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Homoeopathy and tobacco de-addiction


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Homoeopathy and tobacco de-addiction by Dr. Amrit Kalsi

Published in: Healthcare, Health & Medicine

Homoeopathy and tobacco de-addiction

  1. 1. H o m e o p a t h i c S c o p e i n t o b a c c o d e - a d d i c t i o n i n re f e re n c e o f E c o l o g i c a l , E n v i ro n m e n t a l , S o c i a l & H e a l t h H a z a r d s o f To b a c c o U s e 1 DR CHANDER MOHAN- CMO(H) DTE OF AYUSH
  2. 2. 2 WHY HOMOEOPATHY FOR TOBACCO ADDICTION? Homeopathic remedies can give an enduring cure, physically, mentally and emotionally. Homoeopathy treat body as a whole, not single part of body or mind, which is diseased (addicted). The detailed Homeopathic history taking will also contribute in counseling which is a significant element of effective treatment in Addiction. Homoeopathy is a scientific mode of treatment that works on fixed principles. Homoeopathy individualizes each and every case and as no two individuals are alike, every case is taken individually and completely. This pathy has no proven adverse side effects. Common side effects seen in smokers using NRT are similar to nicotine withdrawal symptoms. These include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, irritability, sleep disturbances, vivid dreams, mild hallucinations, and depression. Homoeopathic medicines are non-addictive in comparison to NRT’s. Any age & sex group can take the help of homoeopathy for quitting. NRT is not to be used in special populations (pregnant women, light smokers, adolescents and smokeless tobacco users).
  3. 3. 3 Homoeopathy helps in quitting by producing distaste & aversion to particular drug substance. Homoeopathic medicines reduce the number & severity of withdrawal symptoms and help in build motivation to defy our vulnerability, substitute addictive activities with positive and rewarding behaviors, and safely manage the symptoms of withdrawal associated with quitting. Quitter can tolerate the withdrawal symptoms very well while on homoeopathic treatment. By this he/she can achieve the target of quitting easily and early. Homoeopathy can also handle, tackle & treat the majority of bad conditions arises from the substance abuse. Homeopathic remedies support and re-vitalize the brain and nervous system, enhances the immune, improve concentration levels, mental clarity, memory and systemic circulation, thus, maintaining health and vigor. More over in India this system is easily approachable & cost effective.
  4. 4. A scenario exercise conducted by the Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal estimated that the historical use of fuel-wood between 1962 and 2002, for tobacco curing and manufacture of cigarettes and other smoking consumables, has destroyed and degraded 680 sq. km of forests, or nearly 868 million tones of wood through successive extraction. In calorific terms, the wood energy lost is enough to run a thermal power plant to provide electricity to Delhi and Western Uttar Pradesh for an entire year 4
  5. 5. The production of cigarettes is very damaging to the environment. It is estimated that one tree is consumed for every 300 cigarettes produced. Considering 5.6 trillion cigarettes are produced annually worldwide, tobacco devours about 18.6 billion trees every year. 5
  6. 6. Filter-tipped cigarette butts are toxic especially for marine life even just one cigarette butt alone soaking in water for a day is hazardous enough to kill 50% of fish in a litre of water. 6
  7. 7. A cigarette butt contains about 165 toxic chemicals. 95% of cigarette filters are made of cellulose acetate, a thermoplastic formed by the reaction of cellulose, acetic acid and acetic anhydride that is slow to degrade in the environment. It take 18 months to 10 years for the filter to degrade. When placed in large bodies of water like oceans, the toxins of the cigarette butt are harmful to marine life 7
  8. 8. Cigarette butt filters trap the dangerous by-products of smoking by accumulating particulate smoke components and 165 toxic chemicals. These chemicals leach into the environment: Arsenic used in rat poison Acetic acid in hair dye and photo developing fluid Acetone main ingredient in paint thinner and nail polish remover Ammonia a typical household cleaning fluid Benzene found in rubber cement Butane cigarette lighter fluid Cadmium found in batteries and artist’s oil paints Carbon Monoxide a poisonous gas found in car exhaust Continued ….. 8
  9. 9. DDT Formaldehyde used to embalm dead bodies Hexamine in barbecue lighter fluid . Hydrazine used in jet and rocket fuels Hydrogen Cyanide used as a poison in gas chambers Lead a highly poisonous metal Naphthalene used in explosives and moth balls Nitrobenzene a gasoline additive Phenol used in disinfectants and plastics Polonium-210 a highly radioactive element Stearic acid found in candle wax Toluene found in embalmer's glue 9
  10. 10. What Makes Plastic pouch Harmful to the Environment? Plastic pouches for gutkha are made of various chemicals which are mainly toxic & very harmful to the human health and the environment. The chemicals used to make plastic bags are xylene, ethylene oxide and benzene. These toxic chemicals are sources of various diseases & disorders in humans. They also provide negative effects on the water, air & soil. 10
  11. 11. Plastic pouches are among the items that are non-biodegradable. or, in simpler terms, they do not decay. Do you know that it takes thousands of years before one plastic bag/pouch can turn into small particles? 11
  12. 12. Tobacco contributes to Deforestation in three ways: Forests cleared for cultivation of tobacco, Fuel wood stripped from forests for curing Forest resources used for packaging of tobacco, tobacco leaves,cigarettes, etc. 12
  13. 13. Approximately 2 lakh hectare of forests/woodlands are removed by tobacco farming each year. Trees from a hectare of land may be needed to cure 1 tone of tobacco. An average of 7.8 kg of wood is needed to cure 1 kg of tobacco. One acre of tobacco plants displaces 150 trees. For cigarette paper and packaging 80 more trees are needed. Since high- quality card paper used to make cigarette boxes and cartons are not recycled, an additional loss of 20 trees occurs. One acre of tobacco plants displaces 250 tress 13
  14. 14. Fertility of the soil Tobacco growing depletes soil nutrients at a much faster rate than many other crops, thus rapidly decreasing the fertility of the soil. Tobacco plants do not offer much protection to top soil from eroding agents such as wind and rain. 14
  15. 15. Tobacco plant depletes nutrients at a heavy rate, so it requires regular inputs of chemical fertilizers. Tobacco depletes the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil at higher rates than any food crop and, in most cases, higher than cash crops such as coffee, tea and cotton. It is particularly potassium-hungry, absorbing up to six times as much as other crops. Tobacco when grown singly was the most erosive crop, causing a loss of 45 kg of top soil on every acre per year. In comparison, cotton crop lost 7.5 kg, grapes about 11 kg and groundnut 12.5 kg. 15
