40 issue of paryawaran

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40 issue of paryawaran

  1. 1. jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 1
  2. 2. kof{ j /)f ÷ 2 /)f÷ ÛÛ k|lta4tf xfd|f] Û ;r]ttf jftfj/0fLo 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 N5 654321 d}ltb]jLsf] d"n;8s 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 af] 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 / 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 l:j 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 654321 t 654321 654321 of] s:tf] ofqf xf]nf < tLtf] –;To
  3. 3. kf7ssf] cf“vfdf pTs[i6 k|ltlqmof k7fpgf];, Ps jif{sf] ;b:otf lgMz'Ns kfpgf]; ;DkfbsHo", Osf]–g]kfnåf/f k|sflzt kof{j/0f kof{j/0fsf] df3 cªs ;fyLaf6 d}n] kof{j/0fsf s]xL cªs k9g] df}sf kfPsf] 5' . k';sf] k|fKt u/]/ klxnf]k6s k9g] df}sf kfPF, cToGt pkof]uL nfUof] . cªs ;fx|} /fd|f] nfUof] / kf]:6/ Hofb} pkof]uL 5 . klqsfsf] kf]:6/ klg /fd|} 5, kf]:6/sf yk k|lt ufpFdf k7fOlbP k|sf]k sfuh / 5kfOsf] u'0f:t/df eg] ;'wf/ ug'kg]{ b]vsf] 5' . d jg { ] Go"gLs/0fsf nflu yk ;xof]u ldNg]5 . lj1fg cWoog ;+:yfgsf] ljBfyL{ x'F . kof{j/0f lgoldt k9g] d u|fdL0f ;'wf/ ;fd'bflos jgpkef]Qmf ;ldltsf] ;lrj klg OR5f 5, lgMz'Ns k|fKt x'g;Snf < –/d]z 9sfn ePsf] gftfn] kof{j/0f lgoldt u|fxs ag]/ k9g / s]xL kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf–!&, kfbL{ . ;'emfj lbg rfxG5' M dnfO{ d] / f] cWoog÷cWofkg sfo{ s f nflu kof{ j /0f jg / jftfj/0f;DaGwL vf]hd"ns / lzIffk|b ;fdu|L pkof]uLl;4 ePsf] 5 . klqsfdf k|sflzt x'g]u/]sf k|sf]k ;dfj]z ug'kg]{ . { / jftfj/0fsf ljljw kIfsf] Joj:yfkgsf If]qdf vf]hd"ns ;fd'bflos jgsf ljifosf ;fdu|L cem} yk ug'{ /fd|f] x'g5 . ] Pjd lzIffk|b ;fdu|Ln] lzIf0f k];fdf /x]sf xfdLnfO{ lgs} kof{j/0f ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf ;fy} ;fd'bflos jg ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 . of] klqsf lgoldt¿kdf pknAw u/fO{ pkef]Qmf ;d"xx¿nfO{ klg k7fPdf o;sf] dxŒj a9g]5 / ;xof]u ul/lbg'xf]nf . –1fg]Gb|w/ k|wfgfªu ;d"xx? jflif{s u|fxs aGg]5g . ;xk|fWofks -cy{zf:q_ lqlj . klqsfsf] cfsf/, cIf/ / ;fdu|L 7Ls eP klg 5kfOsf] :t/ ;'wf/ ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 . –uf]kfn sf]O/fnf kof{j/0fsf] k"0ff{ªs #* k9g] df}sf ldNof] . xfdLh:tf b'u{d ao/jg– *, /dfOnf], df] / ª . If]qdf a:g] dflg;n] klg o:tf] 1fgu'gsf s'/f k9g kfpFbf v';L nfUof] . lzIffaf6 cf]em]ndf k/]sf] o; If]qdf kof{j/0fdf kof{j/0f ljut ^ dlxgfb]lv lgoldt k9b} cfPsf] 5' . ePsf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg / jftfj/0f ;+/If0f ug{ ;ts{ tyf jftfj/0f lzIffsf nflu klqsf Hofb} pkof]uL nfu]sf] 5 / pTk|]/ssf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] 5 . t;y{ kof{j/0fnfO{ x/]s o;sf] aLrdf /flvg] kf]:6/ ufpFn] ;d'bfosf nflu lgs} lhNnfsf ufpF;Dd k'¥ofpg;s] o;n] hgr]tgf a9fpg] s'/fdf lzIffk|b b]lvPsf] 5 . kof{j/0fdfkm{t hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ xfdLn] ljZjf; u/]sf 5f}F . PS;gP8sf] k|of;n] clt /fd|f] e"ldsf v]n]sf] 5 . lbgk|ltlbg –6ªss'df/L bfxfn, /f]zgL If]qL, lau|Fb} uPsf] jftfj/0f, k|fs[lts ;|f]t, hLjhGt', h8La'6L / eLd:yfg uflj;–@, l;Gw'nL . l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f ug{ o;n] pTk|/ssf] e"ldsf v]nsf] 5 . 5kfOsf] ] ] k|fljlws u9a8Ln] xf]nf, k'; / df3 cªs lgs} g/fd|f] klg 5, kof{j/0f cToGt pkof]uL nfUof] . ljBfno tyf SofDk;sf o;df ;'wf/ x'g] cfzf ub{5' . –;lbIff wf}uf]8f ljBfyL{nfO{ kf7o;fdu|Lsf ¿kdf ;d]t pkof]uL x'g]u/L ;f“uf uflj; –!, sfe|] . k|sfzg ug{;s] emg} ;'gdf ;'uGw x'g]lyof] . jftfj/0f;DaGwL kof{j/0f lgoldt k9b} cfPsf] 5' . o;df k|sflzt ;fdu|L / hgr]tgf hufpg] kf]:6/ emg} /fd|f] 5 . t/ ;a} kf7sn] kf]:6/n] ufpFn] hgtfnfO{ Hofb} pTs[i6 lzIff k|bfg u/]sf] 5 . ;'ne tl/sfn] k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]u/L ahf/df pknAw eP xfdLn] t/ k'; / df3 cªssf] 5kfO lgs} vl:sPsf] kfOof], o;df lgoldt k9g kfpg] lyof}F . –bLks a/fn ;'wf/ xf]; . –dgf]x/ zdf{ bds gu/kflnsf–!*, emfkf . jL/]Gb|gu/ gu/kflnsf–!, g]kfnuGh . ;DkfbsHo", o; cª s sf] pTs[ i 6 k| l tlqmof o;sf] k' l i6 x' g ] ck] I ff ub{ 5 ' . kof{j/0fsf] #( cf}F cªs k9g] df}sf kfPF . o; c+sdf kof{j/0fn] o; cªsb]lv /f]rs 1fg lj1fg :tDe yk]/ k| s flzt /fli6« o l;d;f/ gLltsf] sfof{ G jog;DaGwdf kf7snfO{ lgs} u'g nufPsf] 5 . x/]s cªsdf ;DalGwt 8f= tLy{axfb'/ >]i7 / 8f= lbg]z/fh e'h"sf] ljrf/ lgs} k| s f] k sf] ;fdu| L ;lxt kf] : 6/ k| s flzt u/] / Pstkm{ pTs[i6 nfUof] . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;f] gLlt slt Odfgbf/Lsf ;j{;fw/0fnfO{ k|sf]k Go"gLs/0fsf If]qdf r]tgzLn agfpg] ;fy sfof{Gjog xf]nf eGg] k|Zg p7g' c:jfefljs xf]Og . cleofg yfngL u/]sf] 5 eg] csf]{lt/ ;/sf/nfO{ ;d]t l;d;f/ ;+/If0f k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkgsf] dxŒjk"0f{ kIf emsemSofpg] sfo{ u/]sf] 5 eGg ;lsG5 . o;df k|sflzt eP klg g]kfndf slt l;d;f/ 5g eGg] cflwsfl/s tYofªs ;a} ;fdu|Lsf] :t/ pTs[i6 5 . klqsfn] jftfj/0fLo lzIffsf cem} kfpg ;lsPsf] 5}g . kof{j/0fdf pNn]v ePe}mF g]kfndf kIfdf lgjf{x u/]sf] e"ldsf k|z+;gLo dfGg'kb{5 . l;d;f/sf] ;ªVof @$) g} xf] jf xf]Og cflwsfl/s lgsfoaf6 –afns[i0f l3ld/] a'waf/]–$, hok'/, emfkf . kof{j/0f dfl;s ahf/df lgoldt¿kdf k7fpg'sf ;fy} clw/fHosf k|foh;f] ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt / ljBfnox¿df x'nfsdfkm{t k|]l;t ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;j{;fwf/0f / ljBfyL{nfO{ ;/n d"Nodf pknAw u/fpg jflif{s u|fxs z'Nsdf ;x'lnot k|bfg ul/Psf] 5 . kof{j/0fsf] jflif{s u|fxs ag]/ lgoldt kf7s aGgsf nflu klqsfsf] clGtd k[i7df lbOPsf] kmf/fd e/L tf]lsPsf] z'Ns ;+nUg /fvL k7fpg] kf7snfO{ x'nfsdfkm{t lgoldt¿kdf klqsf k7fOg]5 . –;Dkfbs jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 3
  4. 4. sxf“, s] < sf=lh=sf= b=g+= @).)$(.)%) jGohGt'sf] a9bf] cftªs Û k[i7 M % dfl;s Paryawaran Monthly Vol. 11, No.11, Feb/ Mar 2004 jif{ !!, cªs !@, r}q @)^) k"0ff{ªs $) ;Nnfxsf/ 8f= ljgfos eb|f 8f= sdn l/hfn 8f= hgsnfn sdf{rfo{ k|f= 8f= /fdk|;fb rf}w/L >L x]d/fh kf}8n ] sf], slt lhDd]jf/ k|wfg ;Dkfbs ■ cf;]lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg ljj; t/fO{af;L { !$ /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] ■ ;f}opmhf{sf ;/n k|ljlw { !% ;Dkfbs ■ lrl8ofvfgf aGb}5 hosf]6 jg @) uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn ■ xl/tu[x k|efj, tfTbf] k[YjL @! sfg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ ■ yf]/} kfgL, w]/} pkof]u @# rGb| a:g]t ■ cfof] x'/Latf;sf] df};d #! ljz]if ;xof]uL ■ kz'kG5LnfO{ /f]uaf6 arfpg] k|efjsf/L pkfo #& ofbj yklnof ahf/ tyf ljt/0f ■ ufp“–ufp“af6 M b'D;L b]Vg klg /x/} eof] ÷ ef/tLo t:s/n] ;vfk kf/] ÷ /fdxl/ bfxfn s~rghª3fdf b'ne hLj ÷ xfa|] klg ;lsg]ef] ÷ ;jf{lws hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] { sf6'g÷kf]:6/ lrq { ztfAbL ÷ SofG;/sf] cr's cf}iflw kfOg] tfn ÷ j/e08f/f – tfn}tfn aGb}5 ÷ /d]z bfxfn ljho;fn nf]k x'b5 ÷ tfKn]hªdf jgt:s/ df}nfP ÷ jgt:s/nfO{ sd{rf/Lsf] “} ' k|sfzs ;fy, hgtf tft] ÷ jg k:g h'Qf k'msfNg] Û jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn sf7df8f}“ dxfgu/kflnsf– #!, wf]lawf/f ■ ;fydf M kf]= a= g+= !(&@), sf7df8f}+ ● tLtf] ;To x'/Latf; / cfunfuLaf/] kmf]g M $$$%#@) ● kf7ssf] cf“vfdf kmofS; M (&&–!–$@^%$%% ● cfkmgf] snd rgfvf] agf}“ -leQ]kf]:6/_ E-mail: eco_nepal@hotmail.com ● /f]rs 1fglj1fg http://www.econepal.org d'bs| /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt sfof{Gjog M lsg / s;/L < ;"of]bo 5fkfvfgf, wf]lawf/f, sf7df8f}+ { kf]= a= g+= @)&$%, kmf]gM $#$(&! ■ o; k|sfzgdf k|sflzt n]v/rgfdf JoQm ljrf/ n]vssf lghL x'g . ltgdf k|o'Qm ljrf/n] o; ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfksLo ;d:ofleq cflwsfl/s b[li6sf]0fsf] k|ltlglwTj ub} { g . ■ kof{j/0fdf k|sflzt ;fdu|L ;|f]t pNn]v u/L z}lIfs tyf hgr]tgf clej[l4sf nflu k'gk|{sfzg ug{ ;lsg]5 . l;d;f/ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 4
