isotonic solutions, the cells do not change their morphology. This method is used for the determination of isotonicity value.
  • 48. 2. Cryoscopic method or depression of freezing point: • Colligative properties of solutions are helpful in determining the isotonicity values. Among them, freezing point depression is extensively applied. • Water has the freezing point of 0 °C. When substances such as sodium chloride are added to water, the freezing point of water decreases. • The depression of the freezing point (ΔTf) of blood and tears is 0.52 °C. Therefore, the value of 0.9 % w/w NaCl solution should also be -0.52 °C. Such a solution shows same osmotic pressure as that of the blood. Hence, the functions of RBC and tissues do not alter.
  • 49. Methods of adjusting the tonicity: • Normally, solution dosage forms contain drugs of desired dose and several excipients needed for formulation. In order to render such solutions isotonic, sodium chloride, dextrose, etc. are added. Several methods are available for adjusting the tonicity. • Osmotic pressure is not a readily measurable quantity, but freezing point depression (another colligative property) is more easily measured.
  • 50. Class I methods: In this type, sodium chloride or other substances are added to the solution in sufficient quantity to make it isotonic. Then the preparation is brought to its final volume withan isotonic or a buffered isotonic diluting solution. These methods are of two types: Cryoscopic method Sodium chloride equivalent method.
  • 51. Class II methods: • In this type, water is added in sufficient quantity make the preparation isotonic. Then the preparation is brought to its volume with an isotonic or a buffered isotonic diluting solution. • These methods are of two types: White-Vincent method Sprowls method.
  • 52. 1. Cryoscopic Method of Adjusting the Tonicity: Principle: • Water has the freezing point of 0 °C. Blood contains a number of substances such as carbonic acid, carbonates, salts of phosphoric acid and hemoglobin. As a result, the depression in the freezing point of the blood is -0.52 °C. • When substances such as sodium chloride are added to water, the freezing point of water decreases. The extent of depression in the freezing point depends on the concentration of the added substance. • For example, sodium chloride at 1 % w v solution decreases the freezing point of water to - 0.58°. In order to make the drug solution isotonic, the freezing point depression of the solution must be maintained at-0.52°.
  • 53. • Initially the drug solution is prepared whose depression in the freezing point (ΔTf) is known. The remaining (ΔTf) value is adjusted by adding additional substances such as sodium chloride. • For the purpose of calculate, the freezing point depression of a number of drugs are determined experimentally or theoretically a concentration of 10 % w/v (or sometimes 0.5 % w/v). Similarly the freezing point depression values of 1 w/v solution of sodium chloride and other general ingredients are also determined.
  • 54. Derivation: Freezing point depression (ΔTf) of blood is 0.52°C. Since the drug solution must be isotonic, it must have ΔTf, same as that of the blood, i.e. ΔTf = 0.52°C. Total drug solution ΔTf = ΔTf of drug + ΔTf adjusting substance ---------- (1) Freezing point depression (ΔTf) of the total drug solution = 0.52°C ΔTf value of the drug = x X ΔTf of 1 % drug solution = d Where, x = drug concentration in the preparation, g/100 mL ΔTf for adjusting solution = w X a Where, W = weight of the adjusting substance, g/100 mL a = ΔTf of the adjusting substance (sodium chloride), 1% (=0.58) For an isotonic solution, equation (1) is substituted by the terms mentioned above. 0.52° = d + wa
  • 55. The % w/v of adjusting substance needed is: W= (0.52-d)/a = (0.52-d)/0.58 --------- (2) Equation (2) is valid, if 1 % drug solution is specified. For any given percentage strength of medicament (PSM), equation (2) may be modified as: W= [0.52- (PSM x d)]/ 0.58 ----------- (3) Thus, the desired concentration of adjusting substance is calculated and added in order to make the drug preparation isotonic with blood. Each solute exerts its effect on the freezing point, although others are present. Hence, if two or more substances are present, a sum of their freezing point depression should be considered. • Advantage: • Determination of depression in the freezing point is much simpler and more convenient.
  • 56. 2. Sodium Chloride Equivalent Method: • Tonicity equivalent or sodium chloride equivalent method is used to adjust the tonicity of pharmaceutical solutions. • Sodium chloride equivalent (D) of a drug is the amount of sodium chloride that is equivalent to 1 g of the drug. In this definition, equivalent refers to sodium chloride concentration having the same osmotic effect as that of the drug. In the absence of available data, the E value of a new drug can be calculated from equation (4). • E= [17 X Liso]/M -------------- (4) • Where, • M = molecular mass, AMU • Liso = freezing point depression constant of the drug.
  • 57. Method: The percent of sodium chloride required for adjusting isotonicity can be calculated using equation (5). PSA = 0.9 - (PSM E of medicament) ----------- (5) Where, PSM= Percent strength of medicament PSA = Percent of sodium chloride for adjustment of isotonicity. Equation (5) is used to calculate the amount of adjusting substance (sodium chloride) required for making the solution isotonic. It is valid for 100 mL solution.
  • 58. 1. White-Vincent Method • This method involves the addition of water to the given amount of drug to make isotonic solution, followed by the addition of some other isotonic solution (e.g. 0.9% NaCl) to make the final volume. • White Vincent, from their study of need of pH adjustment in addition to tonicity of ophthalmic solution, developed an equation The volume of water that should be added in given amount of drug to make isotonic solution is calculated by using: 𝑉 = 𝑊 × 𝐸 × 111.1 Where, • V = volume of water needed to make isotonic solution • W = given weight of drug in grams • E = NaCl equivalent value of drug • 111.1 = constant
  • 59. • NUMERICAL: Make 50 ml isotonic solution from 0.5 gm of boric acid. E value of boric acid is 0.50. Solution: • Given amount of boric acid = 0.5 gm • Required volume = 50 ml • E value of boric acid = 0.50 • Fistly, we calculate the amount of the water that should be added in 0.5 gm of boric acid to make isotonic solution by using formula, 𝑉 = 𝑊 × 𝐸 × 111.1 𝑉 = 0.5 × 0.5 × 111.1 = 27.8 𝑚𝑙 So, 0.5 gm of boric acid is added in 27.8 ml of water to male isotonic solution. But, final volume that is required is 50ml. so, remaining 22.2ml of some other isotonic solution (e.g. 0.9% NaCl) are added to make up final volume 50 ml.
  • 60. 2. Sprowl Method: • Sprowls method is a simplification of White-Vincent method in which values of V for the drug of fixed weight (0.3 g) are computed and construed. • This is commonly used for ophthalmic and parental solutions. 𝑉 = 𝑊 × 𝐸1% × 111.1 𝑜𝑟 𝑉 = 33.33 × 𝐸1%