  16. 16. Erosion of soil does not only mean the loss of a large volume of soil but also includes the loss of selective nutrients and organic matter that deposit on the top layers at a greater frequency. Due to this, the lower layers get exposed to eroding agents and lose their fertility, and therefore become prone to erosion in rapid succession. As a result of soil erosion, water retention in the soil becomes poor. 16
  17. 17. Biodiversity losses Planting a single crop for several successive seasons is the cause of local biological diversity. Conversion of forests to tobacco farms caused the local disappearance of several animal and plants species. Another measure of biodiversity loss is the collapse of the food web, thereby destabilizing the predator-prey relationship. It is most acutely seen in the insect and small rodent population, which lives in the forest fringes. Tobacco engages the land for a longer period than other crops. 17
  18. 18. Tobacco is a sensitive plant prone to many diseases, especially during early growth. It therefore requires huge chemical inputs: up to 16 applications of pesticide are recommended during growing period. Such chemicals may run off into water bodies, contaminating local water supplies. High levels of pesticide use may also lead to the development of resistance in mosquitoes and flies. Frequent contact with and spraying of chemicals and storage of tobacco in residential premises of farmers have adverse health effects. 18
  19. 19. Pesticide for tobacco crop & its Health Hazards Aldicarb, One of the most acutely toxic pesticides. Less than 1000th of an ounce is a lethal dose for humans. It causes chronic damage to the nervous system, suppresses the immune system and adversely affects fetuses. In human cells, aldicarb causes genetic damage. Also causes damage to hearing, vision, the kidneys and liver, and is both carcinogenic and mutagenic. Telone -A highly toxic soil fumigant that causes respiratory problems, skin and eye irritation, and kidney damage. Chlorpyrifos has chronic neurobehavioral effects such as persistent headache, blurred vision, unusual fatigue or muscle weakness, and problems with mental functions including memory, concentration, depression and irritability. Acephate is a carcinogen and have mutagenic effects and reproductive toxicity. Continued……… 19
  20. 20. Imidacloprid, acute effects of exposure are difficulty in breathing, loss of the ability to move, staggering, trembling and spasms. Exposure may causes thyroid lesions. Thiamethoxam is a carcinogen. Acephate is a carcinogen. Acute exposure causes dermal and inhalation toxicity. It is also an eye irritant. Endosulphan affects the kidneys, developing fetus and liver. It is immunosuppressant & mutagenic, decrease in the quality of semen, increase in testicular, prostate and breast cancer, and increase in defects in male sex organs. Methomyl is a possible carcinogen. Carbendazim is a possible human teratogen. Monocrotophos It affects the central nervous system. Continued……… 20
  21. 21. Bordeaux mixture is corrosive to the mucous membranes and cornea. Causes irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Has a metallic taste and causes nausea, vomiting and stomach pain. Ziram adversely affects the reproductive system and also causes endocrine disruption. Ridomyl It is a possible human teratogen may cause birth defects. Carbendazi is a potential human hormone-disrupting chemical and reduces the sperm count and affects the development of the testicles. Basamid Causes eye irritation and may cause irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Oxydemeton methyl is a possible carcinogen Calyxin adversely affects the reproductive system and also causes endocrine disruption. 21
  22. 22. Tobacco is heavily dependent on fertilizers, its application causes excessive leaching, including that of nitrogen and potassium. Depending on the soil type, anywhere between 80 and 200 kg of chemical fertilizers are applied per acre before transplantation. 22
  23. 23. Tobacco displaces the indigenous flora and fauna and will thus gradually become a source of pests for other crops. It leads to collapse of the food web, thereby destabilizing the predator- prey relationship. 23
  24. 24. In India, according to a report by an advocacy group, Global March against Child Labour, New Delhi, an estimated 20,000 children work in tobacco farms and another 27,000 children work in beedi making or packing cigarettes. 24
  25. 25. The child-laborers complained of low pay, long hours as well as physical and sexual abuse by their supervisors. They also reported suffering from “green tobacco sickness,” a form of nicotine poisoning. When wet leaves are handled, nicotine from the leaves gets absorbed in the skin and causes nausea, vomiting, dizziness, & rashes. Children were exposed to 50-cigarettes worth of nicotine through direct contact with tobacco leaves. This level of nicotine in children can permanently alter brain structure and function. 25
  26. 26. Economic Cost of Tobacco use The cultivation of tobacco is economically inimical to the countries that produce it, especially those that are still developing. When resources are put into tobacco production, they are taken away from food production. Large amount of firewood, that could be used domestically for fuel and heating, are instead used for the curing of tobacco. A large percent of 26
  27. 27. Direct medical costs of treating tobacco related diseases in India amounted to 907 million $ for smoked tobacco and 285 million $ for smokeless tobacco. Indirect morbidity costs of tobacco use, which includes the cost of caregivers and value of work loss due to illness, amounted to 398 million $ for smoked tobacco and 104 million $ for smokeless tobacco. The total economic cost of tobacco use amounted to 1.7 billion $. Tuberculosis accounted for 18% of tobacco- related costs (311 million $) in India. Of the total cost of tobacco, 88% was related to men. 27
  28. 28. The total economic cost of tobacco-use in India for 2004 was 1.7-billion$, which is 16% more than the total revenues collected from all tobacco products in India Tobacco-related direct costs accounts for 4.7% of India’s total national healthcare expenditure in 2004 28
  29. 29. 29 Social effects of tobacco WHO emphasizes the rate of tobacco consumption especially in developing countries like India as an epidemic Medical researchers have found that smoking is a predictor of divorce. Smokers have 53% more divorce than nonsmokers Second hand smoke --- passive smoking constitutes the social problem. Person who are taking tobacco are more prone to start other addictions like alcohol, ganja, bhang etc and also may attracts towards gambling and other anti social activities. It may pass from generation to next generation* and from family to society and thus become social problem. Now the person start thinking of tobacco use, because of family & social exposure , in this way cycle repeats again & again . In this way personal problem becomes social problem. *If father is smoker then he can’t ask his son to stop smoking *Increased nicotine receptors noted in baby's brain ( effects of maternal smoking)
  30. 30. 30 Smokers have a sense of low- self esteem. Usually they do not have a sense of self-worth, they mostly have dysfunctional families and this is the possible source of social issue.