  5. 5. cfkmgf] snd 321 sd{rf/L bf; dfq} xf]Ogg 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 d'nssf] ljsf;nfO{ cu|tf lbg sfg'g / gLltlgdf{0f ug'{ /fHosf] bfloTj x'G5 . /fHon] nfu" u/]sf lgod / ' sfg'gsf] af]w hgtfdf x'g' ckl/xfo{ x'G5 . /fHoJoj:yfnfO{ lgoldt¿kdf ;sf/fTds 9ªun] ;~rfng ug{ 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;/sf/åf/f nfu" ul/Psf gLltlgodsf kl/lwdf /x]/ k|zf;goGqn] sfo{ ug{kb{5 eg] hgtfn] klg To;}nfO{ ' cfTd;ft ub}{ cfˆgf lbgrof{ ;~rfng ug'{ st{Jo x'g cfpF5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 k|hftflGqs zf;gJoj:yfdf ;+ljwfgn] hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d dfg]sf] x'G5 . /fHon] cfˆgf sfo{;~rfngsf nflu ;+ljwfgn] lglb{i6 u/]cg'¿k gLltlgod agfP/ nfu" ub{5 . sfg'gL /fHosf nflu cfjZos ;t{sf ¿kdf /x]sf] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 of] k|lqmofdf ;/sf/n] s'g} q'l6 u¥of] eg] To;nfO{ ;RofP/ hgrfxgf tyf /fi6«lxtcg'sn agfpg' h?/L x'G5 . " 321 321 321 321 t/, g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df k|hftGqsf] dd{nfO{ a'‰g] / cFufNg] /fhgLlts kl/kf6L cem} al;;s]sf] 5}g . /fHosf 321 gLltlgod nfu" u/]/ d'nssf] ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ljsf;nfO{ xfFSg] sfo{df ;+nUg lghfdtL jf cGo ;]jfsf ' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 sd{rf/Ln] gLltlgoddf ePsf Jofjxfl/s jf ;}4flGts sdLsdhf]/LnfO{ cf}NofP/ ;'wf/sf] k|of; ug'{ lsdfy{ F 321 321 321 321 ck/fw xf]Og . k|zf;lgs If]qsf JolQmn] ;/sf/åf/f NofOPsf sfg'g / gLltut ljifodf /x]sf sdhf]/Ldfly s'g} k|sf/sf] l6Kk0fL ug'{ jf cleJolQm lbg'nfO{ c3f]lift k|ltaGw 7fGb5g . df}hbf Joj:yfdf sd{rf/L ;+oGq ' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 hgtfsf nflu sfo{ ug]{ lgsfosf ¿kdf eGbf a9L lgod nfbg] k|ltlglwsf] ¿kdf b]vfkg'{ :jod /fHosf lglDt 321 321 321 321 kmnbfoL aGg ;Sb}g . df}hbf gLltlgodsf ;Gbe{df pgLx¿n] s'g} ;sf/fTds 6Lsfl6Kk0fL g} u/] klg ltgsf]] ' kbLo x}l;ot g} u'Dg;Sg] ;Defjgf /xG5 eg] sd{rf/LtGq cfkm}F bf; dgf]jl[ Qaf6 u|l;t /x]sf] k|tLt x'G5 . xfd|f] 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 k|hftflGqs zf;gk|0ffnLdf o:tf k|Zgn] gLltlgoddf /x]sf sdLsdhf]/L ;Rofpg] sfo{df k|zf;lgs cg'ejsf] 321 321 321 321 pkof]unfO{ g} lg:t]h agfPsf] 5 . 321 321 321 321 321 321 :yfgLo, /fli6«o / cGt/f{li6«o dxŒjsf l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu g]kfnn] nfu" u/]sf] /fli6«o l;d;f/ gLlt, @)%( sf ;Gbe{df klg o:t} cj:yf l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . k|:t't l;d;f/ gLltsf w]/} ljifoj:t' 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 pko'Qm jf k|efjsf/L 5}gg eGg] x}g, l;d;f/sf] ;+/If0f / Joj:yfkgsf nflu 5'§} sfg'g gePsf] jt{dfg 321 321 321 cj:yfdf of] gLltn] l;d;f/ ;+/If0fsf If]qdf dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x ug{;Sg] s'/f ljjfb/lxt geP klg o;sf] 321 321 321 321 321 321 k|efjsfl/tfnfO{ clxNo} gsfl/xfNg'kg]{ klg 5}g . o; If]qd} sfd ul//x]sf a'l4hLjL, ljz]if1 / k|ToIf jf k/f]If 321 321 321 321 ;/f]sf/ /fVg] :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] ;xeflutflagf nfu" ul/Psf] l;d;f/ gLltleq lgs} sdhf]/L /x]sf] s'/f 321 321 321 321 l;d;f/s} If]qdf sfd ul//x]sf lj1x¿n] cf}NofPsf 5g . t/, cflwsfl/s¿kdf tL sdhf]/L s] x'g / s;/L F ;'wf/ ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] s'/fdf pgLx¿ cleJoQm x'g ;ls/x]sf 5}gg . s'g cb[Zo zlQmn] pgLx¿nfO{ To;f] ug{ 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 /f]ls/x]sf] 5 < 321 321 321 321 321 321 ;/sf/af6 ePsf ;a} sfo{ ;sf/fTds g} x'G5g eGg] 5}g . sltko ;sf/fTds ;f]r /fv]/ ul/Psf sfo{ klg 321 321 321 321 ef}uf]lns, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, cfly{s cflb sf/0fn] k|To'Tkfbs x'g;Sb5g . o; cj:yfdf ;/sf/n] rgfvf] x'gkg]{ cfjZostf Pstkm{ 5 eg] csf]tkm{ hgtf;Fu k|ToIf¿kdf ;/f]sf/ /fv]/ sfd ug]{ sd{rf/Lsf cg'ejnfO{ ' { 321 321 321 321 321 ;d]t cfwf/ agfP/ gLltlgdf{0fsf sfo{ ug'{ cfjZos 5 . l;d;f/ gLltdf /fHosf] hlQs} ;/f]sf/ :yfgLo hgtf 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 / Joj:yfkg lgsfosf sd{rf/Lsf nflu klg x'G5 eGg] sd{rf/LtGqsf tNnf]–dflyNnf] cf]xf]bfsfx¿n] a'emg] xf] 321 321 321 321 eg] sd{rf/LtGqsf] d'v y'Gg] k|jl[ Q / sd{rf/Ln] :jodnfO{ bf;7fGg] dgf]jl[ Q;d]t ;dfKt x'g] tyf o:tf gLltsf] 321 321 321 321 ;kmn sfof{Gjogdf lgxLt cK7]/f] klg lg/fs/0f x'g5 . ] 321 k|hftflGqs /fHoJoj:yfdf cleJolQm :jtGqtf cfwf/e"t ;t{ xf] . o; ;Gbe{df jftfj/0f ;+/If0f / k|fs[lts 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321 321;|ft Joj:yfkgh:tf ljifodf lghLIf]qdf sfd ug]x¿n] h]–h;/L ;sf/fTds 6Lsfl6Kk0fL ub{5g, ;/sf/L ] { 321 321 321 321 lgsfodf sfo{/t cg'ejL JolQmsf ljrf/nfO{ klg :jtGqtfk"js aflx/ cfpg lbg] kl/kf6Lsf] ljsf; x'g' { 321 321 321 321 cfjZos b]lvG5 . o;af6 x/]s If]qdf sfo{;Dkfbg k|lqmof Jofjxfl/s x'g] dfq xf]Og, gLltut q'l6sf] ;'wf/ 321 321 321ug{ klg ;lhnf] x'g5 . ] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 5
  6. 6. jGohGt'sf] /fh wf gsf] v] t df s' n f] kmsf{ p g ebf} $ ut] ] ;D;fF e m} lxF 8 ] s f ;' g ;/L, k| s fzk' / sf wgaxfb'/ >]i7 slxNo} 3/ kms]{gg . l5d]sL hfg'sf bfxfnsf] v]tdf k'Ugf;fy pgL s/]G6 5fl8Psf] ;'F8df s/]G6 ePsf] tf/ a]l/Pkl5 7"nf] cfjfh lgsfNb} dQfxfQL] n8of] / Ps}l5gdf k|f0fTofu u¥of] . pgL klg clxn] cbfntL sf/afxL v]Kb}l5g . o;} jif{ bfªdf klg Pp6f xfQL ljB'tLo w/fkd} k/]/ d/]sf] 5 . ljB'tLo tf/df clNemP / OxnLnf Tofu u/] . xfQLnfO{ k"jL{ g]kfnsf] emfkf ch'{gwf/fl:yt bxLemf]8f ;fd'bflos yfk]sf] ;f] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ cfˆg} l5d]sL d/]sf]df jgdf bfp/f vf]Hg uPsf rf/hgf :yfgLoaf;L klg hfg' s fnfO{ k5' t f] t ePs} xf] n f, d[ t ssf efOsf] slxNo} 3/ kms]{gg . kmfu'g * ut] hªunL xfQLn] ph'/Lsf cfwf/df k'; ( ut] kqmfp k/L !) lbg ltgLx¿nfO{ df¥of] / nf; ?F3]/} a:of] . xfQLn] 5f]8]/ jGohGt'sf] a9bf] cftªs Û sf] slt lhDd]jf/ < lx/f;tdf a;]/ w/f}6Ldf 5'6] klg cbfntdf /x]sf] – uf]kfnk|;fb b'nfn uPkl5 aNn tLg lbgdf kl/jf/hgn] s'lxPsf] cj:yfsf] ;/sf/jfbL d'2fsf] km};nf s] x'g] xf] eg]/ cem} ql;t nf; NofP/ clGtd ;+:sf/ ug{ kfP . l5g, pgL . k|sfzk'/d} xfQLn] cfkmgf] pv' vfP/ gf; lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] dWojtL{ If]qsf] a3f]8fdf u/]kl5 /fdaxfb'/ bfxfnn] yfk]sf] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ ljut b'O{ dlxgf cjlwdf !@ hgf dflg;nfO{ af3n] Pp6f xfQL d¥of] . cbfntn] tf]s]sf] %) xhf/ gub vfO;s] s f] 5 . To; If] q sf afl;Gbfdf af3sf] hl/jfgf a'emfpg g;s]kl5 3/hUuf w/f}6L /fv]/ t cfqmd0faf6 slxn] dl/g] xf] eg]/ ;w}F q:t /xg'kg]{ pgL 5'6], t/ h]yfsf] sfuh psf:g] kL/nf]n] eg] cj:yf 5 . ut df3 dlxgfdf sf7df8f} F g lhssf] pgnfO{ cem} 5f8]sf] 5}g . ;'g;/Ls} asnf}/L, k~rsGof, blIf0fsfnLdf Pp6f lrt'jf lx+;|s eP/ dflg;dfly l;/fg6f]nsL dLgf e'h]nn] To; If]qdf xfQLsf] x'n cfqmd0f u/L 3fOt] agfpg yfn]kl5 /fli6«o lgs'~h b]lvg yfn]kl5 cfˆgf] wfgsf] esf/L hf]ufpg lah'nLsf] ljefudfkm{t b/af/af6 l;sf/L lemsfP/} dfg'{k¥of] . kftnf] tf/n] a]l/g . geGb}, k'; @# ut] /flt Pp6f :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] dfl/Psf] lrt'jfnfO{ 6f]n6f]ndf 5fjf;lxt Pshf]8L xfQLn] pgsf] esf/L kmf]g{ yfn] . 3'dfP/ pT;jsf] h:t} /ldtf b]vfP . pQm lrt'jfsf] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 6
