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What is Research


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What is Research

  1. 1. RESEARCH RESEARCH , is formed by two words namely RE a prefix ,meaning do it again and the noun SEARCH meaning to investigate or to look for Definition of research , it is a systematic process of critical enquiry leading to a valid proposition and conclusion that are common to others. Research can be defined as a studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws, research is understood to follow a certain structural process”.
  2. 2. Research def cont. Research is also defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an individual’s speculation with reality. "In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge”. Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
  3. 3. Characteristics of research  EMPIRICAL : the data that is collected is based on observation and the general truth. The gathering of data uses the five senses. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. Only base data on what you see (direct observation) and not what you think or want to happen. Stick to the truth, even if it’s not what you expected. This leads on to precise judgment in number  SYSTEMATIC: THE PROCESS OF RESEARCH IS procedural and very principled. It follows laid down step by step methods of studying the variable .You have to employ valid procedures and principles.  REPLICABLE: The research design and procedures to enable the researcher to arrive at a valid and conclusive results. The results are bound to be the same if done using the same model and procedure In such situations, in which other researchers are interested in previously investigated question, they may want to confirm the findings of previous research in new environment, with a new group of subjects, or at a different point in time.
  4. 4. Characteristics of research cont. Cyclic : The process is cyclic starts with a problem and may end with a problem. Research is a cyclical process because it starts with a problem and ends with a problem. Logical. Research is based on valid procedures and principles. It should be logically carried out in order, using a sequence that makes sense to anyone. Methodical. Research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic methods and procedures. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental and case study analysis is done in a procedural way
  5. 5. Characteristics of research cont. Reproducibility: Is your experiment/thesis designed flawlessly with clear procedures so that others can test your findings? Originality: This should go without saying but all work should be original. Also originality should apply to the overall idea driving the work, why cover something that has been covered hundreds of times before? Work will stand out if it tackles something new or something old from an interesting or different angle not thought of before
  6. 6. Characteristics of research cont. Research is Reductive: As a practical phenomenon, reductive refers to reducing researcher's responsibility. This means that findings of one researcher is transferred to other researchers’ to prevent them from repeating, the same research. In other words, research is in most cases, is additive. Findings are accumulated, sometimes from one generation to another, in order of scientists to use them in their endeavor to uncover the mysterious of nature. Research is generative: This is one of the most valuable characteristics of research because answering one question leads to generating many other new questions.
  7. 7. Purposes of research 1. Exploratory This type of research investigates an area or issue on which little previous work has been carried out. In an organizational setting it may be used to discover whether or not a problem exists. 2. Speculative Sometimes research is implemented strategically, where researchers take account of current situations and speculate as to their future implications. For example, the introduction of a specific government policy might raise implications for practitioners involved in its implementation. Research of this nature might speculate as to what these implications might be and develop a programme of inquiry that can inform future responses to these issues.
  8. 8. Purposes cont. 3. Descriptive : Descriptive work aims to gather information that illuminates relationships, patterns and links between variables. An example would be an investigation of the link between students' study skills and course drop-out rates. 4. Explanatory: Explanatory research aims to show why relationships, patterns and links occur. Using the example from 3, how could study skills support improve student retention? And does this depend on other factors such as different types of support available?
  9. 9. Purposes cont. 5. Predictive The purpose of this type of research is to develop a model that predicts the likely course of events given particular intervening variables or circumstances. 6. Evaluative To evaluate the impact of something, for example a new policy, event, law, treatment regime or the introduction of a new system.
  10. 10. Role / uses of research For testing the validity of the theory or theories Evaluating the effectiveness of different designs or techniques. Enabling individual practitioners to monitor his or her work and improve on it. Letting colleagues get to know interesting cases or latest innovations in a particular field. Establishing the academic credibility of practice by determining what subjects are to be taught Enhancing the professional status of educators as findings are meant to improve education in general As a way of accounting for what educators teach and the justification of using a particular method or technique.
  11. 11. ETHICS OF RESEARCH Ethics is that branch of philosophy relating to human conduct with respect to the RIGHTNESS or WRONGNESS of certain actions and badness or goodness of the motives and ends of such actions. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH ETHICS The purpose of ethical responsibility are that of developing scientific acceptable research protocols that are worth the participants, time and have a reasonable chance of yielding meaningful findings To protect the rights of participants(both human and animals) in the research process. To report the research findings fairly and accurately To cooperate with colleagues and participants and other interested parties in sharing research findings
  12. 12. RESEARCH ETHICS  Honesty Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public.  Objectivity Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may affect research.  Integrity Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action.  Carefulness Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.  Openness Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
  13. 13. ETHICS cont. Respect for Intellectual Property Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is due. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for all contributions to research. Never plagiarize. Confidentiality Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. Responsible Publication Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
  14. 14. ETHICS cont. Responsible Mentoring Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions. Respect for colleagues Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly. Social Responsibility Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social harms through research, public education, and advocacy. Non-Discrimination Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity. Competence Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
  15. 15. ETHICS cont. Legality Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. Animal Care Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments. Human Subjects Protection When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly.