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Biochemistry of saliva <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the composition of saliva  </li></ul><ul><li>Mention ...
Clinical Highlights <ul><li>Understanding of salivary mechanisms prerequisite for  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effective treatme...
Saliva Definition :  Secretions of  salivary  glands  (parotid and submandibular/sublingual) Composition of Saliva :   4 m...
<ul><li>saliva is hypotonic to plasma </li></ul><ul><li>-Na+ and Cl- ↓ in saliva than plasma </li></ul><ul><li>-K+ and HCO...
functions of saliva Dr/ Ragaa Salama Salivary Families Anti- Bacterial Buffering Digestion Mineral- ization Lubricat- ion ...
Mucin Functions <ul><li>Tissue Coating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective coating about hard and soft tissues </li></ul></ul...
Amylases <ul><li>digestive function </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolyzes starches -> amylose ,amylopectin,Maltose ,glucose, </li><...
Lingual Lipase <ul><li>Secreted by von Ebner’s glands of tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in first phase of fat digestion...
Statherins <ul><li>Produced by acinar cells in salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Statherins prevent precipitation or cryst...
Proline-rich Proteins (PRPs) <ul><li>Inhibitors of calcium phosphate crystal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Present in the initi...
Histatins <ul><li>A group of small histidine-rich proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Potent inhibitors of  Candida albicans  growt...
Lysozyme  (  LZ ) <ul><li>Present in numerous organs and most body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Oral LZ is derived from at lea...
Salivary peroxidase systems <ul><li>Sialoperoxidase (SP, salivary peroxidase) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readily adsorbed to va...
Regulation of oral microorganisms by SP/MP Dr/ Ragaa Salama Food Ingestion carbohydrates Stimulation Metabolism H + Recove...
Other anti-microbial activities of LZ <ul><li>Muramidase activity (lysis of peptidoglycan layer) </li></ul><ul><li>Cationi...
Anti-microbial activities of saliva Dr/ Ragaa Salama
<ul><li>thiocyanate ions  and another </li></ul><ul><li>is several  proteolytic enzymes— most important, </li></ul><ul><li...
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Composition Of Saliva 2010

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Composition Of Saliva 2010

  1. 1. Biochemistry of saliva <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the composition of saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Mention its functions </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  2. 2. Clinical Highlights <ul><li>Understanding of salivary mechanisms prerequisite for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effective treatment of salivary gland dysfunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modulation of bacterial colonization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of artificial saliva </li></ul></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  3. 3. Saliva Definition : Secretions of salivary glands (parotid and submandibular/sublingual) Composition of Saliva : 4 major components 1-mucus that serves as a lubricant. 2-amylase ->initiates the digestion of starch. 3-lingual lipase -> begins digestion of fat. 4-electrolyte solution (Na+,Cl - , K+, HCO3 - -> moistens food. 5-proteins& enzymes: Statherins, Proline-rich Proteins (PRPs), Histatins, Cystatins, Lysozyme, Salivary peroxidase Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  4. 4. <ul><li>saliva is hypotonic to plasma </li></ul><ul><li>-Na+ and Cl- ↓ in saliva than plasma </li></ul><ul><li>-K+ and HCO3- ↑in saliva than in plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>- pH changes from being slightly acidic (pH 6-7 ,at rest) to basic (pH 8) at ultimate stimulation ↑ ↑ HCO3- in the saliva </li></ul><ul><li>-Amylase and mucus also increase in concentration after stimulation. </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  5. 5. functions of saliva Dr/ Ragaa Salama Salivary Families Anti- Bacterial Buffering Digestion Mineral- ization Lubricat- ion &Visco- elasticity Tissue Coating Anti- Fungal Anti- Viral Carbonic anhydrases, Histatins Amylases, Mucins, Lipase Cystatins, Histatins, Proline- rich proteins, Statherins Mucins, Statherins Amylases, Cystatins, Mucins, Proline-rich proteins, Statherins Histatins Cystatins, Mucins Amylases, Cystatins, Histatins, Mucins, Peroxidases