  7. 7. jGohGt'sf] /fh cfqmd0fdf k/]sf Pshgfsf] pkrf/ x'g]qmddf ev{/} kf] y | f kf] y | L dfq afF s L ePsf jgIf] q ;d' b fonfO{ lgwg ePsf] 5 . b]zsf ljleGg If]qdf af3 / lrt'jfsf] ;'lDkPkl5 jg xl/of] b]lvP/ s]xL ;sf/fTds c;/x¿ cfqmd0f lg/Gt/ a9b} uPsf] 5 . o;}qmddf tgx'Fsf] b]vfkg{ yfn]sf 5g . t/, nf]k eO;s]sf jGohGt' km]l/ dgkfª Onfsfdf af3sf] laulauL a9]sf] 5 eg] s}of}F k}bf x'g] s'/} ePg . ar]v'r]sf jGohGt'nfO{ klg k|fs[lts v;Lafv|f l;l4O;s]sf 5g . af;:yfg / ef]hgsf] cefj 5 . emfkfsf] a'waf/], afx'g8fFuL If]qsf afl;Gbf /fte/ l6g /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' cf/Ifsf ¿kdf ;+/lIft 7f]s/ xfQLsf] uf]7fnf] a:5g . xfQLsf] cftªs emfkf, ] jgIf] q df jGohGt' s f] 3gTj a9L x' g ' c:jfefljs df]/ª, ;'g;/L / pbok'/sf xf] O g . ;+ / lIft If] q df hª u n 5] p 5fp;Dd ePsf jGohGt' cfjZos km}lnPsf] 5 . otf, zfxL cfxf/sf] cefjdf lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hIf]qdf ef} + t fl/P/ ufpF k:g] af3, u}8f / xfQLn] t ;w}F F ub{ 5 g . ;+ / lIft If] q df cftªlst kf5{ g}, h/fof], vf;k| s f/sf jGohGt' s f] aFbnh:tf cGo jGohGt'n] ] dfq j[ l 4 x' g ' ltgsf klg afnLgfnL vfP/ b'Mv nflu cfxf/ x' g ] cGo lbg] ub{5g . lgs'~hIf]q hLjhGt' tyf jg:kltsf] cf;kf;df u}8fn] x/]s jif{ + j[ l 4 gx' g ' jf af;:yfg @–$ hgf dfG5] dfg' { km/flsnf] gx' g ' h :tf ;fdfGoh:t} eO;s]sf] 5 . sf/0fn] jGohGt' of] b' O { dlxgf cljwdf ufpF I f] q df k| j ] z ug] { / x' n d' n b] V bf xs{ g ] cftª l st agfpg] , :jfefjsf] u} + 8 fsf] afnLgfnL gf; ug] { , cfqmd0fdf k/]/ b'O{hgfsf] dflg;nfO{ 3fOt] agfpg] Hofg uO;s]sf] 5 . zfxL / Hofg};d]t lng] 36gf lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h / a9]sf] 5 . k;f{ jGohGt' cf/Ifsf xfQLcftªssf] sf/0f jGohGt' af/f x'b} ;nf{xLsf ufpF;Dd k:5g . klZrd F t/fO{sf ljleGg lhNnfdf xfQLcftªsn] x/]s ;fn t/fO{sf u}8f, xfQL kfOg] lgs'~hIf]qsf] cj:yf klg Tolt + lk/f]Ng] u/]sf] 5 . k"jL{ t/fO{sf emfkf, df]/ª, ;'g;/L km/s 5}g . xfQLn] v]tLkftL gi6 ug]{, 3/ eTsfpg], x'Fb} pbok'/ lhNnf;Dd Psy/L xfQLn] ufpF k;]/ nufPsf 9's6L kmf]8/ cGg :jfxf kfg]{ dfq xf]Og, dflg;nfO{ g} ' ] afnLgfnL laufg]{, 3/6x/f eTsfpg]] / dflg;dfly g} cfqmd0f u/]/ dfg]{ x'Fbf o:tf jGohGt' kfOg] If]qsf cfqmd0f u/L dfg]{;Ddsf 36gf x/]s ;fn a9b} uPsf afl;Gbfn] ;wF} cftªlst x'gkl//x]sf] 5 . ufpF–ufpFdf ' 5g . o; If]qdf latG8f dRrfpg] hªunL xfQLx¿ yflkPsf lah'nLsf w/fkdf k/]/ jGohGt' dfl/Fb}5g . g] k fnsf hª u ndf :yfoL¿kdf eg] a:b} g g . jGohGt'sf] lx+;fsf] l;sf/ dflg; klg x'b5g . of] bf]xf]/f] F } k/fk" j { s fnb] l v g} DofGdf/ x' F b } ef/tsf] cf;fd, cftªssf] qmd a9bf] 5 . klZrdaª u fnsf] af6f] eP/ g] k fn cfpg] xfQLsf] lsg lx+;|s aGb}5g jGohGt' < ljr/0f:yn k"jL{v08 r'/]If]q x'g] u/]sf] 5 . To;a]nf s]xL bzscl3;Dd g]kfnsf] b'OltxfOeGbf a9L If]qkmn clxn]h:tf] hªun ljgf; gePsf]n] xfQLnfO{ dg kg]{ hª u nn] 9flsPsf] lyof] . b| " t ultdf ePsf] jg hªunL afF;sf tfdf tyf 3fF;kft o; If]qdf k|z:t kmF8fgLsf sf/0f …g]kfnsf] wg, xl/of] jgÚ phf8 aGg kfOGYof] . To;tfsf xfQLsf w]/} e'm08 otf cfpg] ub{y] . k'Uof] . To;tfsf oqtq b]Vg kfOg] jGohGt' clwsfªz clxn] xfQLsf] ;ªVof klg 36b} uPsf] 5 eg] eLdsfo :yfgaf6 nf]k g} eP, st} nf]k x'g] cj:yfdf k'u] . z/L/sf xfQLnfO{ k' U g] cfxf/sf] cefj a9 b f] 5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ kof{ j /)f ÷ 7
  8. 8. jGohGt'sf] /fh g]kfnsf] k"jL{ t/fO{sf] h+unIf]qdf jif]{gL ^)–&) j6f ePsf] ;'OFsf] kfof] eg] To;}sf nflu 3/ eTsfpF5 . xfQLsf] x'n b]vfkg]{ eP klg o; If]qdf %–^ j6f xfQL cfˆgf] nfdf] ;' F 8 3/leq l5/fP/ xfQLn] dlb/f - dfq jif}{el/ /xg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . hfF8/S;L_ eP–gePsf] ;d]t a'‰b5 . jf:tjdf xfQLn] hªunL jGohGt'nfO{ b]zsf] ;Ldf / gbLgfnfn] klg dlb/f cf}lw dgk/fpF5 . t;y{, dlb/f ePsf] yfxf 5]Sb}g, g cf]]xf]/bf]xf]/ ug{ glbg] s'g} k|sf/sf] s[lqd kfPkl5 xfQLn] latG8f dRrfP/} eP klg lkpg] ub{5 . cj/f] w g} v8f ul/Psf] 5 . pko' Q m af;:yfg / dlb/fn] n6 7 ePsf] xfQL af} n fxfh:t} x' G 5 / cfxf/sf] cefjn] 3' d Gt] xfQL s;/L klqmOG5 < v] t af/Ldf nufOPsf] afnL aGg afWo oxfF cfpg] hªunL xfQLnfO{ ;bfOPsf !%–@) xfQLsf] ;xfotfn] tyf 3/uf]7 eTsfP/ ljWj+; hª u nL xfQL df} ; dsf 5]s/ w]/} 7"nf] 3]/faGb kfl/G5 . glhs–glhs ub}{ 5]pdf ug] { dfq xf] O g, dflg;nfO{ ] cfwf/df a;fOF ;g]{ ub{5g . k'ukl5 a]xf]; kfg]{ cf}iflwsf] l;l/Gh aGb'ssf] ;xfotfn] ;d] t cfqmd0fsf] l;sf/ ] k|foh;f] kfgL kg{ yfn]kl5 xflgG5 . a]xf]; ePsf] xfQLnfO{ kmnfdsf ;fªnf jf agfpg] ub{5 . ef/tsf] cf;fddf xfQLnfO{ n67fn] afFlwG5 / vfgkfg sd lbP/ sdhf]/ kf/]kl5 k|foh;f] cfˆgf] e'm08sf] g]t[Tj cfxf/sf] cefj x' G 5 / cGo xfQLsf] ;xfotfn] ;bfpg] sfd ul/G5 . efn] xfQLn] g} ub{ 5 . ebf}–c;f]hlt/ k"jL{ g]kfnsf] ;Ldfleq k:b5g . t/, of}gcfsfªIffn] pGdQ ePsf efn] xfQLdf a9L ;'/f] / oxfFsf] hªundf klg pko'Qm af;:yfg / cfxf/sf] sdL emu8fn' k|j[lQ b]vfkb{5 . t;y{, ufpF k;]/ ljWj+; ubf{ kfPkl5 ufpF k;]/ latG8f dRrfpF5g . qmf]]wL :jefjsf klg efn] xfQL g} cu'jf aGb5 . hªunL xfQLn] hªundf dfG5]nfO{ b]v]kl5 cfqmd0f ufpF k;]sf] xfQL v]bg cfuf]sf] k'N7f]n] nv]6g], l6g ug]{ u/]sf] ;d]t kfOG5 . 76fpg], zªv k'mSg], 3G6L ahfpg], xNnf ug]{h:tf sfo{ u}“8f, xfQLcftªssf cGo If]q ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . t/, o:tf lqmofsnfkx¿ slxn]sfxLF lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hjl/kl/ x'b} af/f, k;f{ / ;nf{xL;Ddsf …gfªnf] 76fP/ xfQL t;f{pg'Ú dfq x'g] ub{5g . o;f] F ufpFx¿df k;]/ zfxL lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf k;f{ ubf{ xfQL emg pQ]lht eP/ yk ljWj+; ug{ pBt x'G5 . jGohGt' cf/Ifsf u}8f / xfQLn] cftªlst kfg]{ u/]sf 5g . xfQLsf] cfqmd0f / Iflt F t/, xsf{pbf efUg] :jefjsf] u}8fsf] ljr/0fIf]q xfQLsf] F F g]kfn clw/fHod} ;a}eGbf a9L xfQL cftªlst ufpF h:tf] w]/} km/flsnf] x'bg . u}8f g]kfndf zfxL lrtjg F} F ljsf; ;ldlt emfkfsf] afx'g8fFuL /x]sf] 5 . To;f] t /fli6«o lgs'~h / zfxL alb{of /fli6«o lgs'~hIf]qdf dfq emfkfs} a' w af/] , zlgZr/] , ch' { g wf/f, zflGtgu/, kfOg] x'bf o; hGt'n] o;} If]qj/k/ dfq ljWj+; jf hgwgsf] F v'b'gfaf/L, xf]S;], rf/cfnL, bds, w'nfaf/Lnufot xflg ug{] u/]sf] kfOG5 . To;}u/L, zfxL alb{of /fli6«o df]/ªsf hªun5]p5fpsf ;'Gb/k'/, OGb|k'/, a]naf/L, lgs'~h / ;'SnfkmfF6f jGohGt' cf/Ifdf kfOg] xfQLn] klg pnf{af/L x'Fb} ;'g;/Lsf dw'jg, k|sfzk'/, a/fxIf]q, :jefj}n] To; If]qsf ufpFx¿df a9L b'Mv lbg] ub{5g . dx]Gb|gu/, l;+l3of, 8'd|fxf, ef]qmfxf, klZrd s'zfxf, xfQLsf] :jefj xfQLn] dfG5] s;/L df5{ < nf} s L, O6x/L, k~rsGof, xfQLsf] :d/0fzlQm lji0f'kfb'sf / pbok'/ lhNnfsf t;f{pg vf]Hbf xfQL t;{Fb}g . qmf]wL xfQLn] t] l hnf] x' G 5 . PskN6 dfG5]nfO{ b]Vof] eg] nv]65 . e]6of] eg] ;'F8n] xl8of, ufO{3f6, kmQ]k'/ / lqo'uf lxF 8 ] s f] af6f] slxNo} RofKk ;dfpF5 / v'§fn] 6]s]/ r'F8fP/ b'O{ 6'qmf gu/kflnsf;Ddsf a[xt If]qsf gla;{g] x'Fbf xfQL k|foh;f] kf5{ . cg'xf/df s'Nr]/ lxF85 . slxn]sfxLF xfQL dflg; xfQLcftª s sf] kL8f k'/fg} af6f]af6 dfq lxF8g] cfk"mn] df/]sf] nf;nfO{ @–# lbg ?F3]/ klg a:5 . ef]Ug ljjz x'Fb} cfPsf 5g . ub{ 5 . t;y{ , w] / } h ;f] sf] ; L6Kk' jGohGt' cf/If cj:yfdf cfkmgf] lxF8g] af6f]df agfOPsf 3/6x/f / cf;kf;sf] If]qdf af;:yfg / cfxf/sf] vf]hLdf cfOk'usf ] nufOPsf afnLgfnL g} xfQLsf] ljWj+;sf] l;sf/ aGg] xfQLn] sf];L gbLdf cfxfn v]Ng dg k/fpF5g . t/, ToxfF ] ub{5g . klg pko'Qm cfxf/sf] cefj xFbf 5]p5fpsf v]taf/L / ' xfQLn] g'gsf] vf]hL ub{5 . ufpF k;]sf] xfQLn] g'g u|fdL0fIf]qdf k:5g / ls;fgsf pv', s]/f, wfg, ux'F cflb jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 8
