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Digestive & Excretory Systems- Chapter 38


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Chapter 38 lecture on the digestive & excretory systems

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Digestive & Excretory Systems- Chapter 38

  1. 1. 38–1 Food and Nutrition
  2. 2. Food and Energy You eat food to obtain energy and raw materials. The energy in food is measured in Calories (capital C). One Calorie is equal to 1000 calories. One calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.
  3. 3. Food and Energy Caloric needs vary for each person. An average-sized female teenager needs about 2200 Calories a day. An average-sized male teenager needs about 2800 Calories a day. If you exercise regularly, your energy needs may be higher.
  4. 4. Nutrients Nutrients Nutrients are substances in food that supply the energy and raw materials your body uses for growth, repair, and maintenance.
  5. 5. Nutrients The nutrients that the body needs are: •water •carbohydrates •fats •proteins •vitamins •minerals
  6. 6. Nutrients Every cell in the human body needs water because many of the body's processes take place in water.
  7. 7. Nutrients Water makes up blood, lymph, and other bodily fluids. Water is lost during sweating, when it evaporates to cool the body. Water vapor is also lost when you exhale and in urine. Humans need to drink at least one liter of water each day.
  8. 8. Nutrients Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body. There are two types of carbohydrates: •simple •complex
  9. 9. Nutrients Simple carbohydrates are found in fruits, honey, and sugar cane. Simple carbohydrates do not need to be digested or broken down.
  10. 10. Nutrients Complex carbohydrates, or starches, are found in grains, potatoes, and vegetables. Complex carbohydrates need to be broken down before they can be used by the body. Many foods contain the complex carbohydrate cellulose, or fiber.
  11. 11. Nutrients Fiber is needed in your diet. Bulk supplied by fiber helps muscles keep food and wastes moving through your digestive and excretory systems. Whole-grain breads and many fruits and vegetables have fiber.
  12. 12. Nutrients Fats Fats, or lipids, are an important part of a healthy diet. Fats are formed from fatty acids and glycerol.
  13. 13. Nutrients Fats are needed: • to produce cell membranes, myelin sheaths around neurons, and certain hormones. • to help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins. • to protect body organs and insulate the body.
  14. 14. Nutrients Fats are classified as saturated or unsaturated. When there are only single bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acids, the fat is saturated. Most saturated fats are solids at room temperature—including butter and other animal fats.
  15. 15. Nutrients Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond in a fatty acid chain. Unsaturated fats are usually liquids at room temperature. Because many vegetable oils contain more than one double bond, they are called polyunsaturated.
  16. 16. Nutrients Proteins Proteins supply raw materials for growth and repair of structures such as skin and muscle. They have regulatory and transport functions.
  17. 17. Nutrients Proteins are polymers of amino acids. The body can synthesize only 12 of the 20 amino acids used to make proteins. The other 8 amino acids are called essential amino acids; they must come from food.
  18. 18. Nutrients Animal products, including meat, fish, eggs, and milk, contain all 8 essential amino acids. Foods derived from plants, such as grains and beans, do not. Therefore, people who don’t eat animal products must eat a combination of plant foods to obtain all of the essential amino acids.
  19. 19. Nutrients Vitamins Vitamins are organic molecules that help regulate body processes, often working with enzymes. Most vitamins must be obtained from food. A diet lacking certain vitamins can have serious, even fatal, consequences.
  20. 20. Nutrients There are two types of vitamins: • fat-soluble • water-soluble The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K can be stored in the fatty tissues of the body. The body can build up stores of these vitamins for future use.
  21. 21. Nutrients Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  22. 22. Nutrients The water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water and cannot be stored in the body. Eating a diet containing a variety of foods will supply the daily vitamin needs of nearly everyone.
  23. 23. Nutrients Water-Soluble Vitamins
  24. 24. Nutrients Water-Soluble Vitamins
  25. 25. Nutrients Minerals Inorganic nutrients that the body needs, usually in small amounts, are called minerals. By eating a variety of foods, you can meet your daily requirement of minerals.
