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PD 102 Chapters 9 & 10


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PD 102 Chapters 9 & 10

  1. 1. PD 102: Chapters 9 & 10<br />Chapter 9: Think <br />
  2. 2. The goal of this chapter<br />Understand why and how we formulate thoughts and ideas <br />
  3. 3. What is critical thinking? <br />Searching, plotting, making associations, explaining, analyzing, probing for multiple angles, justifying, scrutinizing, making decisions, solving problems, and investigating <br />It is literally thinking about something from many angles <br />Example: the nurse who sensed something was wrong and noticed the error in the medication chart, the marketing expert who developed the winning campaign for Mountain Dew <br />
  4. 4. The Importance of critical thinking<br />As a student, critical thinking can help you focus on issues; gather relevant, accurante information; remember facts; organize thoughts logically; analyze questions and problems; and manage your priorities <br />Can assist in your problem solving skills and help you control your emotions so that you can make rational judgments <br />Can help you produce new knowledge through research and analysis and help you determine the accuracy of printed and spoken words <br />
  5. 5. How Critical thinking can help you<br />Whom to date<br />Whom to trust<br />In whom you can confide<br />How seriously involved you should get<br />How to develop a realistic budget<br />If you should charge or lay away<br />How much to save to pay tuition and fees<br />How to search for scholarships <br />Relationships <br />Finances<br />
  6. 6. A plan for critical thinking <br />Critical thinking involves:<br />Restraining emotions<br />Looking at things differently<br />Analyzing information<br />Asking questions<br />Solving problems<br />Distinguishing fact from opinion<br />Seeking truth in argument and perusasion<br />
  7. 7. How to build a critical thinking plan for your academic and personal success<br />Step 1: Restrain emotions<br />Listen to all sides of the argument before you make a decision or form an opinion<br />Make a conscious effort to identify which emotions are causing you to lose objectivity<br />Don’t let your emotions make you withdraw or turn you away from the situation<br />Don’t let yourself become engaged in “I’m right, you’re wrong” situations<br />Work to understand why others feel their side is valid <br />Control your negative self talk<br />Determine whether your emotions are irrational <br />
  8. 8. Step Two: Looking at things differently<br />Look at issues from different angles <br />Get below the surface<br />Penny Exercise, page 223 <br />
  9. 9. Step 3: analyzing information <br />To analyze, you break a topic, statement, or problem into parts to understand it more clearly <br />An easy way to analyze is to create a chart of the information using right and left hand columns <br />Use a question to analyze a situation<br />Let’s analyze the following: How can an undeclared student take steps to decide on a career? <br />This method can also be used to formulate new information on a subject <br />
  10. 10. Step 4: asking questions <br />Questioning is a technique used for exploring, developing, and acquiring new knowledge <br />Asking questions can be fun<br />Questioning involves going beyond the obvious <br />If you were assigned to write a paper or give a speech on the topic of childhood obesity, what five questions would you definitely want that paper or sppech to answer when you were finished? <br />
  11. 11. STEP 5: Solving problems <br />There are many ways to address and solve problems <br />Every problem does have a solution, but the solution may not be what we wanted <br />Identify and narrow the problem by putting your problem in writing <br />Jot down all aspects of the problem, such as why it’s a problem, whom it affects, and what type of problem it is <br />Research and develop alternatives (brainstorm) <br />
  12. 12. Brainstorming example <br />Write down 2-3 career options available to you upon graduation using the brainstorming method below:<br />1) Identify the topic, problem, or statement to be discussed<br />2) Set a time limit for the entire brainstorming session<br />3) Write all ideas on a board or flip chart <br />4) Let everyone speak<br />5) Don’t criticize people for their remarks<br />6) Concentrate on the issue; let all of your ideas flow <br />7) Suspend judgment until al ideas are produced or the time is up<br />8) If you’re using the session to generate questions rather than solutions, each participant should pose questions rather than make statements <br />Don’t worry about content, clarity or quality <br />Just let your ideas flow <br />Verbalize these ideas when the class brainstorms this problem <br />Evaluate the alternatives by Creating 2 columns (A-Ideas, B-Comments) <br />
  13. 13. Step 6: distinguishing fact from opinion <br />One of the most important aspects of critical thinking is the ability to distinguish fact from opinion <br />A fact is something that can be proven, something that can be objectively verified <br />An opinion is a statement that is held to be true, but one that has no objective proof <br />Statements that cannot be proved should always be treated as opinion <br />