  9. 9. jGohGt'sf] /fh afnL dfq xf]Og, esf/L kmf]// e08f/0f ul/Psf cGg;d]t ] xfQL v]bg l6g 76fOG5 vfg] / gi6 ug]{ ub{5g . emfkfsf] k"jf]{Q/If]qsf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf hªunL cflwsfl/s tYofªs geP klg lj;+ @)#$ ;fnb]lv xfQLn] ufpF k;]/ a9L b'Mv lbg] ub{5g . oL If]qdf xfQLsf] xfn;Dd xfQLsf] cfjthfjt a9]kl5 /fte/ k6sf k8sfpg], l6g 76fpg], zªv ahfpg] ul/G5 . o; cfqmd0faf6 @) hgfeGbf k| r ngn] aflx/af6 uPsf] a9L dflg;sf] Hofg gf} n f] dfG5] n fO{ oxfF s f] uO;s]sf] 5 eg] ;of}F 3fOt] /flqhLjg cgf} 7 f] nfUg' ePsf 5g . o; cjlwsf] c:jfefljs xf]Og . o;nfO{ ef}lts Iflt klg lgs} 7"nf] xfQLcftªsaf6 aRg] :yfgLo 5 . t/, ljut jif{ s f ;ts{tfsf] ¿kdf lng] ul/Psf] t' n gfdf o; jif{ 5 . o; If]qdf s]/f, ;'kf/L, xfQLcftª s af6 a9L Iflt gl/jnsf au} F r f k| z :t ePsf] kfOG5 . xfQLn] o; ePsfn] ;fd" l xs¿kdf kfn}kfn]f /flt kfn] a;]/ xfQL jif{ dfq rf/hgfsf] Hofg xsf{pg] ul/G5 . t/, xfQLsf] lnPsf] 5 eg] xfQLnfO{ yflkPsf] ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ 7"nf] x'n ufpF k:of] eg] o;/L xf]xNnf ubf{ emg ljWj+; yk Pshgfsf] Hofg uPsf] 5 . o;} jif{ ljB'tLo w/fkdf ub{5g . To:tf] cj:yfdf dflg;n] Hofg hf]ufpgs} lgldQ k/]/ tLgj6f xfQL klg d/]sf 5g . o; jif{ ;nf{xLsf] klg efUg'kg]{ x'G5 . w'sf]{nL, sd}{of / 9]ªu|]vf]nf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf $) xfQLcftªs / lah'nLsf] w/fk j6f hªunL xfQLsf] ayfg k;]/ sl/a $) j6f 3/ xfQLn] ufpFdf cftªs dRrfpg yfn]kl5 xfQL dfg{ eTsfPsf] 5 eg] nfvf}Fsf] wgdfn / v]tLafnL gi6 ljB'tLo w/fk yfKg] qmd o; jif{ lgs} a9]sf] 5 . o;af6 u/]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] klZrdIf]q tyf emfkf, ;'g;/L / t/fO{sf clwsfªz u|fdL0fIf]qdf ljB'tLs/0f eO;s]sfn] pbok' / df hª u nL xfQLaf6 ePsf] Iflt klg oxL xfQL tyf jGohGt' emg c;'/lIft ag]sf] cg'ej ug{ cg'kftsf] 5 . yflnPsf] 5 . xfQLaf6 ;w}F cftªlst x'g] emfkfsf] s]xL jif{cl3;Dd t/fO{sf hªundf k|z:t b]Vg kfOg] b'D;L a9bf] jgkmF8fgL tyf cGwljZjf;sf sf/0f clxn] b]Vg} d'lZsn 5 . o;sf] cl:tTj klg vt/fdf kl/;s]sf] 5 . b'D;L b]Vg klg /x/} eof] ljz]ifu/L, wfdLemfFqmLn] emf/km'sdf b'D;Lsf] sfF8f k|of]u ug]{ / o;sf cGo cªu ljleGg sfo{df k|of]u x'g] x'Fbf b'D;Lsf] cj}w l;sf/ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm hg;ªVof j[l4;Fu} jgcltqmd0f a9]kl5 af;:yfgsf] cefjn] ubf{ b'D;L x/fpFb} uPsf] 5 . :d/0f /xf];, b'D;Lsf] sfF8f 3/df /fv] dfq klg e"tk|]t efUg] cGwljZjf; / To;af6 ljleGg /f]usf] pkrf/sf nflu 3/]n' cf}iflw agfP/ k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] ljZjf; ePsf sf/0f b'D;Lsf] sfF8fsf] lgs} 7"nf] dxŒj /x]sf] kfOG5 . klxn]–klxn] v]taf/Ldf nufOPsf] afnL vfP/ b'D;Ln] x}/fg} kfg]{ ugf{n] uf]7fn} nfUg'kg]{ b'D;L clxn] kmf§k'm§ dfq b]vfkg]{ ub{5 . k"jL{ g]kfnb]lv klZrd;Dd kfOg] b'D;L nf]k x'Fb} uPkl5 ;f] If]qsf k|foh;f] w]/}nfO{ b'D;L x]g]{ /x/ nfUg yfn]sf] 5 . ufpF3/df wfdLemfFqmLx¿n] b'D;Lsf] sfF8fsf] 6f]kL tyf dfnf agfP/ nufpg] tyf /f]uLx¿sf] emf/k'ms ubf{;d]t To;sf] k|of]u ug]{ x'Fbf o;sf] sfF8f lgs} dxFuf] d"Nodf lsga]r;d]t x'g] ub{5 . Pslt/ jgljgf; / csf]l{ t/ o:t} ljleGg k|of]hgsf nflu b'D;Lsf] l;sf/ o;sf] nf]k x'gsf] k|dv sf/0f ' ' dflgPsf] 5 . v'nf l;sf/ / ;/sf/L :jfldTjsf] jgkmF8fgL lgoGq0f x'g] xf] eg] ;/sf/L jgIf]qsf cnfjf t/fO{df ljsl;t x'Fb} u/]sf ;fd'bflos jgn] klg b'D;Lsf] ;+/If0fdf ;xof]u k'Ug] cfzf ug{ ;lsG5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 9
  10. 10. jGohGt'sf] /fh afx'g8fFuL / cf;kf;sf ufpFdf xfn;Dd lah'nL gk'usf]] af3sf] a9bf] cftªs x'bf ToxfFsf hgtf klg lah'nLsf] dfu ul//x]sf 5g . F af3 ePsf lgs'~h5]p5fp dfq xf]Og, cGo hªunIf]q t/, ToxfFsf hgtfsf o; rfxgfsf] d"ndd{ xfQLnfO{ cf;kf;df obfsbf af3 b]vfkg]{ ub{5 . clw/fHosf w/fk yfKg' g} /x] s f] ljleGg dfWoddf k| s flzt s]xL :yfgdf ;fd'bflos jg x's{g yfn]kl5 af3nufot ;dfrf/af6 k|:6 x'G5 . u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0f ev{/ ePsf] jGohGt'sf] rnv]n klg a9g yfn]sf] kfOG5 . af3 ;'g;/Ldf @–@ j6f xfQL w/fkdf kl/;s]sf 5g . pbok'/ df+;fxf/L jGohGt' ePsf] x'Fbf cfˆgf] cfxf/sf lgldQ / ;nf{xLsf xfQLkLl8t ufpFdf klg xfQLnfO{ ljB'tLo o;n] d[u, h/fof], v/fof] tyf cGo ;–;fgf jGohGt' w/fk yfKg ;'? ul/Psf] kfOG5 . ptf, bfªdf o:t} cfkmgf] ljr/0fIf]qdf gkfpFbf v;Lafv|f, ;'Fu'/, ufO{e}F;L ljB'tLo w/fkdf k/]/ Pp6f xfQLn] Hofg u'dfPsf] 5 . tyf cGo 3/kfn'jf hgfj/nfO{ ;d]t cfˆgf] l;sf/ u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0fsf] nIo agfpF5 . obfsbf hªundf hghLjg ;xh agfpF b } PSn}b'Sn} 3fF;bfp/fsf nflu ljsf;kydf u|fdL0fIf]qnfO{ uPsf dflg;nfO{ ;d] t cu|tf lbg' xf] . t/, o;sf] af3n] cfˆgf] l;sf/ agfpg] pkof] u lbglbg} nf] k x' g ub{5 . o; cj:yfdf af3 nfu]sf jGohGt'nfO{ w/fkdf g/eIfL klg aGb5 . Psk6s kf/]/ dfg{sf nflu x'g' lgs} dfG5] df/]/ vfPsf] af3n] b'vb kIf xf] . jif{el/ vfg] w]/}h;f] dflg;nfO{ g} cfˆgf] afnLgfnL vfOlbg], gi6 ug]{, l;sf/ agfpg kNsg] ub{5 . 3/ / uf] 7 eTsfOlbg] lrt' j fsf] :jefj klg ePkl5 cfˆgf] ;DklQ arfpg w/fk yfKg'k/]sf] u|fdL0f af3;Fu ldNbf]h'Nbf] lsl;ds} x'G5 . hgtfsf] u'gf;f] /x]sf] kfOG5 . o; cj:yfdf ;/sf/L o; jif{ lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] ;fd'bflos jgIf]qdf kIfaf6 s'g} k|sf/sf] kxn gx'g] xf] eg] jGohGt' dfl/g] v/v8fO vf]lnPkl5sf] b'O{ dlxgfleq !@ hgfnfO{ af3n] qmdn] a9fjf kfpg] cj:yf j[l4 x'Fb} hfG5 . xfQLnfO{ vfO;s]sf] 5 . jGohGt'ljbx¿sf cg';f/ Ps}k6s w/fkdf kf/]/ dfbf{ jf xfQLnfO{ yfk]sf] w/fkdf k/]/ xhf/f}sf] ;ªVofdf :yfgLo afl;Gbf hªundf k:bf cfˆgf] F dfG5] g} dbf{;d]t o;tkm{ ;/sf/L rf;f] ga9g' / ;fdfGo ultljlwdf cˆ6] / f] ePsfn] ToxfF s f af3 bf]ifLnfO{ ;fdfGo hl/jfgf u/]/ 5f8g'n] jGohGt' emg cfqmfds ePsf x'g;S5g . v/v8fO vf]Nbf afSnf] s'lx/f] vt/fdf kb{}5g . nfUg] ;do k/]sfn] dfG5]n] af3 gb]Vbf w]/h;f] dflg; } af3ljz]if1sf] cg'ej 8f= sLlt{dfg tfdfª– g]kfnsf klxnf] af3ljz]if1sf] gfd xf] . af3;DaGwL zf]w ubf{sf] pgsf] /dfOnf] cg'ej 5 . pgL lrtjgdf Pp6L al3gLsf] cWoogsf] qmddf lyP . rf/ lbg;Dd tLgj6f xfQLsf] n:s/n] vf]Hbf klg al3gL km]nf kl/g . kfFrf}F lbg emf8Ldf 8d? b]vkl5 pgL ¿vdf r9]/ al3gLsf] cjnf]sg ug]{ k|of;df nfu] . xfQL / ] dfG5]sf] xnrnn] qmf]lwt al3gLn] uh]/ cfqmd0f u/]kl5 xfQL efu] . pgL ¿vd} cnkq k/] . al3gLn] tfdfªnfO{ { b]lvg5 / 8d?;Fu uP/ a;L . To;kl5, xfQLx¿ 8/fpFb} pgL r9]sf] ¿vd'lg cfP . pgL xfQLdfly kmfnxfNg] sf]lz; ubf{ub}{ al3gL km]l/ xfQLdly hfOnfuL / xfQL ;'OsRrf 7f]s] . o;kN6 eg] al3gLn] pgnfO{ b]vL / !^ F ' lkm6dfly pk|m/ cfqmd0f u/L . ;ftf]kTnf] uPsf tfdfªsf] PG6]gf klxnf] cfqmd0fd} em¥of] . bf];f] cfqmd0fdf ] ' | al3gLsf gªuf /]l8of] l/l;e/dfly k/]sfn] vf;} s]xL ePg . t];fkN6sf] pk|mfOdf al3gLsf] cfqmd0fn] tfdfªsf] | |] lkmn};Dd e]6of] / pgL cfFlQP/ ;dfPsf] xfFuf 5f]8g k'u,] al3gL;Fu} e'Odf k5fl/P . t/, v} lsg xf], al3gLn] F tfdfªnfO{ s]xL ul/g, ;'?Ss cfˆgf aRrfx¿ ePlt/ uO{ . tfdfª efUg ;s]gg, ¿vaf6 v:bf pgsf] 9f8 g} efFlRrPsf] /x]5 . la:tf/}, 3;|b} clnk/ k'ukl5 Ps ;xfos, xfQL lnP/ tfdfªnfO{ lng cfP / 8/n] sfFKb} pgnfO{ F ] lnP/ uP . To;kl5 tLg dlxgf c:ktfnd} ynfk/] . clxn] 8f= tfdfª cd]l/sfdf knfog ePsf 5g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 10
  11. 11. jGohGt'sf] /fh o;sf] cfqmd0fdf k/]sf x'g . dWojtL{If]q glhssf] jGohGt' ;+/If0f M b]znfO{ nfe, hgtfnfO{ kL8f ;fd' b flos jg emfF l ub} uPsf] n ] of] If] q af3sf] /fli6«o lgs'~h jf cf/IfIf]qdf /x]sf nf]kf]Gd'v hLjhGt' af;:yfgsf nflu pko'Qm ePsf] lj1x¿sf] 7DofO 5 . x] g { jif] { g L 7" n f] ;ª V ofdf ko{ 6 s cfpg] ub{ 5 g . Pp6} If]qdf af3sf] 3gTj a9bf b'Anf] af3 alnof] dgf]/~hg jf cWoogsf nflu cyjf sxfnLnfUbf] ;x/L af3af6 nv]l6Fb} ;'/lIft :yfgsf] vf]hLdf ufpFglhs jftfj/0faf6 k|s[ltdf pGd'lQmsf] ;f; km]g{sf nflu k'ukl5 cfxf/s} nflu dflg;nfO{ ;d]t l;sf/ agfpg] ] cfpg] ljb]zL ko{6saf6 b]zn] ljb]zL d'b|f cfh{g ub{5 . ub{5 . af3sf] ;+Vofdf j[l4 x'Fbf logLx¿sf] ultljlw o:tf ;+l/Ift If]qdf ;~rfng x'g] ko{6sLo xf]6n–nh a9]sf] sf/0faf6 klg dflg; af3sf] l;sf/ aGb5g . o; Joj;fo, dgf]/~hg tyf v]ns'b ;~rfng ug]{ sfo{ jif{ af3sf] cfqmd0faf6 dfl/g] afx|hgf df8L pkTosf / } k|foh;f] aflx/af6 cfPsfx¿n] ug]{ u/]sf] kfOG5 . lrtjg lgs'~hIf]q klZrdkl§sf ufpFn] dfq k/]sfn] To; /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' cf/Ifdf ePsf jGohGt'n] If]qsf] af3 g/eIfL ePsf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . :yfgLo hgtfsf] afnLgfnL ;vfk kfg]{, pgLx¿ g} af3sf] :jefj / cfqmfds x'g] sf/0f cfqmd0faf6 3fOt] x'g] jf dfl/g] t/ o;sf] nfeaf6 