  31. 31. 31 H a z a r d t o H o m o e o p a t h y Tobacco intake during the course of treatment especially in chronic diseases may act as a Obstacle to cure. Considering the minuteness of the doses in homoeopathic treatment, we can easily understand that during the treatment everything must be removed from the diet and regimen which can have any medicinal action, in order that the small dose may not be extinguished or disturbed by any foreign medicinal irritant.
  32. 32. FEW FACTS Health Hazards In reference of Tobacco Use 32
  33. 33. 33 The toxic effects of tobacco includes: Carcinogenicity Mutagenicity & Genetic damage
  34. 34. Tobacco is the only legally available consumer product that kills people when it is used directed. Tobacco addiction, which is the foremost cause of preventable death in the world today by causing a wide range of major diseases which impact nearly every organ of the body. Tobacco use is the second leading cause of death, & fourth leading cause of disease. Globally, tobacco is responsible for the death of 1 in 10 adults (about 5 million deaths each year) 34
  35. 35. The leading causes of death from smoking were found to be Cardiovascular diseases (1.69 million deaths), COPD (0.97 million deaths) and Lung cancer (0.85 million deaths). Fifty per cent of unnecessary deaths due to tobacco occur in middle age (35-69 years), robbing around 22 years of normal life expectancy. By 2030, it is estimated that the number of premature deaths attributable to tobacco would double to 10 million deaths every year, with about 7 million of the deaths taking place in developing countries. Overall, smoking currently causes about 7 lakhs deaths per year in India according to WHO. Among people alive today in the world, about 500 million would die prematurely due to tobacco use; most of these are children and young adults of today. 35
  36. 36. At least one death every minute from tobacco in India.50 Lakh deaths in world every year due to the use of tobacco, this figure will be double by 2020. In India about 40% health related disease are because of tobacco. One in two lifetime smokers will die from their habit. Half of these deaths will occur in middle age. Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 different chemicals. At least 43 are known carcinogens (cause cancer in humans). 36
  37. 37. The primary risks of tobacco usage include many forms of cancer, particularly lung cancer, kidney, head and neck, breast cancer, bladder, esophagus, pancreas, and stomach. Increased risk of myeloid leukemia, squamous cell Sino nasal cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer after an extended latency, childhood cancers and cancers of the gall bladder,pancrease, adrenal gland & small intestine. Cigarette smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths. Smoking is responsible for about 87% of lung cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. 37
  38. 38. A smoker (avg. 4 cigarettes) is 4 times more likely to have heart attack than someone who never lights up. The risk goes up to 9 times for a heavy smoker (more than 10 cigarettes). Tar coats your lungs like soot in a chimney and causes cancer. A 20-a-day smoker breathes in up to a full cup (210 g) of tar in a year. The top five cancers in men are all tobacco-related cancers: of the lung, oral cavity, larynx, oesophagus & pharynx. In women, the leading cancer sites include those related to tobacco: cervix, oral cavity, esophagus & lungs. 38
  39. 39. Male smokers lost an average of 13.2 years of life Female smokers lost 14.5 years of life because of smoking. WHO concluded that nonsmokers are exposed to the same carcinogens as active smokers. Side stream smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals, including 69 known carcinogens. Passive smoke contains numerous chemicals that are poisonous; passive smoking is harmful especially to children. These toxic chemicals also stick to clothes, furniture, walls and inside your car. Teenagers are known to be impulsive, but a new study suggests that if they use tobaco, they might become even more reckless & less able at making decisions. 39
  40. 40. Nonsmokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or work increase their lung cancer risk by 20–30% & heart disease risk by 25–30%. According to WHO, passive smoking increases a child’s risk of developing heart disease and cancer as an adult. In some children, it may also be a contributing factor in learning and language difficulties as well as behavioral problems. Second hand smoke causes 30 times as many lung cancer death as all regulated pollutants combined. The Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has classified secondhand smoke as a Group A carcinogen. 40
  41. 41. In crowded restaurant, second hand smoke can produce 6 times the pollution of a busy highway. Eating lots of vegetables and fruits, losing weight and exercising regularly have little benefit on health if you do not stop tobacco use. WHO estimates that of 1000 tobacco users today, 500 will die of tobacco related disease, 250 of them in their middle age. In India tobacco related death shoot up from 1.4% in 1990 to 13.3 % in 2020. Toxicology:. 40–60 mg (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) can be a lethal dosage for adult humans. Nicotine therefore has a high toxicity in comparison to many other alkaloids such as cocaine. 41
  42. 42. Global studies show the association between active and second-hand smoking, and Cardio vascular disease (CVD), cerebro-vascular stroke, peripheral vascular disease and sudden cardiac death (SCD). CVD-related deaths in India are expected to rise from about 3 million in 2000 to 4.8 million in 2020. By 2020, about 42% of the total deaths in India are projected to be due to cardiovascular causes. 42
