Research

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Research

  1. 1. RESEARCH
  2. 2. Definition of Research Research Noun The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Verb Investigate systematically.
  3. 3. What is Research? Research is finding out what you don't know. No one knows everything, but everybody knows something. However, to complicate matters, often what you know, or think you know, is incorrect.  There are two basic purposes for research: to learn something, or to gather evidence.  What you've learned is the source of the background information you use to communicate with others. In any conversation you talk about the things you know, the things you've learned. If you know nothing about the subject under discussion, you can neither contribute nor understand it. 
  4. 4. Purpose of Research Research promotes understanding of matters that most people are either not familiar with or don’t fully comprehend. When reading a study, one seeks the knowledge that allows us to learn something new about the topic we’re interested in. Some studies are conducted purely for the purpose of gaining knowledge, but others aim to apply it in the real world.
  5. 5. Characteristics of Research Reliability is a subjective term which can not be measured precisely but today there are instruments which can estimate the reliability of any research. Reliability is the repeatability of any research, research instrument, tool or procedure  Validity is the strength with which we can call a research conclusions, assumptions or propositions true or false. Validity determines the applicability of research . Validity of the research instrument can be defined as the suitability of the research instrument to the research problem or how accurately the instrument measures the problem. 
  6. 6.   Accuracy is also the degree to which each research process, instrument and tool is related to each other. Accuracy also measures whether research tools have been selected in best possible manner and research procedures suits the research problem or not. Credibility comes with the use of best source of information and best procedures in research. If you are using second-hand information in your research due to any reason your research might complete in less time but its credibility will be at stake because secondary data has been manipulated by human beings and is therefore not very valid to use in research.
  7. 7. Generalizability is the extent to which a research findings can be applied to larger population. When a researcher conducts a study he/she chooses a target population and from this population he takes a small sample to conduct the research. This sample is representative of the whole population so the findings should also be. If research findings can be applied to any sample from the population, the results of the research are said to be generalizable.  Empirical nature of research means that the research has been conducted following rigorous scientific methods and procedures. Each step in the research has been tested for accuracy and is based on real life experiences.  Systematic approach is the only approach for research. No research can be conducted haphazardly. Each step must follow other.  Controlled-in real life experience there are many factors that effect an outcome. A single event is often result of several factors. When similar event is tested in research, due to the broader nature of factors that effect that event, some factors are taken as controlled factors while others are tested for possible effect. 
  8. 8. Different Types of Research  BASIC RESEARCH The research which is done for knowledge enhancement, the research which does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure, fundamental research.  APPLIED RESEARCH Applied research is designed to solve practical problem of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. It focus on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This research is generally conducted on large scale basis, it is expensive.
  9. 9. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative research aim to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period. In social sciences, “quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships”.  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. Qualitative research presents non-qualitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, met aphors, and description of things. 
  10. 10. Classification of Research  Exploratory/Formulative Research You may be exploring a new topic or issue in order to learn about it. If the issue was new or the researcher has written little on it, you began at the beginning. This is called exploratory research. Initial research conducted to clarify the nature of the problem. When a researcher has a limited amount of experience with or knowledge about a research issue, exploratory research is useful preliminary step that helps ensure that a more rigorous, more conclusive future study will not begin with an inadequate understanding of the nature of the management problem.
  11. 11. *Goals of Exploratory Research: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Become familiar with the basic facts, setting, and concerns; Develop well grounded picture of the situation; Develop tentative theories, generate new ideas, conjectures, or hypotheses; Determine the feasibility of conducting the study; Formulate questions and refine issues for more systematic inquiry; and Develop techniques and a sense of direction for future research. Descriptive Research Descriptive research presents a picture of the specific details of a situation, social setting, or relationship. The major purpose of descriptive research, as the term implies, is to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon. Descriptive research seeks to determine the answers to who, what, when, where, and how questions.
  12. 12. *Goals of Descriptive Research: 1. Describe the situation in terms of its characteristics i.e. provide an accurate profile of a group; 2. Give a verbal or numerical picture (%) of the situation; 3. Present background information; 4. Create a set of categories or classify the information; 5. Clarify sequence, set of stages; and 6. Focus on `who,' `what,' `when,' `where,' and `how' but not why?  Explanatory Research When we encounter an issue that is already known and have a description of it, we might begin to wonder why things are the way they are. The desire to know "why," to explain, is the purpose of explanatory research.
  13. 13. *Goals of Explanatory Research: 1. Explain things not just reporting. Why? Elaborate and enrich a theory's explanation. 2. Determine which of several explanations is best. 3. Determine the accuracy of the theory; test a theory's predictions or principle. 4. Advance knowledge about underlying process. 5. Build and elaborate a theory; elaborate and enrich a theory's predictions or principle. 6. Extend a theory or principle to new areas, new issues, new topics: 7. Provide evidence to support or refute an explanation or prediction. 8. Test a theory's predictions or principles