af3n] jgsf] lglZrt 3]/ fleq cfˆgf] af;:yfg / eg] pgLx¿ ljd'v eO/x]sf] cj:yfdf jGohGt'nfO{ ljr/0fIf]q agfPsf] x'G5 . ;ªVof cfkmgf] a}/L dfq ;lDemg] cj:yf a9 b } hfF b f cfxf/sf] sdL x' F b } g]kfnsf ;+/lIft jGohGt' l;h{gf x'G5 . lgs'~hIf]qs} hgtfn] uPkl5 af3n] gofF af;:yfgsf] :tgwf/L M hªunaf6 3fF;, bfp/f n}hfFbf jf vf] h L ug{ yfNb5 . o;} qmddf cf;fdL afFb/ hªunL xfQL ltgsf 3/kfn' j f hgfj/ hª u n lgs' ~ h;F u } hf] l 8Psf ;fd' b flos ;fns u}F8f k:bf t' ? Gt} sf/afxL u/L gub jglt/ af3sf] ljr/0f a9b} uPsf] lxl:k8 v/fof] k'8s] aFb]n hl/jfgf lt/fOg] lgod ePsfn] 5 . gf} n f] tyf b' A nf] af3nfO{ ;fF; ;/sf/n] cfk" m nfO{ zq' 7fg] / s:t'/L d[u jGohGt'nfO{ cfkmGt ;Dem]sf] u'gf;f] cfˆgf] If] q df k| j ] z ug{ glbg] AjfF;f] afx|l;ªu] ug'{ :jfefljs} xf] . …tx nfP/ /fVg af3sf] k|j[lQ x'g] x'Fbf cGoqsf af3 nv] l 6F b } oxfF cfOk' u ] s f klg lxdfnL efn' uf}/L ufO{ g;Sg] oL jGohGt' lsg kfNg'k¥of] < x'g;S5g . To; If]qdf ut jif{sf] xfa|] hªunL ofs cfk" m n] kfn] s f jGohGt' n ] u/] s f] af9Ln] cfxf/ x'g] ;–;fgf hªunL ;nª;fªu÷l;n' cgf{ gf]S;fgLsf] Ifltk"lt{ lgs'~hn] lbg'kg]{ jGohGt' aufPsf] x' F b f vfgfsf] r/Laf3 gfog xf] ls xf]Og < xfd|f] 3/ eTsfPkl5 cefjn] dfG5] n fO{ cfqmd0f ug{ lnªS; lr¿ xfdL sxfF a:g] < ;a} cGg vfOxfn] yfn]sf]] klg x'g;S5 . WjfF;] lrt'jf s[i0f;f/ ltgsf jGohGt'n] Û ca xfdLn] s] af3sf] cfqmd0faf6 s;/L af3 rf}sf vfg] < xf]Og, ltgsf jGohGt'n] xfd|f] l5d]sL jf bfh'efOnfO{ vfOlbof], aRg] < lxpFlrt'jf x'F8f/ To;sf] Ifltk" l t{ x' G 5 <Ú h:tf g/eIfL af3n] dfG5] n fO{ 9' s ] / r/fx¿ cfqmf] z , kL8f / s?0fufyf cfqmd0f ub{ 5 . af3n] /flt sfnf] ;f/; d'gfn jGohGt' k Ll8tn] kf] V g] ub{ 5 g . ufpFlt/ k;]/ klg l;sf/ vf]Hg] v/dh'/ lgs' ~ h / cf/Ifsf] lbuf] ;]tf] ;f/; ub{ 5 . ctM af3 ePsf Joj:yfkgsf] sdhf] / L jf hªun5]p5fpsf ufpFsf afl;Gbfn] rL/ ;fgf] v/dh'/ /fhwg]z jGohGt'k|sf]k lgoGq0f ug]{ ;+oGqsf] /flt / laxfg ;a] / } 3/aflx/ 8fFkm] cefjs} sf/0f klg o:tf]] cj:yf lg:sg'x'Fb}g . 3fF;bfp/fsf nflu hªun k:bf PSn}b'Sn} k:bf af3sf] 3;|g] hgfj/ oBflk ljBdfg /x]sf] x'g;S5 . cfqmd0fsf] l;sf/ aGg] ;Defjgf clhªu/ ;'guf]xf]/f] jGohGt'af6 kmfObf s] < x' G 5 . t;y{ , ;d" x agfP/ dfq 3l8ofn jif]{gL s/f]8f}F vr{ u/]/ hgtfnfO{ hªun k:g' pko'Qm x'G5 . ;|ftM /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefu ] b'Mv lbg] oL jGohGt'nfO{ ;/sf/n] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 11
  12. 12. jGohGt'sf] /fh lsg kfn]sf] xf]nf eGg] lh1f;f w]/}nfO{ x'g;S5 . jGohGt'n] lbg] b'MvnfO{ ;fdfGo¿kdf lng'kg]{ x'G5 . jf:tjdf k[YjLdf /x]sf dflg;nufot ;a} hLj tyf cfxf/f gkfPkl5 :jefj}n] jGohGt' 5]p5fpsf ufpF jg:klt k|sl[ tsf cgdf]n /rgf x'g . ;[li6sf oL lglwnfO{ k:5g / 3/kfn'jf hgfj/, v]tLkftL gi6 ub{5g . df}sf clxn]sf] cj:yfdf cfOk'Ug s/f]8f}F jif{ nfu]sf] 5 . o:tf ldn] dflg;nfO{ cfˆgf] l;sf/g} agfpFb5g . s}of}F hLjsf] k[YjLdf dfgjLo lqmofsnfk / s]xL k|fs[lts g]kfnsf] ljb]zL d'b|f cfh{g ug]{ k|d'v ;|f]t ko{6g k|sf]k jf 36gfsf sf/0fn] ljgf; eO;s]sf] 5 . Psk6s Joj;fo /x]sf] 5 . oxfF cfpg] *) k|ltzt ko{6s ;+;f/af6 nf]k eO;s]sf k|f0fL tyf jg:klt hlt;'s} lgs'~h jf jGohGt' cf/Ifsf] e|d0fnfO{ k|fyldstf rfxgf u/] klg km]l/ kfpg ;lsGg . lbG5g . o; lx;fan] x]bf{ lgs'~hn] ko{6g Joj;fonfO{ k|s[ltsf] ;+/rgf / lgod lgs} cgf}7f] / hl6n 5 . 7"nf] 6]jf k'¥ofPsf] 5 . lgs'~hnufot xfd|f k|fs[lts k|s[ltn] ;+;f/df /x]sf x/]s hLjhGt' / jg:kltnfO{ ;Dkbfsf] ljgf; x'g] xf] eg] ko{6g Joj;fo 7Kk x'g] Pscsf{sf] ;xcl:tTjdf cfwfl/t agfPsf] 5 . o;y{, cj:yf cfpF5 . jGohGt' / jg:klt nf]k x'Fb} hfg' eg]sf] dflg;s} ;/sf/n] hgtfsf] kL/ ;'Gg'kb{5 cl:tTj ;ªs6df kb}{ hfg' klg xf] . s'g} klg ;+/lIft tyf ;+/If0fljxLg jgsf] klxnf] xsbf/ jghª u n / jGohGt' a f6 k[ Y jLsf] kl/l:yltsLo :yfgLo hgtf g} x'G5g . pgLx¿n] tL If]qsf] ;+/If0f k|0ffnLsf] ;Gt'ng dfq sfod x'Fb}g, o;af6 cd"No gul/lbPsf] eP g To:tf If]qn] /fli6«o lgs'~h jf h8La'6L;d]t k|fKt x'g] ub{5 . e"ldsf] ;+/If0f tyf jgohGt' cf/Ifsf] ¿kdf ljsl;t x'g] cj;/ kfpFy], g jftfj/0fLo ;Gt' n g / ;+ / If0fsf nflu jghª u n t jGohGt'n] ;'/lIft af;:yfg g} kfpg] lyP . To;sf/0f, ckl/xfo{ 5 . kxf8L If]qsf] e"ld Joj:yfkgsf nflu :yfgLo afl;GbfnfO{ Pstkm{ o:tf cf/lIft If]qsf] jg sl/a ^) k| l tzt If] q kmn jgn] 9flsPsf] x' g ' k g] { jf jGohGt'af6 k|fs[lts ;Gt'ng sfod eO{ u'0f:t/Lo lj1x¿sf] /fo /x]sf] oxfF :d/0fLo x'g cfpF5 . jftfj/0fsf] ljsf; x'Fbf pgLx¿nfO{ g} nfe k|fKt x'G5 eGg] r]tgf hfu[t u/fpg' cfjZos 5 eg] csf]{tkm{ jGohGt'n] dflg;nfO{ ;+;f/df hxfF klg b'Mv lbO/x]sf ToxfFsf] cfly{s ultljlwdf k|ToIf ;+nUg u/fpg' klg x'G5g, of] k|fs[lts lgod g} xf] . dflg;n] klg ltgsf] cfjZos 5 . lgs'~h jf cf/Ifaf6 k|fKt cfly{s nfesf] af;:yfg gi6 u/]/ ltgnfO{ b'Mv lbg] jf lj:yfkg ug]{ d'Vo c+z ;f]xL :yfg / ;d'bfosf] ljsf;df vr{ ug]{ sfo{ ul//x] s f] 5 . dflg;n] hª u nL jGohGt' s f] Joj:yf ul/P :yfgLo txdf ;+/lIft If]q / oxfF /x]sf af;:yfg x8k]sf 5g / ltgsf] ljgf; u/]sf 5g . jGohGt' tyf jg:klt cfˆg} ;DklQ xf] eGg] efjgfsf] jGohGt'sf] ljr/0fynf] ldr]/ hªunsf] cf8}df a;]kl5 ljsf; x'G5 . g]kfnL ;'/IffsdL{sf] pkl:ylt gx'bf kfFry/sf] pQ/L ;LdfjtL{ kmn}rfsf] ltDa'kf]v/L / tfKn]hªsf] sfnLvf]nf F F ' ef/tLo t:s/n] ;vfk kf/] If]qdf kfOg] dxŒjk"0f{ h8La'6L / b'ne jGohGt' dfl;g]qmd tLj| ultn] a9]sf] 5 . ef/tLo e"–efuaf6 To; { If]qdf k|jz ug]{ t:s/x¿n] lgjf{w¿kdf h8La'6L ;ªsng u/L g]6f] s6fpg] u/]sf 5g eg] v'ndv'nf ] jGohGt'sf] cj}w l;sf/ u/]/ ;vfk} kfg{ yfn]sf] :yfgLo afl;Gbfsf] egfO 5 . h8La'6L / jGohGt' kof{Kt pknAw x'g] ;f] If]qdf g]kfnL ;'/IffsdL{sf] u:tL lgoldt x'g g;s]s} sf/0f t:s/x¿n] v'nf¿kdf rnv]n ug]{ cj;/ kfO/x]sf 5g . hªun / cf]9f/df cfuf] afn]/ a:g] x'nsf x'n t:s/n] h8La'6Lsf] cj}w cf];f/k;f/ ul//x]sf 5g . ef/tLo l;sf/Lx¿ jGohGt'sf] l;sf/ klg lgw{Ss;Fu ul//x]sf 5g . pgLx¿ ufpFn]n] lj/f]w u/]df Hofg lng];Ddsf] wDsL lbG5g . oxLsf/0f lgxTyf ufpFn] r'k nfu]/ a:g ljjz 5g . …;/sf/åf/f ;+/lIft jgsf] x]/rfx ug{ ;/sf/n] g} rf;f] lbFbg, } ef/tLo t:s/n] ax'dNo h8La'6L / b'ne jGohGt' ;vfk} kf/],Ú :yfgLo 8Dd/ ;'Aaf cfqmf]z JoQm u5{g . " { s]xL jif{cl3;Dd k|z:t kfOg] efn', s:t'/L d[u, 8fFkm], d'gfn, / lrlnd]h:tf kz'kG5L clxn] Hofb} yf]/} ;ªVofdf dfq b]lvG5g . elgG5, t:s/x¿n] o:tf hgfj/nfO{ 7"N7"nf w/fkdf kf/]/ kqmG5g / ltgsf ax'd"No cªu ef/ttkm{ n}hfg] ub{5g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 12
  13. 13. jGohGt'sf] /fh jGohGt'sf] cftªs s;/L 36fpg] < jGohGt'sf lsg t:s/L x'G5 < jGohGt'n] cfˆgf] af;:yfgglhssf ufpFdf k;]/ b'Mv jGohGt'sf ljleGg jGohGt'sf t:s/L x'g] cªu lbg' s'g} gf}nf] s'/f xf]Og . To;}n] lgs'~h, cf/If jf cª u x¿ t:s/L ;fd'bflos jgIf]qdf /x]sf jGohGt'x¿n] 5]p5fpsf eP/ ;+ ; f/sf u}F8f vfu, v'/ ufpFdf k;]/ b'Mv lbg] / cftªs l;h{gf ug]{ u/]sf] ljleGg s'gfdf k'Ug] af3 x88L, 5fnf kfOG5 . ;fgf jGohGt'n] afnLgfnL vfg] 36gfnfO{ ub{ 5 g . vf;u/L, s:t'/L lagf jgsf] 5]pdf a;f]af; ug]{ :yfgLo hgtfn] s]xL xb;Dd u}F8fsf] vfu rLg, efn' lkQ ;xg' klg kb{ 5 . t/, lx+ ; |s / cftªs dRrfpg] l;+ufk'/, lr¿ e'Tnf jGohGt'sf] xsdf ;/sf/L kIfaf6 s]xL g s]xL ug}{kg]{ blIf0fsf]l/of, b'D;L e'F8L, sfF8f cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . gq jGohGt'n] dfG5] dfg]{ / dfG5]n] tfOjfg cflb b]zdf lrQn l;ª, 5fnf jGohGt' dfg]{ qmd a9b} hfFbf ar]v'r]sf nf]kf]Gd'v t:s/L eP/ hfg] ;k{ 5fnf, ljif jGohGt' klg nf]k g} x'g a]/ nfUb}g . ub{5 . af3sf] x88L xfQL bfx|f, 5fnf rLg / rLgs} ltAat xfQLn] ljz]ifu/L t/fO{sf hªunglhssf ufpFnfO{ a9L afx|l;ªu] l;ª, 5fnf If] q df t:s/L x' g ] cftªlst ug]{ u/]sf] 5 . ctM xfQLn] o;/L vf; If]qdf ub{5 eg] s:t'/L lagf hfkfg;Dd hfg] ub{5 . cftªlst lsg kfb{5 / ltgLx¿sf] sf]l/8f]/ sxfF kb{5 eGg] s'/fsf] Pp6f lj:t[t cWoog ug'{ cfjZos b]lvG5 . af;:yfgsf] cltqmd0f / ;+/If0f xfQLn] ufpF k;]/ lauf/ ug{ yfn]]kl5 yk ljWj+; x'g dflg;, jGohGt' n ufot ;a} k| s f/sf k| f 0fL tyf glbg lgs'~hn] tbf?stf b]vfpFb} cfjZos Joj:yf jg:kltsf] cl:tTj logLx¿sf] cGt;{DaGwaf6 l6s]sf] ldnfpg] lhDd]jf/L axg ug'{kb{5 . hªunL xfQL ufpF 5 . t/, dfG5]sf] hg;ªVof tLj|¿kdf j[l4 x'Fb} hfFbf k:g] If]qdf ;bfOPsf xfQL / dflg;n] jghªun ljgf; tyf ;}lgs kl/rfng ug]{ Joj:yf s~rghª3fdf b'ne hLj cltqmd0f tLj|¿kdf ug{ yfn] . { ldnfO{ ufpF k:gaf6 /f] S g' ' kmn:j¿k, jGohGt' s f] @ ;o ld6/b] l v %*% ld6/ prfO;Dd af;:yfg Pjd cfxf/sf] cefj lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{ sfo{ x'g]5 . km}lnPsf] s~rghª3f ;+/If0f If]qsf] :yfkgf af3n] obfsbf b'Mv lbg] eP ePkl5 nf] k f] G d' v /ftf] kfG8f, r/Laf3, x' g yfNof] . cfxf/fsf nflu klg Ps}:yfgdf gf}hgf dfG5] lxpFefn', lxpFlrt'jf, ;fns, hªunL ofs hª u nL hGt' ufpF k:g] , dfg' { eg] s f] ;fdfGo s' / f tyf cGo w]/} k|sf/sf b'n{e jGohGt' o; afnLgfnL gi6 ug]{, dflg;sf xf]Og . o:tf ultljlw a9]kl5 If]qdf b]vfkg{ yfn]sf 5g . ;of}F k|hfltsf kfNt' hGt' dfg]{ / dflg;nfO{ g} lgs'~hn] ToxfFsf] g/eIfL af3 r/fr'?