  43. 43. In India, COPD affects over 5% of males and 2.7% of females who are over 30 years of age. Till date, smoking remains the most important causal factor for COPD. Tobacco smoking is responsible for over 82% of COPD, which accounts for about 12 million adults suffering from smoking-related COPD in India. Exposure of non-smokers, especially children and women, to second-hand smoke from others is an important cause of respiratory infections, worsening of asthma and poor lung functions 43
  44. 44. Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day increases the risk of tuberculosis by two to four times. Two million individuals die each year of TB. Mortality from TB is three to four times higher in ever-smokers than in never-smokers. 44
  45. 45. Smoking harms the sexual and reproductive health of both men and women from puberty through young adulthood and into middle age. Men who smoke have a lower sperm count and poorer sperm quality than non-smokers. 45
  46. 46. The effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy leads to Decreased foetal growth & low birth weight, Spontaneous abortions, foetal deaths, Pregnancy complications including those that predispose to preterm delivery, and long term effects on the surviving children. Birth defects, e.g. Congenital limb reduction. Increased nicotine receptors noted in baby's brain. Fetal death rates are 35% higher among pregnant women who smoke cigarettes than among non-smokers. 46
  47. 47. Tobacco use in any form, either smoked or smokeless, can cause a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions. Precancerous lesions include leucoplakia & erythroplakia The dramatic increase in Oral sub mucosal fibrosis (OSMF) among young people in India has been attributed to chewing gutka and paan masala 47
  48. 48. Smoking is one of the leading risk factors that can lead to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Medical researchers have found that smoking is a predictor of divorce. Smokers have 53% more divorce than nonsmokers. The usage of tobacco also creates cognitive dysfunction, which includes: increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and decline in cognitive abilities, reduced memory & cognitive abilities in adolescent smokers, Risk of brain shrinkage (Cerebral atrophy) is also high. 48
  49. 49. Risk of Passive Smoking to children: Cancers, Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),  Asthma,  Lung infections , More severe illness with bronchiolitis Increased risk of developing tuberculosis if exposed to a carrier, Prone to various allergies, Low immunity, takes more time for recovery Crohn's disease, Learning difficulties, developmental delays, and neurobehavioral effects. Neuro cognitive problems. An increase in tooth decay has been associated with passive smoking in children, Increased risk of ENT infections. 49
  50. 50. Passive smoking kills over 6 lakhs people, including more than 1.65 lakhs children under five, every year in the world. The Lancet in 2010 is the first to estimate worldwide impact of passive smoking. It found more than half of the deaths are from heart disease, followed by deaths from cancer, lung infections, asthma and other ailments. "Children's exposure to second-hand smoke most likely happens at home,“ Smoking by either parent, particularly by the mother, increases the risk of asthma in children. 50
  51. 51. •Animals like dogs, cats, squirrels, and other small animals are affected by not only second- hand smoke inhalation, but also nicotine poisoning. •Filter-tipped cigarette butts are toxic especially for marine and fresh-water fish even just one cigarette butt alone soaking in water for a day is hazardous & enough to kill 50% of fish in a litre of water. 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53 References from literature mentioning that Homoeopathic medicines are capable for reliving the tobacco addiction and its consequence's , some of these are : Caladium Modifies craving for tobacco . Materia Medica by William Boericke, H.C.Allens Keynotes, Plantago Major. Causes an aversion to tobacco. Depression and Insomnia of chronic Nicotinism. Materia Medica by William Boericke. Nux Vomica : Desire stimulants, Materia Medica by William Boericke. Person addicted to stimulants , EB Nash:Leaders in Homoeopathic Therapeutics . Tabacum : Relieves terrible craving when use is discontinued . H.C.Allens Keynotes, Materia Medica S.K Dubey.
  54. 54. 54 There are several other references in the homoeopathic literature for the treatment of tobacco related ill effects. Some of them are from Materia Medica (William Boericke , S.K Dubey, H.C.Allens Keynotes, ) ,Therapeutics (Dewey) and Repertory (Kent’s) are:  o For ailments from tobacco chewing – Arsenic album.  o For hiccough from tobacco chewing – Ignatia.  o For excessive nausea & vomiting – Ipecac .  o For impotency caused by tobacco smoking – Lycopodium.  o For palpitation, tobacco heart & sexual weakness – Phosphorus.  o For tobacco dyspepsia, neuralgia & chronic nervousness – Sepia.  o For occipital headache & vertigo from excessive smoking –Gels.  o For vertigo from excessive use of tobacco -Conium.  o For tobacco toothache – Clematis & Plantago.  o For cough excited by tobacco smoke – Staphysagaria & Spongia.  o Craving for tobacco – Staphysagaria.
  55. 55. 55 Drug Addiction and its side effects- A Homeopathic Approach, (ISBN: 81- 8056-886-5) published by B Jain publishers, New Delhi, by Dr Muhammad Rafeeque. GENERAL ADDICTIONS: Addictive personality: Carc, lach, med, nux.v, op, thuj. Ailments after intoxication: Am.m, bry, caps, carb.v, cocc, coff, gels, laur, NUX.V, OPIUM, puls, spong, stram. Ailments from indolence and luxury: Carb.v, helon, nux.v. Besotted expression: Ail, BAPT, bell, bry, bufo, cench, cocc, crot.c, crot.h, gels, lach, led,, nux.m, op,, stram. Disposition to become a criminal, moral feeling wanting: Ars, bell, hep, lach,merc. Gambling, passion for gambling: Ars, bell, calc, caust, chin, lyc, merc, nux.v, sulph, verat. Intoxicated easily: CON, naja, zinc.