  14. 14. Scientific Research Hindrances that customs, beliefs, practices and 1. Tradition. This is accepting superstitions are true and part of our daily lives. Even it is not true, we are always apply this in our lives without applying a scientific investigation. 2. Authority. This is accepting anything without a question, the opinion which the person has a big name to the authority w/o using any scientific investigation if it's true. 3. Inaccurate Observation. This is describing wrongly what is observed. For example, four people are outside the hotel, wearing short skirts and pants. Some people will say they have no manners. The fact is that they are attending a party. 4. Overgeneralization. This is establishing a pattern out of a few instances. 5. Selective Observation. This is persisting to believe an observed pattern from overgeneralization and ignoring others.
  15. 15. 6. Made-up Information. This is making up information to explain away confusion. 7. Illogical Reasoning. This is attributing something to another w/o any logical basis. 8. Ego involvement in understanding. This is giving an explanation when one finds himself an unfavorable situation. 9. Mystification. This is attributing to supernatural power, the phenomena that cannot be understood. This is accepting that there are things that are beyond our intelligence, like spirits, ghosts, or something that people think that are out of this world. 10. To err is human. This is an attitude that admits the fallibility of man. When he made a mistake, he will not study why he had committed this, and how he will correct it and make some effort to avoid this mistake again. 11. Dogmatism. This is an addition. This is an unwritten policy of certain institutions and governments prohibiting the study of topics that are believed to run counter to the established laws.
  16. 16. Variable of Research Variable is the characteristic or attribute of an individual, group, educational system, or the environment that is of interest in a research study. Identifying the key variables is important for the following reasons: 1. The key variables provide focus when writing the Introduction section. 2. The key variables are the major terms to use when searching for research articles for the Literature Review. 3. The key variables are the terms to be operationally defined if an Operational Definition of Terms section is necessary. 4. The key variables provide focus to the Methods section. 5. The Instrument will measure the key variables. These key variables must be directly measured or manipulated for the research study to be valid
  17. 17. Components of Full Research Paper 1.Title page 2.Abstract 3.Introduction, or Problem Statement, or Problem Identification 4.Background and Review of Existing Literature, 5.Research Methodology 6.Data Collection 7.Findings (Results and Analysis of Your Data 8.Conclusions 9.Discussion of 'Limitations 10.Notes 11.Works Cited 12.Appendices
  18. 18. Five-chapter approach Chapter one consists of problem, purpose, hypotheses or research questions, definitions and theoretical framework. Chapter two consists of the review of literature. Chapter three consists of the methodology: sample, setting, design, data analysis methods, and ethical concerns. Chapters four and five are written after the study is completed. Chapter four consists of results of data analysis. Chapter five consists of a discussion of results, conclusions, implications for nurses, and recommended future studies. It is important for nurses to review and apply this five-chapter approach when conducting or critiquing research studies.
  19. 19. Validity, Reliability and Usability Validity It means the degree to which a test or measuring instrument measures what it intends to measure. Types of Validity  Content validity: Warrants that an overall sample of the content being measured is represented. Identification of the content must be accurately represented by the test items. A panel or grouping of content experts is typically consulted to identify a broad spectrum of content.  Criterion Validity: Targets the accuracy of a measure itself. Examining criterion validity is demonstrated by comparing the selected measure with another valid measure.  Predictive validity: Predicts a recognized association between the identified construct and something else. Typically, one measure occurs at an earlier time and is used to predict a later measure.  Concurrent validity: Exists when the identified measure positively correlates with a measure that has been previously found to be valid. The two measures could be for the same or different constructs that are related.
  20. 20.  Construct validity: Ensures that the assessment measures the construct it claims to measure. Construct validity can be determined by demonstration of comparative test performance results (differential-groups study) or pre and post-testing of implementation of the construct (intervention study). This type of validity can also show how the measure relates to other measures as a defined in the construct.  Discriminant Validity: Illustrates that measures that should not be related are not. A lack of correlation is expected to establish discriminant validity. Reliability It means the extent to which a research instrument is dependable, consistent and stable. Methods in Testing the Reliability of a Good Research Instrument  Test-retest method – In this method, the same instrument is administered twice to the same group of subjects and the correlation coefficient is determined.  Parallel-forms method – Parallel or equivalent forms of a test may be administered of the group of subjects, and the paired observations correlated.  Split-half method – The test in this method may be administered
  21. 21. Usability It means the degree to which the research instrument be satisfactorily used by teachers, researchers, supervisors and school managers without expenditures of time, money and effect. Factors to Determine Usability  Base of administration. To facilitate the administration of a research instrument, instruction should be complete and precise.  Base of scoring. It depends on the following aspects:  Construction of a test in the objective type.  Answer keys are adequately prepared.  Scoring directions are fully understood.  Ease of interpretation and application. Results of test are easy to interpret and apply if tables are provided.  Low cost. It is more practical if the test is low cost materialwise.  Proper mechanical make-up. A good research instrument

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