ªuLsf] ;d]t ;+/If0f eO/x]sf] o; klg dfg{ yfn] . o;/L dfG5] / kqmg tbf?stf b] v fpg' k g] { ;+/If0f If]qdf @–$ j6f ofs klg b]vfk/]sf jGohGt'sf] cGtå{Gå a9g uof] . xf] . af3s} ;ªVof w]/} a9]sf] 5g . lxdkft x'Fbf;d]t xKtf}F;Dd lxpFdf la:tf/}, o:tf jGohGt'sf xf8, eP klg pko'Qm af;:yfg / 5fnf, l;ª, v' / , lkQ cflb k'l/P/ a:g;Sg] of] hªunL ofs ltAataf6 cªusf] a]rlavg x'g yfn]kl5 cfxf/sf] k| a Gw ug] { sfo{ o; If]qdf cfPsf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] rf]/Ll;sf/L km:6fpg yfNof] . yflnxfNg' cfjZos 5 . cf/If jf lgs' ~ hdf ePsf 5 . rLgsf] sf] d f] n f] ª df g] r / l/he{ / jGohGt'sf cfk/flws l;sf/L jGohGt'sf ultljlwsf] lg/Gt/ ef/tsf] s~rghª3f g];gnkfs{ of] ;+/If0f ;ª u l7t¿kd} nfu] k l5 cWoog x' g ] Joj:yf ul/P If] q ;F u hf] l 8P/ /x] s f] x' F b f g] k fnsf] jGohGt'sf] cl:tTj ;ªs6df Pstkm{ o:tf jGohGt' a f6 s~rghª 3 f cf/If0f If] q df cfxf/ / kb} { uof] . kmn:j¿kM dflg;nfO{ x'g] vt/f sd ug{ af;:yfgsf nflu o:tf nf]kf]Gd'v hgfj/ jGohGt' s f] ;+ / If0f clgjfo{ ;lsG5 eg] jGohGt'sf] plrt cfpg] ;Defjgf k|an /x]sf] 5 . :d/0f cfjZostf aGg k'Uof] . kmntM Joj:yfkg / /]vb]vdf ;d]t /xf];, o; If]qdf /ftf] kfG8f / r/Laf3 jGohGt' s f] ;+ / If0fsf nflu pNn]Vo ;xof]u k'Ub5 . o;cl3 g} km]nfkl/;s]sf 5g . ;/sf/L tj/af6 kxn x'g'kg]{ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 13
  14. 14. jGohGt'sf] /fh dx;' ; ul/of] . o;} q mddf a9L ePsfn] oxfF cfxf/ / jGohGt' s f] ;+ / If0f ug{ tLgsf] af;:yfg ckof{Kt /xg' :jfefljs} af;:yfg ;'/lIft ug{'kg]{ xF'bf /fli6«o xf] . cGo cf/IfeGbf o; lgs'~hdf lgs' ~ h / cf/Ifx¿sf] :yfkgf af3 / u}F8fsf] a9L g} rf]/Ll;sf/L k|f/De ePsf] xf] . g]kfndf xfn;Dd x'g] u/]sf] kfOG5 . Ps sd{rf/Ln] gf} j 6f /fli6« o lgs' ~ h, tLgj6f cfkmgf] gfd uf]Ko /fVg] ;t{df o; jGohGt' cf/If, tLgj6f l;sf/ jif{ dfq To; lgs'~hdf !# j6f cf/If / 5j6f dWojtL{ If]qdfkm{t u}F8f d/]sf / tLdWo] cf7j6f rflxF nf]kf]Gd'v jGohGt' ;+/If0f ug]{ sfo{ vfu–t:s/åf/f dfl/Psf] v'nf;f eO/x]sf] 5 . t/fO{If]qsf cf/Ifdf Psl;ªu] u}F8f, af3, u/] s f 5g . o; jif{ dfq u} F 8 f rf] / Ll;sf/Lsf] xfQL, aFb]n, cgf{, uf}/, rf}sf, x'F8f/, ;fns, 8lNkmg, cleof]udf (( hgf kqmfp k/]sfdf ^% hgf y'gfdf h/fof], lrQn, clhªu/, /ftf] d[u, s[i0f;f/, afx|l;ªu], /x]sf], !@ hgf cg';Gwfgsf] qmddf /x]sf / afFsLnfO{ uf]xL, 3l8ofn, lrt'jf, efn', gLnufO{, do'/, hªunL cg';Gwfgkl5 l/xf ul/Psf] yfxf ePsf] 5 . o;/L x]bf{, s'v'/f, 3f]/n cflb jGohGt' tyf kz'kG5L kfOG5g . u}F8ft:s/Lsf] cj:yf lgs} eofjx /x]sf] b]lvG5 . To;}u/L, kxf8L If]qsf ;+/lIft If]qdf lxpFlrt'jf, xfa|], lgs'~hn] o:tf 36gf uf]Ko /fVg'sf] p2]Zo t:s/ lu/f]x hªunL s's'/, lxdfnL yf/, s:t'/L d[u, 9'ªu]dn;fFk|f], efUg gkfcf];, kqm]/ sf/afxL ug{ ;lhnf] xf]; eGg] lxdfnL lrQn, gfp/, ytf/, emf/n, AjfF;f], lrt'jf, /x]sf] a'lemPsf] 5 . o;af6 s] b]lvG5 eg] u}F8fsf] sfnf] efn', af3, r/Laf3, 8fFkm], d'gfn cflb jGohGt' rf]/Ll;sf/L lgs} df}nfPsf] 5 . tyf kG5L kfOG5g . z'SnfkmfF6f cf/If / alb{of xfa|] klg ;lsg]ef] cf/Ifdf /x]sf jGohGt'n] klg g] k fnsf ;+ / lIft If] q dWo] l;sf/ v] N gsf nflu lgs' ~ hdf af3, lrQn cfˆgf] cl:tTjsf nflu 5'6ofOPsf] Ps dfq 9f]/kf6g l;sf/ cf/Ifdf b'n{e s[i0f;f/, u}F8f, xfQLnufot ljleGg k| s f/sf cˆ6] / fsf] jGohGt' xfa|] -/ftf]kfG8f_ sf] cj}w rf]/Ll;sf/L eO/x]sf] y'k|} jGohGt' kfOG5g . oxfF ;fdgf ug' { k l//x] s f] 5 . 5 . ljZj jGohGt' sf]ifn] ;+/lIft jGohGt'sf] ;"rLdf klg rf] / Ll;sf/Lsf] 8/ t sf];L6Kk'' jGohGt' cf/Ifdf ;dfj]z u/]sf] xfa|] cyjf /]8kfG8f cf/Ifdf 3':g] cj}w 5Fb}5, ef/tLo If]qsf] cf8}df 3/]n' e}F;L 5f8f 5fl8gfn] l;sf/Lx¿n] yfk]sf] kf;f]df k/]sf] km]nfkf/]kl5 o;sf] /x]sfn] oxfFsf jGohGt' ef/t ToxfF dfq kfOg] cgf{ s f] l;sf/ / rf]/Llgsf;L a9]sf]] /x:o v'Ng cfPsf] xf] . knfog x'g] ;Defjgf klg j+zf0f'ut u'0fsf] ;'/Iff lgs} dfcf]jfbL o'4 / k|Tofqmd0fsf sf/0f u:tLljxLg ag]sf] k|r'/ /x]sf] 5 . r'gf}tLk"0f{ /x]sf] 5 . k;f{ ;f] l;sf/ cf/Ifdf k|To]s jif{ dªl;/ / k'; dlxgfdf jGohGt' cf/Ifdf xfQL, af3, dfq sd{rf/Lsf] u:tL v6fOg] u/]sf] 5 . o;k6s kxf8L If]qsf lgs'~h tyf gLnufO{ kfOG5g . t/, v6fOPsf] sd{rf/Lsf] u:tL 6f]nLn] cf/Ifsf] lzjcf]8f/ c f / I f d f 7 " n f h g f j / gLnufO{ df;'sf nflu / af3 eGg] :yfgdf yfk]sf] kf;f]df d/]sf] xfa|] km]nfkf/]sf] kfOF b } g g . bfp/fsf nflu 5fnf / x8 8 Lsf nflu lyof] . u:tL 6f]nLn] ut jif{ klg o:t} cj:yfdf d[t e P s f jgkmF8fgLaf6 rf]/Ll;sf/L x'g] 8/ TolQs} xfa|] km]nfkf/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . Tolt dfq xf]Og, o; jGohGt'sf] cfxf/fsf] cefj /x]sf] 5 eg] cf/Ifsf] blIf0f jif{sf] u:tLdf cf/Ifsf ljleGg 7fpFdf yfk]sf ## j6f tyf dfgjLo ultljlw efudf kfgLsf] cefj x'gfn] cj}w kf;f]x¿;d]t km]nfk/]sf lyP . ut jif{ o:tf a 9 g f n ] k x f 8 L I f ] q s f oxfF s f jGohGt' ef} + t fl/P/ cj}w kf;f] %# j6f a/fdb ePsf] v'nf;f ;dfrf/ jGohGt' klg w] / } ;' / lIft aflx/ lg:sg] / l;sf/ aGg] ;|f]tn] u/]sf] 5 . /x]sf] dfGg ;lsg] cj:yf ;Defjgf klg clws g} 5 . afF;sf kft vfP/ afFRg] xfa|]sf] 5fnf ljnf;L pkef]usf 5} g . h] xf] ; , k| f oM ;a} ;a}eGbf k'/fgf] lrtjg /fli6«o ;fdfg agfpg k|of]u ul/G5 . d'VotM 5fnfsf nflu c f / I f j f l g s ' ~ h s f lgs' ~ hn] ljZje/ Voflt rf]/Ll;sf/L / cj}w sf/f]af/ x'g] ljZjd} b'n{e /x]sf] jGohGt' kz' k G5L ;' / lIft /]8kfG8f ;u/dfyf, dsfn', nfª6fª, s~rghª3f sdfPsf] eP klg w] / } ePsf] d f 9' S s dfGg' k g] { ;+/lIft If]q / 9f]/kf6g l;sf/ cf/If If]qdf kfOG5 . k|sf/sf jGohGt'sf] 3gTj cj:yfrflxF 5}g . ✲ jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 14
  15. 15. vfg]kfgL cf;]lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg ljjz t/fO{af;L { g] k fnsf] t/fO{ If] q sf lhNnfdf vfg] k fgLsf nflu xfn sfo{/t @ ;o %) tflndk|fKt k|fljlwsx¿af6 tLg ufl8Psf clwsfª z 6 o ' a j] n af6 tflgg] kfgLdf jif{df ;DkGg ug]{ nIo /x]sf] 5 . xflgsf/s tŒj cf;] { l gs kfOg] u/] s f] 5 . s] x L t/fO{sf vfg]kfgL;|f]tdf k|z:t cf;]{lgs km]nfkl//x]sf ;docl3 o' l g;] k m g] k fn, /] 8 qm; ;f] ; fO6L af/f / ;dfrf/ gf} n f xf] O gg . af/fsf] h:t} cf;] { l gssf] vfg]kfgL ljefun] ;+o'Qm¿kdf !$ ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf ;d:of t/fO{ s f k| f oh;f] ;a} u/] s f] cg' ; Gwfgaf6 af/f If] q sf 6 o ' a j] n af6 lgsflng] lhNnfsf $ ;o (! 6o'aj]nsf] kf“rtf/] ;]ldgf/ vfg] k fgLdf /x] s f] ;dfrf/ kfgLdf cf;]{lgs /x]sf] atfOPsf] s]xL dlxgfcl3 sf7df8f}Fsf] Ps kfFrtf/] cfO;s]sf 5g . t/, o; If]qdf 5 . ljleGg ufpF ljsf; nuftf/ cWoog / cg';Gwfg x'g] xf]6ndf vfg]kfgLdf km]nfk/]sf] cf;]{lgss} u/] s f] 5 / kfF r tf/] xf] 6 ndf ;ldltsf $,!!