  56. 56. 56 Chapter Toxicity in Murphy’s Repertory is unique in that this chapter is not present in Synthesis, Kent, Boenninnnghausen’s or Boger’s Repertories. Rubrics related with alcohol, drugs, chemicals, poisons, tobacco & vaccinations are included in Toxicity Chapter.TOBACCO, abuse: CALAD. agg: ARS, IGN, NUX-V, PLAN, PULS, SPIG, SPONG, STAPH. ailments, from: CALAD, NUX-V. aversion, to tobacco: CALC, IGN, NUX-V, PULS. aversion, to smoking: IGN. chewing agg: ARS. desire for, smoking: CALAD, TAB. headache, from smoking: IGN, NAT-A. nausea smoking after: IP, NUX-V.
  57. 57. 57 Kent’s Repertory refrences. Mind Anxiety, tobacco, from smoking : Petr., sep. Vertigo SMOKING, from : Alum., asc-t., bor., brom., clem., gels., Nat-m., Nux-v., op., sil., tab., zinc Head Congestion smoking, from : Bell., mag-c. Heaviness smoking agg. : Ferr-i., gels. Pain narcotics, after abuse of : Bell., cham., coff., dig., graph., hyos., lach., lyc., nux-v., op., puls., sep., valer tobacco, smoking, from : Acet-ac., acon., alum., ant-t., bell., brom., calad., calc., caust., clem., coc-c., cocc., ferr-i., ferr., gels., glon., ign., lob., mag-c., Nat-a., nat-m., nux-v., op., par., petr., plan., puls., sil., spig., thu., zinc. amel. : Am-c., aran., calc-p., carb-ac., naja. Cont……..
  58. 58. 58 Eye Pain; smoking, from : Calad. Vision Dim smoking, from,: Asc-t. Loss of vision, tobacco : Ars., nux-v., phos Ear Pain tobacco, from : Raph. Nose Odors smoke, of : Bar-c., cor-r., sulph., verat. snuff : Graph., Sulph. tobacco : Puls. Smell sensitive to tobacco : Bell., chin., ign., lyss., nux-v., phos., puls. Cont…..
  59. 59. 59 Taste, bitter, smoking, while : Asar., casc., chin., Cocc., Puls. after : Anac., ang., cocc., euphr., Puls. amel. after : Aran. tobacco tastes : Anac., camph., Chin., cocc., euphr., nat-m., spong. Taste, nauseous, smoking, from : Puls. offensive : (tobacco taste offensive) tobacco tastes : Camph. sour tobacco : Staph sweetish, smoking, when : Agar. after : Sel. tobacco tastes : Sel. wanting tastelessness of tobacco : Anac., ant-t., chin., puls. Cont…..
  60. 60. 60 Teeth PAIN, toothache lower teeth left : smoking amel. : Spig. smoke agg. tobacco smoking : Bry., caust., cham., chin., clem., ign., merc., nux-v., sabin., sars., Spig., thuj. amel. : Aran., bor., merc., nat-c., nat-s., sel., spig. chewing : Bry. jerking smoking, while : Bry. amel. : Spig Stomach - desire tobacco : Bell., carb-ac., daph., eug., kreos., manc., nat-c., nux-v., ox-ac., plat., plb., staph., Tab., ther., thu. smoking : Calad., carb-an., card-m., eug., glon., ham., led., lyc., ther. Abdomen Heat smoking, while : Spong. Pain tobacco, after : Bor., ign. amel. : Coloc Cont……
  61. 61. 61 Rectum Diarrhoea, smoking agg. : Bor., brom., cham tobacco, from : Brom., cham., ign., puls. smoking, while : Bor. Prolapsus, smoking agg. : Sep. Urging, smoking, while: Calad., thuj. Cont…
  62. 62. 62 Larynx & Trachea rawness in air passages, Larynx, smoking, from : Osm. Smoke, sensation of, larynx : Ars., Bar-c., brom. sleep, before : Ars. Tickling in the air passages: smoking, from : Atro., coloc. tobacco : Acon. Respiration Difficult, smoke, as from : Bar-c., brom., cocc., nat-a. stimulants agg. : Lach Wheezing, smoking on : Kali-bi Cont…
  63. 63. 63 Cough Dry, evening, smoking, from : Thuj. Dry, night, smoking amel. : Tarent. smoke, from inhaling : Kali-bi. smoking, from : Acon., all-s., atro., coc-c., coca., hell., petr., thuj. Hacking, smoking, from: Clem., coc-c., coloc., hell., ign., lach., nux-v., petr. Hard, smoking, while: All-s., nux-v. Interrupted, evening, smoking, from: Thuj. Paroxysmal, smoking, while : All-s. Periodic, speaking or smoking, from : Atro. Short, evening, smoking agg. : Thuj. smoking, when : Coca., thuj. Smoke of all kinds agg. : Euphr., ment. Smoking agg. : Acon., agar., all-s., arg-n., atro., brom., bry., carb-an., cham., clem., coc-c., coca., cocc., coloc., dros., euphr., ferr., hell., hep., ign., iod., lach., lact-ac., mag-c., ment., nux-v., osm., petr., puls., spig., spong., staph., sul-ac., tarent., thuj. evening : Arg-n., coloc., thuj. night amel. : Tarent. dinner, after, on : Acon., bry., coc-c., dros., lach., petr. Spasmodic, smoking agg. : Lac-c. amel. : Tarent. Tickling, smoking, from : Atro., coloc. Cont……
  64. 64. 64 Chest Oppression, smoking : Asc-t. Pain, smoking : Senega Pain, crushing behind sternum, smoking, while : Merc Palpitation heart, tobacco from: Acon., nux-v., phos., spong., thuj. Cont…..