  14. 14. Step six; distinguishing fact from fiction (cont’d) <br />Guidelines:<br />If you are in doubt, ask questions and listen for solid proof and documentation to support the statement<br />Listen for what is not said in a statement<br />Don’t be le astray by those you assume are trustworthy and loyal <br />Don’t be turned off by those you fear or consider untruthful<br />Do your own homework on the issue; read, research, and question<br />If you are unsure about the credibility of the source or information, treat the statement as opinion <br />
  15. 15. Step seven: seeking truth in arguments and persuasion <br />It’s important to be able to recognize faulty arguments and implausible or deceptive persuasion <br />When someone threatens to alienate, disapprove, or do something to harm you if you don’t agree with them, they are using an ad baculum argument (fallacious argument) <br />When someone says that you should believe or do something because “everyone’s doing it”, they are using an ad populum argument <br />If someone tries to scare you into doing something, they are using a scare tactic<br />When a politician tries to get you to vote for him or her because he/she’s “just like you and me”, that’s a plain folks argument <br />
  16. 16. Creative thinking <br />Creative thinking is much like critical thinking in that you are producing something that is uniquely yours <br />Creative thinking means that you have examined a situation and developed a new way of explaining information, delivering a product, or using an item <br />Creative thinking means that you have opened your mind to possibilities <br />
  17. 17. Julia cameron, “The artist’s way”<br />The Artist’s Way: A Spiritual Path to Higher Creativity<br />Julia suggests that there are basic principles of creativity: <br />1) Creativity is the natural order of life<br />2) There is an underlying, indwelling creative force infusing all of life<br />3) We are, ourselves, creations. And we, in turn, are meant to create ourselves<br />4) The refusal to be creative is counter to our true nature <br />
  18. 18. Creative thinking involves:<br />Compassion<br />Courage<br />Truth<br />Dreams<br />Risk taking<br />Innovation<br />Competition<br />Individuality<br />Thinking<br />Curiosity<br />Perseverance<br />
  19. 19. Apply creative thinking to this problem: <br />Jennifer is a first-year student who does not have enough money to pay her tuition, buy her books, and purchase a few new outfits and shoes to wear to class and her work-study job on campus. What should she do? Should she pay her tuition and purchase her books, or pay her tuition and buy new clothes and shoes to wear to class and work? What creative ideas (solutions) can you give Jennifer? <br />
  20. 20. Chapter 10: <br />Prosper <br />
  21. 21. No one can tell you what your life’s work is, but it is important that you find it. There is a part of you that already knows; affirm that part. <br />- Willis W. Harman <br />
  22. 22. What am I going to do for the rest of my life? <br />You don’t have to decide today <br />Take your time; research a variety of careers that you think might interest you <br />Get a part time job in the field that you think might interest you as a career; shadow someone <br />According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in the year 2010, the U.S. economy should support about 167 million jobs, yet the labor force will only be able to fill about 157 million <br />You will be graduating at a time when demand should be excellent for college grads <br />
  23. 23. The coming job boom for college grads<br />The job market is cyclical- up one day and down another <br />College grads who have the right skills, work attitudes, and habits will be in the driver’s seat <br />There is a current shortage of college professors, a profession that offers a very rewarding career <br />
  24. 24. The Ten Fastest-Growing Jobs<br />1) Network systems and data communications analyst<br />2) Physician’s Assistant<br />3) Computer software engineer, applications<br />4) Computer software engineer, systems software <br />5) Network and computer systems <br />6) Database administrator<br />7) Physical therapist<br />8) Medical scientist<br />9) Occupational therapist<br />10) College instructor <br />
  25. 25. Your Career May Change Frequently<br />Technology is impacting everything we do <br />You need to take charge of your own destiny, seeking the right career, the professors who can teach you the most, the temporary jobs that can prepare you for the real career path, and the extracurricular activities that will give you leadership experience <br />Read, read, read! <br />Learn to follow direction and think for yourself<br />Practice thinking creatively to solve new problems <br />Improve your writing and speaking skills <br />Become an expert with computer applications <br />
  26. 26. Career planning <br />The service industries, along with health, engineering, business management, and social services, will offer the best opportunities in the coming years <br />Plan for a career- not a series of jobs<br />For nontraditional students, spouses, time, and finances may dictate a profession <br />You want your career decisions to be well thought out, well planned, and carefully executed <br />
  27. 27. Why are relationships important to my career? <br />Community emerges when a group of people do the following: <br />1) Participate in common practices<br />2) Depend on one another<br />3) Make decisions together<br />4) Identify themselves as part of something larger than the sum of their individual relationships<br />5) commit themselves for the long term to their own, to one another’s, and to the group’s well being <br />When you enter the world of work, your community will consist of colleagues over whom you have little control <br />