@ :yfgsf lghL, ;fj{ h lgs 6 o ' a j] n / Ogf/sf] ] ljifonfO{ lnP/ /f]rs sfo{qmd cfof]hgf ;Dd]ng jf ;]ldgf/sf] cfof]hgf kfgLsf] gd' g f ;ª s ng u/L ePsf] lyof] . g]kfn vfg]kfgL ljefusf] klg x' g ] u/] s f] n ] oxfF dfq} cf;]{lgssf] ;d:of /x]sf] 5 ls k/LIf0f ul/Psf] d f Ogf/sf] ;d] t ;xeflutf /x] s f] ;f] sfo{ q mddf eGg] e|d l;h{gf ePsf] 5 . kfgLdf eg] cf;] { l gs km] n f hg:jf:Yosf nflu xflgsf/s ePsf sf/0f gk/]sf] yfxf ePsf] 5 . cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL glkpg ;Nnfx lbOPsf] cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL / :jf:Yo lyof] . t/fO{ If]qdf cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg cf;]{lgso'Qm kfgL lkpg / vfgf k/fk" j { s fnb] l v ljleGg sfo{ d f k|of]u x'b} cfPsf] eP klg cf;]l{ gs F ljjz s] x L hgtfsf] ;d] t k| l tlglwTj ksfpg k|of]u ug'{ gx'g] eP klg efF8f ;kmf ug{, n'uf w'g, g'xfpg tŒjnfO{ g cfFvfn] b]Vg ;lsG5, g u/fOPsf] ;f] sfo{qmddf tL ljkGg hgtfn] / cGo sfo{df k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] :jfb tyf uGwaf6 yfxf kfpg cfˆgf] cf;]{lgso'Qm wf/fsf] kfgLsf] ;f6f] wf/0ff lj1x¿sf] 5 . cf;]{lgs ;lsG5 . To;} n ] kfgLdf o;sf] Ps lbg dfq eP klg af]tnaGb -ldg/n ePsf] kfgL vfP/ la/fdL ePdf ld>0f eP–gePsf] yfxf kfpg jf6/_ kfgL lkpg kfpg' /f]rs gx'g] s'/} /f;folgs k/LIf0f g} ug'kb{5 . { ePg . t/, cfof] h s, :jf:YosdL{ / df5fdf;' , u] 8 fu' 8 L, kmnk" m n, cG8f, b"w / tfhf t/sf/Lh:tf cf;] { l gs tŒj kfgL, vfgf jf lhDd] j f/ clwsf/Lx¿n] u| f dL0f If] q sf kf]lifnf] vfgf vfg'kb{5 . /f]uLn] cGo dfWodaf6 dfgj z/L/df ;xefuLnfO{ 6o'aj]nsf] kfgL glkpg ;Nnfx w" d kfg, dBkfg ug' { cem k|j]z u/]kl5 :jf:Yodf k|lts"n lbFbf st} ldg/n jf6/sf] lj1fkg t ul/Psf] xflgsf/s x'g] tyf o;f] ul/Pdf k| e fj kb{ 5 . o;af6 xTs] n f, xf]Og eGg] ;xefuLaLrd} vf;v'; rn]]sf] /f] u n] a9L ;tfpg] lj1x¿ kfOtfnf, lk7o'F, 5ftL / z/L/sf b[Zon] emg /f]rstf yk]sf] b]lvGYof] . atfpF5g . cGo efusf 5fnfdf v} / f] , abfd] , sfnf] /ªsf bfu e"ldut kfgLdf s]xL g s]xL dfqfdf cf;]{lgs kSs} cyjf luvf{ b]lvg yfN5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf :jf:Yos]Gb| x'G5 . ljZj :jf:Yo ;ªu7gsf] dfkb08cg';f/ k|ltln6/ tyf c:ktfndf uP/ :jf:YosdL{ s f] ;Nnfxcg' ; f/ kfgLdf )=)! ldlnu| f d;Dd cf;] { l gs ePdf ;' / lIft pkrf/ u/fpg'kg]{ x'G5 . dflgG5 . otf aªunfb]z / ef/tn] k|ltln6/ kfgLdf t/fO{If]qsf ;txdf sd ufl8Psf clwsfªz 6o'aj]nsf] )=)% ldlnu|fd;Ddsf] cf;]{lgsnfO{ ;'/lIft dfkb08 kfgLdf cf;] { l gs e] l 6Psf] t/ w] / } ufl8Psf l8k– sfod u/]sf 5g, t/ g]kfndf clxn];Dd To:tf] s'g} 6o'aj]ndf eg] ge]l6Psf] hfgsf/L klg k|fKt ePsf] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f gul/Psf] eP klg aªunfb]z / ef/ts} 5 . ljleGg lhNnfsf @( xhf/ 6o'aj]nsf] kfgL k/LIf0f dfkb08nfO{ ;'/lIft dlgPsf] 5 . ubf{ ;a} e Gbf a9L gjnk/f;L lhNnfdf ufl8Psf cf;]{lgssf] k|d'v ;|f]t e"ldut k|fs[lts jftfj/0f g} 6 o ' a j] n sf] kfgLdf cf;] { l gs e] l 6Psf] 5 . cf;] { l gs eP klg dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] jftfj/0fdf kg]{ k|efjsf ;d:ofu|:t t/fO{sf @) lhNnfdWo] klg ;Kt/L, l;/fxf, sf/0fn] klg hldgd' l gsf] kfgLdf cf;] { l gs a9] s f] ;nf{xL, /f}tx6, k;f{, gjnk/f;L, slknj:t' / s~rgk'/ x'g;S5 . /f;folgs dn, sf7 /ªUofpg] /ª pTkfbg a9L k|efljt ePsf] kfOPsfn] oL lhNnfsf 6o'aj]nsf] ubf{ k|of]u x'g] /;fog, sL6gf;s cf}iflwsf] k|of]u cflb kfgL k/LIf0f, vfg]kfgL u'0f:t/ ;'wf/ tyf cg'udg sf/0fn] e" l d tyf e" l dut kfgL k| b " i f0f x' g ] x' F b f zfvfn] o' l g;] k msf] ;xof] u df k| f /De u/] s f] 5 . tL cf;] { l gssf] dfqfdf klg j[ l 4 x' g ;Sg] ;Defjgfk| l t lhNnfsf sl/a c9fO{ nfv 6o'aj]nsf] kfgLsf] k/LIf0f lj1x¿sf] Wofgfs[i6 x'g yfn]sf] 5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 15
  16. 16. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ k[ YjLdf w]/} klxn]bl] v ;"oaf6 k|fKt x'g] ls/0fsf] tfk { ;~ro ug]{ w]/} k|sf/sf k|ljlwsf] ljsf; u/L ;fdfGotof Pp6f 3/df #–$ j6f aQL afNg, /]l8of], Sof;]6 ahfpg, ZofdZj]t 6]lnlehg x]g{ cfjZos kg]{ lah'nL pTkfbg x'g] ub{5 . o;eGbf a9L Ifdtfdf pkof]u xF'b} cfPsf 5g . 3/ tyf sfof{nodf lah'nL afNg, kfgL tfÌ] kDk rnfpg, vfgf / kmnk"mn ;'sfpg, lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ cfjZos k/] PseGbf a9L ;f]nf/ kfgL ttfpgnufot w]/} If]qdf ;f}o{zlQmsf] pkof]u Kofgn jf df]8o'n /fVg'kg]{ x'G5 . eO/x]sf] 5 . o;/L ;"o{af6 k|fKt x'g] / ljleÌ If]qdf ;"o{af6 k|fKt tfknfO{ vfgf ksfpg] sfo{df klg k|of]u k| o f] u ug{ ;lsg] zlQmnfO{ g} ;f} o { p mhf{ elgG5 . ug{ ;lsG5 . ;f]nf/ Kofgndf hDdf ePsf] tfknfO{ ;f}o{pmhf{ slxNo} g;lsg] / lg/Gt/ k|fKt x'g] ePsfn] pko'Qm lsl;dn] ljsf; ul/Psf] r'nf] cyjf efF8fx¿df o;nfO{ gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ klg elgG5 . o;sf cltl/Qm hf]8]/ lah'nL pTkfbg gu/L ;f]em} vfgf ksfpg] sfo{df of] pmhf{ pkof]u ug]{ k|ljlw b'u{d ufp“x¿df ;d]t ;lhn} ;d]t k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . o:tf w]/} k|sf/sf cfw'lgs h8fg ug{ ;lsg] ePsfn] of] ljs]Gb|Ls[t gjLs/0fLo r'nf]sf] ljsf; u/L ;kmntfk"j{s k|of]udf NofOPsf pmhf{sf ¿kdf klg kl/lrt 5 . hnljB'tsf] ;'ljwf 5g . ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf], ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf], ;f}o{ ls6nL, gk' u ] s f, ljsf;sf k" j f{ w f/;d] t gePsf b' u { d / ;f}o{8«fo/h:tf pks/0f clxn] u|fdL0f Onfsfdf k|rlnt u|fdL0fIf]qdf of] k|ljlw a9L pkof]uL x'G5 . /x]sf 5g . oxfF ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf] / ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf]sf ;"o{sf] ls/0faf6 k|fKt tfk cyjf zlQmnfO{ ;f]em} lah'nL ;DaGwdf rrf{ ul/Psf] 5 . -ljB'tLo zlQm_ df kl/jt{g u/L lah'nL pTkfbg ul/g] ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf]] ePsf]n] o;nfO{ ;f}o{ (Solar) lah'nL elgG5 . 3/]n' ;f}o{ ;f}ornf] Ps k|sf/sf] afs;h:t} x'G5 . o;n] ;"osf] { ' { lah''nLk|0ffnL lah'nLsf cGo ;|f]t gePsf 7fp“df aQL ls/0fnfO{ tfkzlQmdf kl/jt{g u/]/ afs;leq /flvPsf] afNg, /]l8of], Sof;]6 ahfpg / 6]lnlehg x]g{ a9L efF8fsf] vfBfÌnfO{ ksfpg] sfd ub{5 . of] r'nf] ;f}o{ pmhf{ sf ;/n k|ljlw ;f}o{ pmhf{ –;/f]h yklnof pkof]udf NofOG5 . ;fwf/0ftof #) b]lv $) jf6 sf8{af]8{, sfuh, sf7 / kmfOa/ Unf;af6 agfOG5 . Ifdtfsf] ;f}o{k|0ffnLsf] h8fgaf6 Pp6f 3/df & b]lv ;"osf] ls/0f l;;fsf] 9sgaf6 afs;leq l5/]kl5 o;nfO{ { !) jf6sf tLgj6f aQL afNg / b'O{ 3G6f;Dd ZofdZj]t o;leq /flvPsf] sfnf] efF8f] / sfn} ;txn] ;f}ol{ s/0f 6]lnlehg x]g{ ;lsG5 . t/, a9L Ifdtfsf] ;f}o{k|0ffnL ;f];/ tfkdf kl/jt{g ub{5 . o;/L afs;leqsf] tfkqmd ] h8fg u/] Ifdtfcg';f/ a9L aQL afNg / /ªuLg 6]lnlehg x]g{;d]t pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . 3/]n' ;f}o{ lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ k|of]u ul/g] d'Vo pks/0fnfO{ ;f] n f/ Kofg] n cyjf ;f] n f/ df] 8 o ' n elgG5 . ;f}o{df]8o'n ;f]nf/ ;]nx¿ (Solar Cells) ldn]/ ag]sf] x'G5 . ;f}o{df]8o'n cw{;'rfns l;lnsg (Silicon) af6 ag]sf] x'G5 . ;f}o{ df]8o'n agfpg k|of]u x'g] of] cw{;'rfns l;lnsg c¿ s]xL geO{ afn'jfdf kfOg] 6Nsg] kbfy{ xf] . ;f}o{ lah'nL pTkfbg ug{ ;f]nf/ Kofgn jf df]8o'n;lxt cGo ;fdfg klg cfjZos kb{5g . ;f} o { lah' n Lsf] pTkfbgsf] dfqf ;f] n f/ Kofgnsf] Ifdtfdf e/kb{5 . Ps yfg ;f]nf/ Kofgnaf6 ufp“3/df jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 16