  65. 65. 65 Sleep Sleepiness, smoking, while : Bufo. Sleeplessness, tobacco, abuse of, after : Nux-v. Dreams, smoking : Tell. Fever , Succession of stages, TOBACCO smoking: Cic., ign., sep. Generalities Faintness smoking, on : Sil Weakness, smoking, from : Asc-t., hep. Weakness, smoking, after : Sulph
  66. 66. 66 Boger C., Boenninghausen's Repertory VERTIGO - Aggravation - tobacco borx. rhod. sil. zinc. NOSE - Smell - illusions of - tobacco puls. NOSE - Smell - sense of, sensitive - tobacco bell. TEETH - Aggravation - tobacco BRY.CHIN. clem. IGN. sabin. sars. spig. thuj. TEETH - Amelioration - tobacco smoking borx. MERC. Nat-c. spig. APPETITE - Aversion - tobacco (smoke) alum. Ant-t. Arn. asar. bell. brom. bry. CALC. camph. canth. Carb-an. chin. Cocc. coff. grat. IGN. ip. kali-bi. Lach. led. lob. Lyc. meph. mez. Nat-m. nux-m. NUX-V. olnd.par. phos. plat. PULS. rhus-t. sars. sep. SPIG. stann. staph. sulph. tarax. thuj. APPETITE - Desire - tobacco calc-p. glon. staph. ther. Cont….
  67. 67. 67 TASTE - Acrid - tobacco chin. staph. TASTE - Bitter - tobacco asar. Camph. chin. Cocc. Euphr. Ign. spong. TASTE - Good, of tobacco coff. plb. TASTE - Increased, heightened - tobacco coff. TASTE - Metallic - tobacco, of kali-bi. TASTE - Musty and mouldy - of tobacco thuj. TASTE - Pungent - of tobacco chin. staph. TASTE - Repulsive, offensive, etc. - tobacco, of ip.sel. TASTE - Strong, too - tobacco COFF. TASTE - Sweet - tobacco, of chin. kali-bi. sang. sars. sel. TASTE - Tastelessness - tobacco, of chin. ign. nux-v. puls. squil. Cont….
  68. 68. 68 STOOL - Aggravation and amelioration - tobacco, abuse of Cham. PULS. RESPIRATION - Aggravation - tobacco Aloe. tarax. COUGH - Excited or aggravated by - tobacco smoke Acon. arg-n. brom. bry. carb-an. clem. coc-c.coloc. Dros. euphr. ferr.hep. ign. iod. LACH. mag-c. nux-v. petr. spong. staph. sul-ac. thuj. LARYNX AND TRACHEA - Aggravation - tobacco, smoking bry. CIRCULATION - Palpitation - tobacco, agg. conv. nux-v. CIRCULATION - Aggravation - tobacco smoke and smoking acon. ant-c. Ars. Cic. cycl. IGN. Nux-v. PHOS. PULS. sel. seneg. Sep. Spong. STAPH. Cont….
  69. 69. 69 CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION AND AMELIORATION IN GENERAL - Food - tobacco - agg. abies-n. Acon. agar. Alum. ambr. anac. ang. ANT-C. Arg-met. arn. Ars. bell. Bry. cact. Calad. Calc. camph. Carb-an. Cham. CHIN. Cic. Clem. COCC. coff. coloc. conv. cupr. cycl. dig. Euphr. ferr. GELS. hell. hep. IGN. iod. Ip. kali-bi. kali-br. kalm. Lach. lyc. mag-c. meny. merc. naja nat-c. NAT-M. NUX-V. osm. Par. Petr. PHOS. PULS. Ran-b. Rhus-t. Ruta sabad. Sabin. Sars. Sel. sep. Sil. spig. SPONG. stann. STAPH. stront-c. Sul-ac. Sulph. tab. Tarax. thuj. Verat. CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION AND AMELIORATION IN GENERAL – Food - tobacco - amel. borx. Coloc. HEP. Merc. naja Nat-c. sep. spig. tarent. CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION AND AMELIORATION IN GENERAL – Food - tobacco - chewing, agg. ARS. CONDITIONS OF AGGRAVATION AND AMELIORATION IN GENERAL - Food - tobacco – snuff- agg. Sil.
  70. 70. 70 Phatak S. R., Concise Repertory Abdomen - tobacco, smoking amel coloc. Appetite - lost, diminished, wanting - tobacco, from sep. Asthma; bronchial - tobacco, smoking, amel merc. Aversions, dislikes – tobacco arn. Calc. IGN. lob.1 nat-m. Nux-v. Convulsions, spasms - tobacco swallowing, from ip. Craving – tobacco asar. carb-v. daph. staph. Tab Head - tobacco smoke amel calc-p. lycps-v. Heart - palpitation - tobacco amel agar. Heart - tobacco agg cact. kalm. scop. Odours, smells - tobacco agg bell. Prostate gland - emission of prostatic fluid - tobacco agg daph. Smoke - tobacco, inhalation agg brom. Taste - sweet - tobacco smoking, after dig. Teeth - jerking - tobacco chewing, smoking on bry. Tetanus - tobacco, swallowing, from ipecac. Vision - blindness, loss of vision, affections of - tobacco, from phos. Waterbrash - tobacco amel ol-an. Stupefied - as after tobacco smoking spig.