  6. 6. Mucin Functions <ul><li>Tissue Coating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective coating about hard and soft tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary role in formation of acquired pellicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrates anti-microbial molecules at mucosal interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lubrication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases lubricating qualities (film strength) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggregation of bacterial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial adhere to mucins may result in surface attachment, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucin-coated bacteria may be unable to attach to surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacterial adhesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>React with bacterial adhesins, thereby blocking them </li></ul></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  7. 7. Amylases <ul><li>digestive function </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolyzes starches -> amylose ,amylopectin,Maltose ,glucose, </li></ul><ul><li>in tears, serum, bronchial, and male and female urogenital secretions </li></ul><ul><li>role in modulating bacterial adherence </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  8. 8. Lingual Lipase <ul><li>Secreted by von Ebner’s glands of tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in first phase of fat digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolyzes medium- to long-chain triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Important in digestion of milk fat in new-born </li></ul><ul><li>highly hydrophobic enters fat globules </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  9. 9. Statherins <ul><li>Produced by acinar cells in salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Statherins prevent precipitation or crystallization of supersaturated calcium phosphate in ductal saliva and oral fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricant. </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  10. 10. Proline-rich Proteins (PRPs) <ul><li>Inhibitors of calcium phosphate crystal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Present in the initially formed enamel pellicle and in “mature” pellicles </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired enamel pellicle is 0.1-1.0 µm thick layer of macromolecular material on the dental mineral surface </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  11. 11. Histatins <ul><li>A group of small histidine-rich proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Potent inhibitors of Candida albicans growth </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama Cystatins <ul><li>Are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases </li></ul><ul><li>protective against unwanted proteolysis (bacterial proteases, lysed leukocytes) </li></ul><ul><li>inhibit proteases in periodontal tissues </li></ul><ul><li>effect on calcium phosphate precipitation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Lysozyme ( LZ ) <ul><li>Present in numerous organs and most body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Oral LZ is derived from at least four sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>major and minor salivary glands, phagocytic cells and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological function </li></ul><ul><li>anti-microbial activity by: </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of bacterial adhesion to tooth surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of glucose uptake and acid production </li></ul><ul><li>Muramidase activity (lysis of peptidoglycan layer) </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  13. 13. Salivary peroxidase systems <ul><li>Sialoperoxidase (SP, salivary peroxidase) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readily adsorbed to various surfaces of mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enamel, salivary sediment, bacteria, dental plaque </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Myeloperoxidase (MP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From leukocytes entering via gingival crevice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-20% of total peroxidase in whole saliva </li></ul></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  14. 14. Regulation of oral microorganisms by SP/MP Dr/ Ragaa Salama Food Ingestion carbohydrates Stimulation Metabolism H + Recovery O 2 thiols Inhibition Salivary Glands SCN - + H 2 O 2 OSCN - /HOSCN Autoinhibition spontaneous +SP Unstimulated bacteria Inhibited bacteria Active bacteria
  15. 15. Other anti-microbial activities of LZ <ul><li>Muramidase activity (lysis of peptidoglycan layer) </li></ul><ul><li>Cationic-dependent activation of bacterial autolysins </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation of bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of bacterial adhesion to tooth surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of glucose uptake and acid production </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  16. 16. Anti-microbial activities of saliva Dr/ Ragaa Salama
  17. 17. <ul><li>thiocyanate ions and another </li></ul><ul><li>is several proteolytic enzymes— most important, </li></ul><ul><li>lysozyme— that (a) attack the bacteria, (b) aid the thiocyanate </li></ul><ul><li>ions in entering the bacteria where these ions </li></ul><ul><li>in turn become bactericidal, and (c) digest food particles, </li></ul><ul><li>thus helping further to remove the bacterial metabolic </li></ul><ul><li>support. </li></ul><ul><li>protein antibodies that can destroy oral bacteria </li></ul>Dr/ Ragaa Salama
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