RESEARCH , is formed by two words namely RE a prefix
,meaning do it again and the noun SEARCH meaning to
investigate or to look for
Definition of research , it is a systematic process of
critical enquiry leading to a valid proposition and
conclusion that are common to others.
Research can be defined as a studious inquiry or
examination; especially : investigation or
experimentation aimed at the discovery and
interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or
laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of
such new or revised theories or laws, research is
understood to follow a certain structural process”.
Research def cont.
Research is also defined as the scientific
investigation of phenomena which includes
collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation
of facts that lines an individual’s speculation with
"In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of
research includes any gathering of data,
information and facts for the advancement of
Research is a process of steps used to collect and
analyze information to increase our understanding
of a topic or issue".
Characteristics of research
EMPIRICAL : the data that is collected is based on observation and
the general truth. The gathering of data uses the five senses.
Research is based on direct experience or observation by the
researcher. Only base data on what you see (direct observation)
and not what you think or want to happen. Stick to the truth, even
if it’s not what you expected. This leads on to precise judgment in
SYSTEMATIC: THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH IS procedural and very
principled. It follows laid down step by step methods of studying
the variable .You have to employ valid procedures and principles.
REPLICABLE: The research design and procedures to enable the
researcher to arrive at a valid and conclusive results. The results
are bound to be the same if done using the same model and
procedure In such situations, in which other researchers are
interested in previously investigated question, they may want to
confirm the findings of previous research in new environment,
with a new group of subjects, or at a different point in time.
Characteristics of research cont.
Cyclic : The process is cyclic starts with a problem and
may end with a problem. Research is a cyclical process
because it starts with a problem and ends with a
Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and
principles. It should be logically carried out in order,
using a sequence that makes sense to anyone.
Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical
manner without bias using systematic methods and
Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical
procedures in gathering the data, whether historical,
descriptive, experimental and case study analysis is
done in a procedural way
Characteristics of research cont.
Reproducibility: Is your experiment/thesis designed
flawlessly with clear procedures so that others can
test your findings?
Originality: This should go without saying but all work
should be original. Also originality should apply to
the overall idea driving the work, why cover
something that has been covered hundreds of times
before? Work will stand out if it tackles something
new or something old from an interesting or
different angle not thought of before
Characteristics of research cont.
Research is Reductive: As a practical phenomenon,
reductive refers to reducing researcher's responsibility.
This means that findings of one researcher is
transferred to other researchers’ to prevent them from
repeating, the same research. In other words, research
is in most cases, is additive. Findings are accumulated,
sometimes from one generation to another, in order of
scientists to use them in their endeavor to uncover the
mysterious of nature.
Research is generative: This is one of the most valuable
characteristics of research because answering one
question leads to generating many other new
Purposes of research
1. Exploratory This type of research investigates an area
or issue on which little previous work has been carried
out. In an organizational setting it may be used to
discover whether or not a problem exists.
2. Speculative Sometimes research is implemented
strategically, where researchers take account of current
situations and speculate as to their future implications.
For example, the introduction of a specific government
policy might raise implications for practitioners
involved in its implementation. Research of this nature
might speculate as to what these implications might be
and develop a programme of inquiry that can inform
future responses to these issues.
3. Descriptive : Descriptive work aims to gather
information that illuminates relationships, patterns and
links between variables. An example would be an
investigation of the link between students' study skills
and course drop-out rates.
4. Explanatory: Explanatory research aims to show why
relationships, patterns and links occur. Using the
example from 3, how could study skills support improve
student retention? And does this depend on other
factors such as different types of support available?
5. Predictive The purpose of this type of research is
to develop a model that predicts the likely course
of events given particular intervening variables or
6. Evaluative To evaluate the impact of something,
for example a new policy, event, law, treatment
regime or the introduction of a new system.
Role / uses of research
For testing the validity of the theory or theories
Evaluating the effectiveness of different designs or
Enabling individual practitioners to monitor his or her
work and improve on it.
Letting colleagues get to know interesting cases or
latest innovations in a particular field.
Establishing the academic credibility of practice by
determining what subjects are to be taught
Enhancing the professional status of educators as
findings are meant to improve education in general
As a way of accounting for what educators teach and
the justification of using a particular method or
ETHICS OF RESEARCH
Ethics is that branch of philosophy relating to human
conduct with respect to the RIGHTNESS or
WRONGNESS of certain actions and badness or
goodness of the motives and ends of such actions.
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH ETHICS
The purpose of ethical responsibility are that of
developing scientific acceptable research protocols that
are worth the participants, time and have a reasonable
chance of yielding meaningful findings
To protect the rights of participants(both human and
animals) in the research process.
To report the research findings fairly and accurately
To cooperate with colleagues and participants and
other interested parties in sharing research findings
Honesty Strive for honesty in all scientific communications.
Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and
publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data.
Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public.
Objectivity Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data
analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions,
grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research
where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias
or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may
Integrity Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity;
strive for consistency of thought and action.
Carefulness Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and
critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep
good records of research activities, such as data collection,
research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
Openness Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to
criticism and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property Honor patents,
copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do
not use unpublished data, methods, or results without
permission. Give credit where credit is due. Give proper
acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to
research. Never plagiarize.
Confidentiality Protect confidential communications,
such as papers or grants submitted for publication,
personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient
Responsible Publication Publish in order to advance
research and scholarship, not to advance just your own
career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
Responsible Mentoring Help to educate, mentor, and advise
students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their
Respect for colleagues Respect your colleagues and treat
Social Responsibility Strive to promote social good and
prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public
education, and advocacy.
Non-Discrimination Avoid discrimination against colleagues
or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other
factors that are not related to their scientific competence and
Competence Maintain and improve your own professional
competence and expertise through lifelong education and
learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a
Legality Know and obey relevant laws and
institutional and governmental policies.
Animal Care Show proper respect and care for
animals when using them in research. Do not
conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal
Human Subjects Protection When conducting
research on human subjects, minimize harms and
risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity,
privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions
with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute
the benefits and burdens of research fairly.