  71. 71. 71 Boericke Repertory HEAD - Headache - Aggravation - Tobacco carb-ac. gels. hep. Ign. lob. nat-ar. EYES - Vision - Amaurosis - Tobacco nux-v. phos. pilo. plb-act. NOSE - Sense of smell - Hypersensitive to - tobacco bell. FACE - Prosopalgia, pain - Aggravation - From - tobacco sep. TASTE - Perverted, altered - Bitter, bilious - from tobacco Asar. euphr. puls. TEETH - Odontalgia, toothache - Cause - Tobacco, smoking Clem. ign. plan. Spig. TEETH - Odontalgia, toothache - Aggravation - From smoking tobacco clem. ign. Spig. Cont….
  72. 72. 72 STOMACH - Appetite - Aversions - Tobacco arn. calc. canth. cocc. Lob. nat-m. Nux-v. plan. STOMACH - Appetite - Cravings - Tobacco Asar. Carb-ac. carb-v. coca daph. Staph. STOMACH - Appetite - Things that dis agree - Tobacco Ign. kali-bi. lob. lyc.phos. Sel. tab. STOMACH - Indigestion dyspepsia - Cause - Tobacco abies-n. Nux-v. sep. STOMACH - Indigestion dyspepsia - Cause - Vegetables, tobacco ars. asc-t. nat-c. nux-v. Sep. ABDOMEN - Diarrhoea, enteritis - Cause, occurrence - from - tobacco cham. tab. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - Heart - Neuroses - Irritable from - tobacco Agarin. agn. ars. calad. Conv. dig. Kalm. lycps-v. nux-v. Phos. Spig. staph. Stroph-h. tab. verat. Heart - Pain - From – tobacco kalm. lil-t. nux-v. spig. staph. tab. Cont…
  73. 73. 73 CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - Heart - Palpitation - Cause - Tobacco agar. ars. cact. Gels. nux-v. stroph-h. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - Cough - Aggravation - Tobacco smoke menth. merc. spong. Staph. NERVOUS SYSTEM - Sleep – Tobacco gels. NERVOUS SYSTEM - Nervous affections - From - tobacco, in sedentary persons; dyspepsia, right prosopalgia sep. GENERALITIES - Complaints, abuse of - Tobacco Abies-n. Ars. calad. calc-p. camph. chin. chinin-ar. Coca Gels. Ign. Ip. kalm. lyc. mur-ac. Nux-v. Phos. Plan. plb. Sep. Spig. staph. tab. verat. GENERALITIES - Complaints, abuse of - Tobacco, in boys arg-n. ars. verat.
  74. 74. 74 Treatment Three effective components of tobacco cessation treatment: medicinal support, social support (clinician-provided encouragement and assistance), and problem-solving/skills training (focusing on achieving and maintaining abstinence) General Management Behavioral Interventions Behavioral treatments employ a variety of methods to assist smokers in quitting, ranging from self-help materials to individual counseling. These interventions teach individuals to recognize high-risk situations and develop coping strategies to deal with them. Interventions that offer person-to-person contact (i.e., group or individual counseling) provide a substantial treatment advantage over unassisted interventions. In comparison to self-help interventions, the more time providers spend (intensity level) with smokers in a treatment session, the higher the likelihood of cessation.
  75. 75. 75 “Minimal/brief” interventions require little cost and/or time from the intervener. There is strong evidence that patients who are consistently advised by health care providers to quit smoking are more likely to take steps to stop. Interventions as short as 3 minutes may substantially increase cessation rates. One common brief intervention designed for health care providers is the “5 A” method, which involves the following: Asking about tobacco status at each visit Advising all tobacco users to quit Assessing the patient's willingness to quit Assisting the patient in quitting Arranging for follow-up contact
  76. 76. 76 Physician can assess a patient's readiness to quit using the trans- theoretical model of behavior change. If the patient has not thought about quitting or is considering quitting but not in the next few months, they are in the Precontemplation/Contemplation stage. At this stage, the provider can use motivational interviewing skills to help increase readiness for cessation. Physician can use the “5 Rs” to help enhance a patient's motivation to quit: Discuss why quitting is personally relevant. Identify potential risks associated with tobacco addiction. Identify potential rewards and benefits related to quitting. Identify potential barriers or roadblocks that might impede the quitting process. Repeat motivational interventions at each visit.
  77. 77. 77 In general, patients at this stage are unlikely to benefit from advice-giving as much as a non-threatening discussion of what is keeping them from quitting at this time. Patients who have made plans to quit or who are in the process of quitting are in the Preparation/Action stage. These are the patients who will most benefit from brief interventions such as: Helping the patient identify a “quit date” Asking the patient to elicit support from friends and family Having the patient write down the reasons for quitting or coping strategies Having patients remove tobacco products from their environment Discussing coping strategies such as replacements (sugar-free gum, water) and distraction (keeping busy, exercising) Referring the patient to an intensive smoking cessation counseling program Providing the patient with advice about remedial aid.
  78. 78. 78 Relapse prevention is important for patients in the maintenance stage (those who have quit smoking). Patients who quit smoking but relapse more than six weeks later are not smoking to relieve withdrawal symptoms; their relapses are caused by a desire to smoke (craving) induced by internal or external events Physician at this stage can educate individuals in issues important in preventing relapse, such as being aware of the potential impact of stressful events. In patients who have never smoked, providing reinforcement and encouraging continued abstinence can be effective strategies for prevention. In patients who have relapsed, it is important to deflect guilt and self doubt with reminders about the frequency of relapse and the need for a renewed commitment to abstinence. Consistently working with patients on tobacco cessation increases the chances of success. Scheduled tobacco intake (smoking or eating tobacco) is a unique behavioral approach that gradually weans smokers from their physiologic dependence on nicotine without concomitant nicotine replacement. Smokers are instructed to smoke on a fixed time schedule (eg, one cigarette at the beginning of every hour) with gradually increasing inter cigarette intervals. In this way, individuals receive a steady, although declining, dosage of nicotine independent of environmental cues to smoke.