  26. 26. Nutrients
  27. 27. Nutrients
  28. 28. Nutrition and a Balanced Diet The new food pyramid classifies foods into six categories: •grains •vegetables •fruits •milk •meat and beans •fats, sugars, and salts
  29. 29. Nutrition and a Balanced Diet
  30. 30. The figure climbing up the side of the pyramid represents exercise. You should get at least 30 minutes of exercise each day. Nutrition and a Balanced Diet
  31. 31. A food label provides information about nutrition. Daily values are based on a 2000-Calorie diet, and nutrient needs are affected by age, gender, and lifestyle. Nutrition and a Balanced Diet
  32. 32. When choosing foods, you should compare similar foods on the basis of their proportion of nutrients to Calories. When you choose a food, it should be high in nutrition and low in Calories. Nutrition and a Balanced Diet
  33. 33. 38–2 The Process of Digestion
  34. 34. Digestion The digestive system includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Other structures add secretions to the digestive system, and aid in digestion. These include the salivary glands, pancreas and liver.
  35. 35. Mouth Salivary glands Stomach Pancreas Large intestine Small intestine Pharynx Esophagus Liver Gallbladder Rectum • The Digestive System
  36. 36. The function of the digestive system is to help convert foods into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells of the body.
  37. 37. The Mouth The Mouth •Chewing begins mechanical digestion, which is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces.
  38. 38. The Mouth • The teeth cut, tear, and crush food into small fragments. • As the teeth cut and grind the food, salivary glands secrete saliva, which moistens food and makes it easier to chew. • Saliva helps ease the passage of food through the digestive system.
  39. 39. The Mouth Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme that breaks the chemical bonds in starches and releases sugars. This begins chemical digestion. Saliva also contains lysozyme, an enzyme that fights infection.
  40. 40. The Esophagus From the pharynx , the chewed food passes through the esophagus, or food tube, into the stomach. Contractions of smooth muscle, known as peristalsis, squeeze the food through the esophagus into the stomach.
  41. 41. Peristalsis in the esophagus Esophagus Bolus Stomach Muscles contracted
  42. 42. The Esophagus The cardiac sphincter closes the esophagus after food has passed into the stomach.
  43. 43. The Stomach The Stomach • Food from the esophagus empties into the stomach. • The stomach continues mechanical and chemical digestion. • Alternating contractions of three smooth muscle layers churn food.
  44. 44. The Stomach Chemical Digestion •Stomach lining has millions of gastric glands that release substances into the stomach. Some glands produce mucus, which lubricates and protects the stomach wall. Other glands produce hydrochloric acid, which makes the stomach very acidic. Other glands produce pepsin, an enzyme that digests protein.
  45. 45. The Stomach Pepsin and hydrochloric acid begin protein digestion. Pepsin breaks proteins into smaller polypeptide fragments. Other enzymes are denatured by stomach acid.
  46. 46. The Stomach Mechanical Digestion •The stomach contracts to churn fluids and food, gradually producing a mixture known as chyme. • After 1–2 hours, the pyloric valve between the stomach and small intestine opens and chyme flows into the small intestine.
  47. 47. The Small Intestine The Small Intestine • As chyme is pushed through the pyloric valve, it enters the duodenum. • The duodenum is the first of three parts of the small intestine, and is where most digestive enzymes enter the intestine.
  48. 48. The Small Intestine Most chemical digestion and absorption of food occurs in the small intestine.
  49. 49. The Small Intestine Accessory Structures of Digestion Liver Gallbladder Duodenum Bile duct Pancreas Pancreatic duct To rest of small intestine
  50. 50. The Small Intestine Accessory Structures of Digestion • Just behind the stomach is the pancreas.
  51. 51. During digestion, the pancreas: •produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. •produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid so that these enzymes can be effective.
  52. 52. The pancreas also secretes insulin, a hormone that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.
  53. 53. The Small Intestine Assisting the pancreas is the liver, which produces bile. Bile dissolves and disperses droplets of fat in fatty foods. This enables enzymes to break down smaller fat molecules. Bile is stored in the gallbladder.
  54. 54. Absorption in the Small Intestine • The small intestine is adapted for the absorption of nutrients. •The folded surfaces of the small intestine are covered with fingerlike projections called villi.