  28. 28. Relationships with diverse others <br />To experience other people and to receive the benefits of knowing someone, you need to enter all relationships with an open mind <br />If you have a derogatory mind-set toward a race, an ethnic group, a sexual orientation, or a religion, for example, you have internal barriers that can keep you from getting to know who a person really is <br />Learning to interact with people from different cultures is a matter of keeping an open mind and looking at each person as an individual, not as a race, a class, or a religion <br />Culture is learned<br />In college, you are likely to find your values, beliefs, and actions changing as you meet new people and become involved in new situations and as your horizons broaden <br />
  29. 29. The Ties that bind <br />Dress and speech are two visible signs of culture<br />Other components are not so visible:<br />Symbols (items that stand for something- ex: American Flag)<br />Language<br />Values (based on family traditions and religious beliefs) <br />Norms (how we expect people to act based on those values)<br />Sanctions (ways in which a society enforces its norms)<br />
  30. 30. Conflict is inevitable <br />Conflict is pervasive in our culture, and you simply cannot avoid having some confrontations with other people <br />The world is full of difficult people, but most of them can be dealt with if you keep a lid on your own hostility<br />The basic idea of resolving conflict is to get a handle on your own emotions <br />You need to remove threatening behaviors, words, and body language and be prepared to compromise so everyone leaves feeling as if they won something <br />
  31. 31. What do you want to be when you grow up? <br />Studies indicate that more than 20% of all first year college students don’t know what their majors will be <br />Look at your personality type, your interests, whether you enjoy physical or mental work, how much money you’d like to earn, where you want to live, whether you plan to travel for work, how you like to dress at work, what motivates you, what you value, what your skills are, whether you like routine, and if you’re a leader <br />All of these will pinpoint you in the right direction <br />
  32. 32. Write a description of your dream job <br />Using a variety of resources, write a description of your dream job- the job you would have if you could do anything you would like to do <br />
  33. 33. 9 steps to career decision making <br />Step 1- Dream! <br />If money were not a problem or concern, what would you do for the rest of your life?<br />Step 2- Talk to your advisor<br />Academic advisors are there to help you; ask questions <br />Step 3- Use electives to take new courses, learn new areas that might enhance career opportunities. <br />Step 4- Go to the career center. <br />Step 5- Read, read, read! Nothing will help you more than reading about careers and majors. <br />Step 6- Shadow<br />Step 7- Join professional organizations; become involved in campus organizations and clubs that offer educational opportunities, social interaction, and hands on experience in your chosen field <br />Step 8- Get a part-time job; work in an area that you may be interested in pursuing as a career.<br />Step 9- Try to get a summer practicum or internship. <br />
  34. 34. Networking <br />Networking is one of the most important aspects of career development <br />
  35. 35. mentors<br />A mentor is someone who can help open doors for you, who will take a personal and professional interest in your development and success<br />Often a mentor will help you do something that you might have trouble doing on your own <br />Mentors teach, advise and coach<br />Mentors serve as a sounding board for ideas<br />Mentors serve as constructive critics<br />Mentors can promote you among their peers and contacts<br />Mentors provide information to help with career development <br />
  36. 36. How to find a mentor <br />Arrive at class early and work hard<br />Develop an outstanding work ethic<br />Seek advice from many professors and staff members<br />Ask intelligent, thoughtful questions<br />Offer to help with projects<br />Convey the impression that you are committed, competent, and hardworking<br />Look for opportunities to shadow<br />If a professor or staff member gives you an opportunity, take it<br />Look at grunt work as an opportunity for bigger things to come <br />
  37. 37. Career, culture, and character<br />Change does not come without sacrifice, hard work, and much determination <br />One of the most important decisions that you will make, consciously or unconsciously, is deciding what type of person you want to be, what you plan to do in your life, and what contributions you plan to leave tot his world when your time here is finished <br />There are so may variables in our daily lives that are out of our control<br />
  38. 38. Career, culture, and character (cont’d)<br />As a mature, rational, caring human being, you should realize that you are a part of a bigger picture<br />The world does not belong to us; we are only borrowing it for a while<br />Everything you do affects someone else in some way <br />You must realize that unless you are out there, daily, creating a better future for yourself, you have no right to complain about the one that is handed to you <br />