  79. 79. 79 With the help of counseling the smoker handle the physical and emotional side of giving up this addiction, it is also about understanding the withdrawal. Counseling may be undertaken on an individual or group basis. Counseling is far more effective than NRT, because with NRT you are still putting this addictive drug into your body. Medical research has shown that individuals who receive counseling are 4 times more likely succeed than by using any other method to stop smoking. The combination of medication with counseling is more effective than either alone. Repeated face-to-face contact in an individual or group. Counseling is far more effective than NRT, because with NRT you are still putting this addictive drug into your body. Medical research has shown that individuals who receive counseling are 4 times more likely succeed than by using any other method to stop smoking.
  80. 80. 80 Self care measures for Nicotine addiction: To rise above your weaknesses is easier said than done, and time and again your attempts may fail. However, don’t be discouraged, the fact that you have decided to quit even though you may falter means that you are half way there. The choice and responsibility to quit is yours alone. Have desire to quit 1) Healthy diet. Poor nutrition combined with high consumption of saturated fats, salt and alcohol, all increase a smoker’s risks of developing a serious disease. 2) The cravings associated with the withdrawal of nicotine might be reduced if the rate of excretion of nicotine through the kidneys is reduced. This is possible when urine becomes more alkaline. Hence, increase the intake of alkaline foods and decrease the intake of acidic foods. Milk products can be taken as they have high calcium content in them and calcium is alkaline in nature.
  81. 81. 81 3) Exercise and practice relaxation techniques (Deep breathing exercise/yoga/physical ) Listen to soothing music, go for a walk or get a massage to curb the restlessness from the craving, squeeze a stress ball, and have a work-out at the gym, go running, or phone a friend who can offer support. 4) Take deep breath and take some sips of water ,take a walk for few steps and try to hold the urge of tobacco intake for 2-5 minutes, urge will vanish .Just deviate your mind from the urge of tobacco. Wait out the craving. 5) Stay well hydrated.
  82. 82. 82 6) Change your activity and friends (spend more time with non-smokers) to overcome phases of Nicotine craving. Replace Addiction related activities with more constructive and rewarding activities. 7) Avoid caffeine and other stimulants. Keep available things like Jaggery, Cardamom ,Ginger , Mishree, Toffee, Chocolate, Chewing-gum, Shauf etc Develop a habit of saying “No” when offered. The more you refuse, the more you will be testing your willpower and the easier it will become. 8) Request family and friends to support and encourage you in overcoming your addiction by seeking and reinforcing your treatment. 9) Parents can help their obsessed children by educating them about consequences of addictions, open communication and good role modeling can help. 10) Time to time fix a day when you could not consume tobacco for a whole day and slowly increase the duration from one day to two days and keep on increasing. 11) Postpone each tobacco intake by 1hr.Do not buy in packs and not keep a stock. Throw all tobacco related things (lighter, ashtray) from yourself.
  83. 83. 83 12) Keep on comparing the bad effects of tobacco intake from good effects of quitting After 20 min blood pressure comes down to normal value. Level of carbon-monoxide comes to normal after 8 hrs. Oxygen level returns to normal. In 1 month skin loses its gray tinge and becomes less wrinkled. Within 3 months working capacity of lungs increases. Blood flow normal by 30%. Within 9 months there is improvement in cough, symptoms of sinusitis, lethargy and difficulty in breathing. Within 1 year chances of Cardiac Disease reduces to minimum. Within 5-15 years risk of Stroke reduces to minimum. After 10 year risk of Lung Cancer is negligible.
  84. 84. 84 13) Set a date & tell your quitting plan to family and friends. 14) Don’t afraid of Withdrawal Symptoms while thinking of quitting. Go ahead these symptoms are caused as a person re-adjust to the physical and psychological addiction to nicotine. Most withdrawal symptoms peak 48 hours after you quit and are completely gone in six months. Light headedness - less than two days Interrupted sleep – less than one week Craving – about two weeks Irritability & aggression – less than one month Depression / Restlessness – less than one month Poor concentration – less than two weeks Increased appetite – less than ten weeks 15) Regular Participation in anti-tobacco activities. 16) Take help from your family doctor.
  85. 85. 85 Few reasons for quitting You and your family will be healthy. Life expectancy will be increase by 10 to 15 years Financial gain, 20 Rs daily on tobacco means Rs 7200 yearly and Rs 72000 in 10 yrs and by daily 40 Rs the amount will be 1.5 lakhs in 10 yrs. This amount can be use for good education and marriage of your child or any other important work. Also if you will get any tobacco related disease then again there is financial loss. Tobacco quitting is good for your environment and society. If you are not consuming the tobacco then there is chance that your child will not get attracted towards tobacco because parents are role model for there children’s. Peace full environment at home.
  86. 86. References • • • • • • • papers/ beystehner.html • Hahnemann, Samuel. Organon of Medicine, 6th edition, Translated • with Preface by William Boericke, B. Jain Publishers (Pvt.) Ltd., New Delhi. • • • • Life of Smoking Women: My Doctor 2008; 16(2):13-14(7656); effect of smoking on atopic predisposition & sensitization to allergens. • The Lancet: 365 (9471) 2005 1629-35(3120); smoking cessation & lung infection. • The Lancet: 365 (9474) 2005 1855(3115); on giving up smoking. • The Lancet: 365 (9474) 2005 1849-54(3114); free nicotine patches. • Indian Journal of Chest Disease: 2006; 48(1):37-42(4082); tobacco smoking in India 86 /