  55. 55. Small intestine Circular folds Villi Villus Epithelial cells Capillaries Lymph vessel Vein Artery Absorption in the Small Intestine
  56. 56. Cell surfaces of villi have more projections called microvilli. These provide an enormous surface area for the absorption of nutrient molecules. Slow, wavelike contractions of smooth muscles move the chyme along this surface. Absorption in the Small Intestine
  57. 57. Nutrient molecules are absorbed into the cells lining the small intestine. Most products of carbohydrate and protein digestion are absorbed into the capillaries in the villi. Molecules of undigested fat are absorbed by lymph vessels. Absorption in the Small Intestine
  58. 58. The Large Intestine • When the chyme leaves the small intestine, it enters the large intestine, or colon. •The large intestine removes water from the chyme. • Water is absorbed quickly, leaving undigested materials behind. •Concentrated waste material passes through the rectum and is eliminated from the body.
  59. 59. Digestive System Disorders •Stomach acids sometimes damage the organ’s own lining, producing a hole in the stomach wall known as a peptic ulcer. Most peptic ulcers are caused by the bacterium H. pylori. • Other digestive disorders include diarrhea and constipation.
  60. 60. 38–3 The Excretory System
  61. 61. Functions of the Excretory System •maintain homeostasis •remove metabolic wastes through excretion.
  62. 62. The skin excretes excess water and salts in the form of sweat. The lungs excrete carbon dioxide. The kidneys also play a major role in excretion.
  63. 63. The kidneys (main excretory organs): •remove waste products from the blood. •maintain blood pH. •regulate the water content of the blood and, therefore, blood volume.
  64. 64. The Kidneys • The kidneys are located on either side of the spinal column near the lower back. • A tube, called the ureter, leaves each kidney, carrying urine to the urinary bladder. • The urinary bladder is a saclike organ where urine is stored before being excreted.
  65. 65. Structure of the Kidneys Kidney Nephron
  66. 66. The Kidneys Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery. The kidney removes urea, excess water, and other waste products and passes them to the ureter. The clean, filtered blood leaves the kidney through the renal vein and returns to circulation.
  67. 67. The Kidneys Kidney Structure • A kidney has two distinct regions: The inner part is called the renal medulla. The outer part is called the renal cortex.
  68. 68. Cortex Medulla The Kidneys Renal artery Renal vein Ureter To the bladder
  69. 69. The Kidneys The functional units of the kidney are called nephrons. Nephrons are located in the renal cortex, except for their loops of Henle, which descend into the renal medulla.
  70. 70. Artery Vein Loop of Henle Bowman’s capsule Glomerulus The Kidneys Collecting duct Capillaries To the ureter
  71. 71. The Kidneys Vein Artery Capillaries To the ureter Collecting duct Each nephron has its own blood supply: • an arteriole • a venule • a network of capillaries connecting them
  72. 72. The Kidneys Vein Artery Capillaries To the ureter Collecting duct Each nephron releases fluids to a collecting duct, which leads to the ureter.
  73. 73. The Kidneys As blood enters a nephron through the arteriole, impurities are filtered out and emptied into the collecting duct. The purified blood exits the nephron through the venule.
  74. 74. The Kidneys The mechanism of blood purification involves two distinct processes: filtration and reabsorption.
  75. 75. The Kidneys Filtration • Passing a liquid or gas through a filter to remove wastes is called filtration. •Filtration of blood takes place in the glomerulus, a small network of capillaries encased in the top of the nephron by a hollow, cup-shaped structure called Bowman's capsule.
  76. 76. The Kidneys Fluid from the blood flows into Bowman’s capsule. The materials filtered from the blood include water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids, and some vitamins. Plasma proteins, cells, and platelets remain in the blood because they are too large to pass through the capillary walls.
  77. 77. The Kidneys Reabsorption • Most of the material removed from the blood at Bowman's capsule makes its way back into the blood. • The process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel is called reabsorption.
  78. 78. The Kidneys Almost 99% of the water that enters Bowman’s capsule is reabsorbed into the blood. Most water and nutrients are reabsorbed into the blood.
