Module 1: Introduction to Critical Thinking 1. What is Thinking? 6. Barriers to Critical Thinking 2. Types of Thinking 4. Critical Thinking Standards 5. Benefits of Critical Thinking 7. Characteristics of a Critical Thinker 3. What is Critical Thinking? Introduction
1.7 Characteristics of a Critical Thinker Tend to preserve when they encounter intellectual obstacles or difficulties. Have the intellectual perseverance to pursue insights or truths, despite obstacles or difficulties. Are often relatively indifferent to truth and lack of curiosity. Love truth and curious about a wide range of issues. Fear and resist ideas that challenge their basic beliefs. Have the intellectual courage to face and assess fairly ideas that challenge even their most basic beliefs. Are easily distracted and lack the ability to zero in on the essence of a problem or issue. Are able to get to the heart of an issue or problem , without being distracted by details. Tend to engage in ‘group think’, uncritically following the beliefs and values of the crowd. Think independently and are not afraid to disagree with group opinion. Lack awareness of their own biases and preconceptions. Are aware of the biases and preconceptions that shape the way they perceive the world. Often base their beliefs on mere personal preference or self interest. Base their beliefs on facts and evidence rather than on personal preference or self-interest . Are close-minded and resist criticisms of beliefs and assumptions. Listen open-mindedly to opposing points of view and welcome criticisms of beliefs and assumptions. Pretend they know more than they do and ignore their limitations. Are intellectually honest with themselves, acknowledging what they don’t know and recognizing their limitations. Often fall prey to egocentrism, sociocentrism, wishful thinking, etc. Are sensitive to ways in which critical thinking can be skewed by egocentrism, sociocentrism, wishful thinking, etc. Often think in ways that are unclear, imprecise, inaccurate, etc. Have a passionate drive for clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, consistency, logicalness, completeness, and fairness. Uncritical Thinkers Critical Thinkers
Summary Academic performance, workplace and daily life. 5. Benefits of Critical Thinking Examples include Egocentrism, Sociocentrism, Unwarranted Assumptions, Wishful Thinking , and Relativistic Thinking 6. Barriers to Critical Thinking Open-mindedness, independent thinking, self-aware, passionate, insightful, honest and intellectual humility, intellectual courage, and welcome criticism, etc. 7. Characteristics of a Critical Thinker Clarity, Accuracy, Precision, Relevance, Depth, Breadth, Logic and Fairness 4. Critical Thinking Standards Critical Thinking is the general term given to a wide range of cognitive and intellectual skills needed to: Effectively identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments; Discover and overcome personal prejudices and biases; Formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions; and Make reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do. Critical thinking skills emphasized in this course, include: Reasoning, Analyzing, Evaluating, Decision Making and Problem solving. 3. What is Critical Thinking? Creative & Critical Thinking 2. Types of Thinking Thinking is a purposeful, organized cognitive process that we use to make sense of our world. 1. What is Thinking?
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Analyzing Comparing and contrasting Classification/definition Determining parts-whole relationships Sequencing Finding reasons and conclusions Uncovering assumptions Evaluation Assessing basic information Determining the reliability of sources Determining the accuracy of sources Well-founded inferences The use of evidence Deduction Decision Making What makes a decision necessary? What are my options? What are the likely consequences of each option? How important are the consequences? Which option is best in light of the consequences? Monitor and review your decision and ask, are there any necessary adjustments? Problem Solving What is the Problem? What Are the Alternatives? What Are the Advantages and/or Disadvantages of Each Alternative? What Is the Solution? How Well Is the Solution Working? Reasoning The type of thinking that uses arguments - reasons in support of conclusions to decide, explain, predict, and persuade.
Analyzing (Module 1-7) Comparing and contrasting Classification/definition Determining parts-whole relationships Sequencing Finding reasons and conclusions Uncovering assumptions Evaluation (Module 1-7) Assessing basic information Determining the reliability of sources Determining the accuracy of sources Well-founded inferences The use of evidence Deduction Decision Making (Module 2, 6 & 7) What makes a decision necessary? What are my options? What are the likely consequences of each option? How important are the consequences? Which option is best in light of the consequences? Monitor and review your decision and ask, are there any necessary adjustments? Problem Solving (Module 2 & 7) What is the Problem? What Are the Alternatives? What Are the Advantages and/or Disadvantages of Each Alternative? What Is the Solution? How Well Is the Solution Working? Reasoning (Module 1-7) The type of thinking that uses arguments - reasons in support of conclusions to decide, explain, predict, and persuade.
Universal intellectual (Critical) standards are standards which must be applied to thinking whenever one is interested in checking the quality of reasoning about a problem, issue, or situation. To help students learn them, teachers should pose questions which probe student thinking, questions which hold students accountable for their thinking, questions which, through consistent use by the teacher in the classroom, become internalized by students as questions they need to ask themselves. The ultimate goal, then, is for these questions to become infused in the thinking of students, forming part of their inner voice, which then guides them to better and better reasoning. While there are a number of universal standards, the following are the most significant: (Source: http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/tresources/content/Ruland-CriticalThinkingStandards.pdf)
Clarity is the gateway standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant. In fact, we cannot tell anything about it because we don't yet know what it is saying.
A statement can be clear but not accurate, as in “This chicken weighs over 300 pounds.&quot;
A statement can be both clear and accurate, but not precise, as in “Yao Ming is tall!&quot; (We don't know how Tall Yao Ming is. E.g. Precise = Yao Ming is 2.29 (7-6) meters tall. )
A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise, but not relevant to the question at issue. For example, students often think that the amount of effort they put into a course should be used in raising their grade in a course. Often, however, the &quot;effort&quot; does not measure the quality of student learning, and when this is so, effort is irrelevant to their appropriate grade.
A statement can be clear, accurate, precise, and relevant, but superficial (that is, lack depth). For example, the statement &quot;Just say No&quot; which is often used to discourage children and teens from using drugs, is clear, accurate, precise, and relevant. Nevertheless, it lacks depth because it treats an extremely complex issue, the pervasive problem of drug use among young people, superficially. It fails to deal with the complexities of the issue.
A line of reasoning may be clear accurate, precise, relevant, and deep, but lack breadth (as in an argument from either teacher or student standpoint which gets deeply into an issue, but only recognizes the insights of one side of the question.)
When we think, we bring a variety of thoughts together into some order. When the combination of thoughts are mutually supporting and make sense in combination, the thinking is &quot;logical.&quot; When the combination is not mutually supporting, is contradictory in some sense, or does not &quot;make sense,&quot; the combination is not logical.