  79. 79. The Kidneys Remaining material, called urine, is emptied into a collecting duct. Urine is primarily concentrated in the loop of Henle. The loop of Henle is a section of the nephron tubule in which water is conserved and the volume of urine minimized.
  80. 80. The Kidneys As the kidney works, purified blood is returned to circulation while urine is collected in the urinary bladder. Urine is stored here until it is released from the body through a tube called the urethra.
  81. 81. Control of Kidney Function • The activity of the kidneys is mostly controlled by the composition of the blood. • In addition, regulatory hormones are released in response to the composition of blood.
  82. 82. Control of Kidney Function When you drink a liquid, it is absorbed into the blood through the digestive system. As a result, the concentration of water in the blood increases. As the amount of water in the blood increases, the rate of water reabsorption in the kidneys decreases. Less water is returned to the blood, and excess water is sent to the urinary bladder to be excreted as urine.
  83. 83. When the kidneys detect an increase in salt, they respond by returning less salt to the blood by reabsorption. The excess salt the kidneys retain is excreted in urine, thus maintaining the composition of the blood. Control of Kidney Function
  84. 84. Kidney Disorders Kidney Disorders •Humans have two kidneys, but can survive with only one. •If both kidneys are damaged by disease or injury, there are two options: a kidney transplant kidney dialysis
  85. 85. Kidney dialysis works as follows: • Blood is removed by a tube and pumped through special tubing that acts like nephrons. •Tiny pores in dialysis tubing allow salts and small molecules like urea to pass through. • Wastes diffuse out of the blood into the fluid- filled chamber, allowing purified blood to be returned to the body.
  86. 86. Kidney Disorders Kidney Dialysis Air detector Dialysis machine Fresh dialysis fluid Compressed air Vein Artery Shunt Blood pump Blood in tubing flows through dialysis fluid Used dialysis fluid
  87. 87. Esophagus Stomach Liver Pancreas Small intestine Large intestine
  88. 88. 38–1 Which nutrient is found in fruits, sugars, and whole-grain breads? a. protein b. fat c. carbohydrates d. vitamins
  89. 89. 38–1 Organic molecules that help regulate body processes and often work with enzymes are a. fats. b. minerals. c. vitamins. d. amino acids.
  90. 90. 38–1 Which two vitamins can be made by the body? a. vitamins a and B b. vitamins C and D c. vitamins A and K d. vitamins D and K
  91. 91. 38–1 The most important nutrient is a. fat b. water c. vitamins d. protein.
  92. 92. 38–1 The foods that should make up the largest part of your diet are a. fats and sweets. b. meat, poultry, and fish c. milk, yogurt, and cheese. d. breads, cereals, rice, and pasta. FRESH VEGETABLES & FRUITS !!!!!
  93. 93. 38–2 Food is moved through the esophagus into the stomach by a. air pressure. b. muscle contractions. c. gravity. d. swallowing.
  94. 94. 38–2 A gland that has both endocrine and exocrine functions is the a. liver. b. spleen. c. pancreas. d. gallbladder.
  95. 95. 38–2 The enzyme in saliva that begins the digestion of starch is a. amylase. b. pepsin. c. lysozyme. d. peptidase.
  96. 96. 38–2 Stomach muscles contract to churn and mix stomach fluids and food, producing a mixture known as a. chyme. b. amylase. c. bile. d. acid.
  97. 97. 38–2 Absorption of vitamins, minerals, and digested food molecules takes place in the a. stomach. b. small intestine. c. large intestine. d. duodenum.
  98. 98. 38–3 A dialysis machine performs the function of which structure in the excretory system? a. nephron b. ureter c. urethra d. glomerulus
  99. 99. 38–3 In the human body, the kidneys play an important role in a. producing digestive enzymes. b. circulating the blood. c. destroying old red blood cells. d. maintaining homeostasis.
  100. 100. 38–3 In the nephron, most filtration occurs in the a. renal tubule. b. capillaries. c. glomerulus. d. loop of Henle.
  101. 101. 38–3 Urine leaves the body through the a. loop of Henle. b. glomerulus. c. urethra. d. bladder.
  102. 102. 38–3 Materials filtered out of the blood include all of the following EXCEPT: a. water. b. urea. c. amino acids. d. plasma proteins.