  17. 17. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ a9g yfNb5 . afs;leq pTkÌ x'g] tfk cGoq ;/]/ jf ;dodf c¿ sfd ug{ ;lsG5 . r'xfj6 eP/ hfg glbgsf nflu 7"nf] afs; / ;fgf] • vfgf ksfpg ;lhnf] x'G5 . afs;sf] aLrdf s'rfns j:t'x¿ sfuh, sf7sf] w"nf] • vfgf :jflbnf] x'G5 . jf skf; /flvPsf] x'G5 . afs;df tfkqmd hlt;Sbf] • vfgf ksfpFbf £o", t]n yf]/} /fv]/ klg ksfpg ;lsg] a9L cfjZos kg]{ x'bf afs;df l/kmnS6/ h8fg ul/Psf] F ] x'Fbf lrNnf] kbfy{af6 :jf:Yodf kg]{ g/fd|f] k|efj x'G5 . o;/L afs;leq k;]sf] 3fdsf] tfkzlQm a9b} Go"g ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 . uPkl5 efF8fdf /flvPsf] vfgf kfSb5 . • vfgf ksfpg kfgL yf]/} nfUg] x'bf kfgLsf] art x'G5 . F k|of]u ug]{ tl/sf ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf] agfpg cfjZos kg]{ ;fdu|L M ;f} o { afs;–r' n f] 3/sf] sf} ; L, 5t, cfF u g jf kfFr jf 5hgfsf] kl/jf/sf nflu vfgf ksfpg ;lsg] ;'ljwfcg';f/ 3fd nfUg] /flknf] :yfgdf /fVg'kb{5 . Pp6f ;f} o { afs;–r' n f] agfpg lgDg ;fdfg vfgf ksfpg'eGbf sl/a ! 3G6fcufl8 g} r'nf]nfO{ cfjZostf kb{5 M 3fddf /fv]df vfgf kfSg] ;dosf] art x'G5 . vfgf • sf8{af]8{sf afs; jf b'O{j6f rf]ofn] a'g]sf] sf]qmf] ksfpg] ;dodf dfq vfgf ksfpg] efF8f];lxt r'nf]nfO{ -Pp6f 7"nf] / Pp6f ;fgf]_ 3fddf /fVbf vfgf kfSg cln a9L ;do nfUb5 . • 9sg jf lasf]{df /fVg] l;;f jf Knfl:6s r'nf]nfO{ 3fddf /fVbf l;;fsf] 9sgdf ;"o{sf] ls/0f • 6Nsg] ;txsf nflu PNd'lgod SjfOn kg]{u/L /fVg' cfjZos x'G5 . r'nf]sf] l;;fsf] 9sg • s' r fnssf] ¿kdf k| o f] u x' g ] k/fn, skf; jf /fd|/L ;kmf u/]/ vfgf ksfpg] efF8f] afs;leq /fv]/ sfuhsf uf]nf jf 6'qmf 9sg /fd|/L aGb ug'{kb{5 . 9sg km'6g;Sg] ePsfn] • l6gsf] ls:tL vf]Nbf / aGb ubf{ xf]l;of/ x'g'kb{5 . efF8f] afs;leq • ANofsaf]8{ k]G6 -sfnf] /ªdf_ /fv]kl5 9sg vf]ln/xg' /fd|f] x'Fb}g . • u'Fb, wfuf] ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf]df 3fdsf] ls/0f l;wf kfg{ ljz]if Wofg • AffF;sf ;–;fgf ef6fsf 6'qmf lbO{ o;nfO{ 3fdlt/ kmsf{pg'k5{ . vfgf kfls;s]kl5 ;fOh jf cfsf/ l;;fsf] 9sg vf]Nbf afkm lgl:s/x]sf] x'G5, To;}n] of] r'nf] ljleGg cfsf/–k|sf/df agfpg ;lsG5 . ;f}o{ l;;fsf] 9sg vf] N g] l alQs} vfgfsf] efF 8 f] aflx/ afs;–r'nf] agfpFbf kl/jf/sf] ;ªVof / cfjZostf x]//] glgsfnL s]xL ;dokl5 dfq lgsfNg' /fd|f] x'G5 . vfgf sqf] ;fOhdf agfpg] eg]/ lg0f{o ug'{kb{5 . kfFr jf ksfO;s]kl5 r'nf] /fd|/L ;kmf u/]/ ;'/lIft 7fpFdf ;fthgfsf] Pp6f kl/jf/sf] nflu ;fdfGotof leqL afs; /fVg'k5{ . $^ x %^ x @) -;]ld_ / aflx/L afs; %% x ^^ x @% ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf]af6 x'g] nfe -;]ld_ ePsf] ;f}o{ afs;–r'nf] agfpg' pko'Qm x'G5 . • 3fd nfu]sf] ;dodf vfgf ksfpg o;nfO{ ;lhn} ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf] k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . cfNd'lgodsf kftfx¿af6 agfOg] o; r'nf]sf] cfsf/ • d§Lt]n, Uof;, bfp/f, lah'nLh:tf s'g} lsl;dsf 5ftfh:tf] x'G5 . ;f}o{5ftfnfO{ cfjZostfcg';f/ 3fd OGwg cfjZos kb}{g . nfu]lt/ kmsf{pg ;lsof]; eg]/ kmnfd jf sf7sf • w"jfF gcfpg] x'Fbf :jf:Yodf k|lts"n c;/ kb}{g . 8G8Lx¿af6 agfOPsf] k|m]ddf 5ftfnfO{ c8ØfP/ otf– • jftfj/0f k|b"if0f x'Fb}g . ptf 3'dfpg ldNg]u/L h8fg ul/Psf]] x'G5 . 3fdlt/ • of] r'nf] t'ngfTds¿kdf ;kmf / ;'ljwfhgs x'G5 . 5ftf k/]df r'nf]df vfg]s'/f l56f] kfSg] x'G5 . vfgf • vfgf g89g] ePsfn] vfgfsf] kf}li6s tŒj ;'/lIft ksfpg] efF8f]nfO{ ;f}o{5ftfdf /fv]kl5 5ftf tft]/ /xG5 . efF8f]df ePsf] vfBfGg kfSb5 . ;f}o{ 5ftfdf vfgf • cGo r' n f] d f h:tf] ;f} o { r ' n f] d f nuftf/ vfgf ksfpg k|of]u ul/g] efF8f]nfO{ aflx/af6 sfnf] /ªun] rnfO/xg] emGem6 x'Fb}g . kf]ltPsf] x'g'k5{ . o;/L kf]ltPsf] /ªun] 5ftfaf6 • efF8f]nfO{ Psk6s 3fddf /flv;s]kl5sf] art k/fjt{g ePsf] 3fdsf] ls/0f ;f];]/ lnO{ efF8f] l56f] jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 17
  18. 18. gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ tfT5 / efF8f]sf] vfg]s'/f kfS5 . k'5g'x'Fb}g . ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf]sf] k|of]uljlw ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf]sf kmfObfx¿ 5ft]r'nf]df 3fd /fd|/L kg]{ x'g'k5{ . o;nfO{ w]/} bfp/f, d§Lt]n, Uof;, lah'nL cflbsf] k|of]udf sdL ;do 3fd nfUg] / cfk"mnfO{ pko'Qm x'g] cfFug, eO{ vr{df art x'G5 . 3/sf] sf};L, 5t cflb v'nf 7fpFdf /fVg'k5{ . w" j fF / cGo xflgsf/s Uof; glg:sg] x' F b f ;s];Dd 5ftfdf s'g} lsl;dsf] 5fof kg{ lbg' x'Fb}g jftj/0fdf k|lts"n k|efj kb}{g / hg:jf:Yo klg / w]/} xfjf rNg] 7fpF klg /fd|f] x'Fb}g . v/fa x'Fb}g . 5ftfdf /x]sf] 6Nsg] ;txnfO{ r'nf] a;fpg'cufl8 ;f}o{ 5ft]r'nf] ;kmf / ;'ljwfhgs x'G5 . o; r'nf]df klg ;fwf/0f r'nf]df h:t} 5f]6f] ;dodf vfgf kfSb5 . of] r'nf] klg vfgf e'6g, tfg{, kfgL ttfpg k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . hf8f] df};ddf ljz]ifu/L ;x/LIf]qdf kfgL ttfpg of] r'nf] nf]slk|o 5 . of] r'nf]sf] lgdf{0f ug{ 7"nf] nufgL ug'{kb}{g . s'g} klg OGwg k|of]u ug'{ gkg]{ ePsfn] nfut l:y/ /xG5 . ;]jf tyf lj:t[t hfgsf/L k|fKt x'g] :ynx¿M j}slNks pmhf{ k|j4{g s]Gb|, wf]aLrf}/, kf6g, kmf]g g+= %%@*##%, %%#(@#& g]kfn ;f}o{ ljB't pTkfbg ;ª3 uxgfkf]v/L, gS;fn, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $$#@!)# g/d / ;kmf sk8fn] k'5]/ ;kmf ug{'k5{ . gjLs/0fLo pmhf{ s]Gb| 5ftfsf] efF 8 f] /fVg] 7fpF d f efF 8 f] c8ØfPkl5 afuahf/, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $@$*@%@ efF8f]nfO{ 9sgn] 5f]lklbg'k5{ . ;f]nf/ On]lS6«l;6L sDkgL k|fln 5ftfnfO{ 5] p df ePsf] lsnfdf 5fof k/] s f] kf]=a=g+= @$( afuahf/, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $@@&*&^, gb]lvg]u/L 3fd nfu]sf] lbzftkm{ kmsf{P/ k"/f 3fd nf]6; OghL{ k|fln nfu]–gnfu]sf] lgZro ug'{k5{ . kf]=a=g+= (@!(, ef6e6]gL, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $$!*@)# ;fwf/0f r'nf]df h:t} o; r'nf]df ksfpg] vfgfnfO{ ;"of]{bo pmhf{ k|fln ;do–;dodf 5ftfnfO{ k5fl8 kmsf{ P / dfq kf]=a=g+= !)@##, wfkf;L, sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $#%#$@) rnfpg'k5{ . sf7df8f}+ kfj/ sDkgL x/]s @)–@% ldg]6df 5ftfnfO{ lsnfsf] 5fof kf]=a=g+= @!%##, uf]+ua', sf7df8f}+, kmf]g g+= $#%^##& gb]lvg]u/L ;"o{sf] ls/0f;Fu ldnfpg'k5{ . kf7o ;fdu|L M vfgf ksfpg] sfd ;lsPkl5 5ftfnfO{ tnlt/ ➨ Dofg'cn ckm ?/n 6]Sgf]nf]hL -Ol;df]8af6 k|sflzt_ kmsf{P/ /fVg'k5{ . ➨ j}slNks pmhf{ k|j4{g s]Gb|af6 k|sflzt k':tsx¿ 5ftfdf /x]sf] 6Nsg] ;txnfO{ s8f, 7f]; kbfy{sf] b'O{ k|sf/sf :tgwf/L hgfj/n] dfq 3if{0faf6 arfpg'k5{ . k'mn kfb{5g . xf“; r'Rr] Kn]6; / 5ftfnfO{ xfjfx'/L, cl;gfkfgL, wfl/nf] xltof/, Olr8gf gfdsf oL :tgwf/L hgfj/ 9'ªuf cflbsf] 7Ss/af6 arfpg'k5{ / v;|f] j:t'n] ci6«]lnofdf kfOG5g . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 18
  19. 19. yfxf kfO/fvf}“ kf“r s/f]8 jif{ h]7f] :ofpdf *$ k|ltzt, cfn'df &* /f] r s 1fglj1fg k|ltzt / rLhdf $) k|ltzt nfdv'§] l;tf zdf{ kfgLsf] dfqf x'G5 . nfdv' § ] sL/fx¿sf] cjf{ l rg ¿k xf] . k[YjLdf o;sf] pTklQ dfG5]eGbf % s/f]8 8fOgf];/ s;/L gfl;P < jif{ k lxn] g} x'g t k[YjLsf hLj clxn] klg nf]k eO/x]sf 5g . t/, eO;s] s f] lyof] . k[YjLdf /x]sf] 5]kf/f]h:tf] :j¿ksf] eLdsfo 8fOgf];/ ljZjdf clxn] 7"nf s/f]8f}F jif{klxn] g} nf]k ePsf] lyof] . of] eLdsfo hLj ;fgf ljleGg 8fOgf];/ Iff/Lo jif{ (Acid rain) sf sf/0f nf]k zf/Ll/s agfj6df ePsf] x'g;Sg] cd]l/sL e"ue{ljb /f]gfN8 lk|g / a|'; kfOg] nfdv' § ] s f km]un]n] hgfPsf 5g . pgLx¿sf cg';f/ !@% nfv @,&)) eGbf a9L k|hflt kfOG5g . xfjfdf Ps}7fpFdf cl8/xg / e'mSofP/ efUg of] clt g} l;kfn' x'G5 . To;} x'gfn] bfp 5f]k]/ /ut r':g yfN5 / dfG5] jf hgfj/n] yfxf kfpgf;fy nfdv' § ] efUg ;kmn x' G 5 . kfgL kbf{ jiff{ s f yf]kfx¿aLraf6 ;lhn} l5b}{ p8g;Sg] Ifdtf klg of] nfdv'§]df x'G5 . nfdv'§]n] Ps ;]s]G8df %)) b]lv ^)) k6s;Dd cfˆgf] kv]6f km6km6fpg;S5 . %))) lsnf]ld6/ g/f]lsO{ p8g] r/f uf] N 8] g ˆnf] e / s/f]8 lsnf]u|fd tf}n ePsf] pNsf ^% lsnf]ld6/ gfdsf] r/f %))) k|lt;]s]G8sf] ultn] k[YjLlt/ nfdf] ;do;Dd x'lQP/ lsnf]ld6/;Dd Iff/Lo jiff{ u/fpFbf pTkGg tfkn] oxfFsf] jftfj/0fdf g/f]lsO{sg lg/Gt/ gfO6«f]hg cS;fO8 clws a9g uO{ 8fOgf];/ nf]k ePsf] p8g;S5 . o;n] x'g;S5 . !) xhf/ jif{klxn] Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6 x'Fbf ofqf cjlwe/ g lg:s]sf ljiffn' Uof;sf sf/0f klg cDnLo jiff{ ePsf] vfgf vfG5, g x'g;Sg] pgLx¿sf] /fo 5 . lj>fd g} lnG5 . &% b]lv *) u|fd dfq tf}n x'g] of] r/fn] To:tf] ce"tk"j{ zlQm s;/L k|fKt ub{5 eg]/ ;"o{ / rGb|df lsg pq} b]lvG5g j}1flgs;d]t cfZro{rlst 5g . ;"osf] Jof; rGb|dfsf] eGbf nueu $)) u'0ff 7"nf] 5 . { s]df, slt kfgL < To;} u /L, k[ Y jLaf6 rGb|dfsf] b"/Lsf] $)) kfgL dflg;sf nflu w]/} dxŒjk"0f{ x'G5 . kfgL lkpg u' 0 ff b" / Ldf ;" o { s f] gkfpF b f xfd| f ] 3fF 6 L ;' S 5, cjl:ylt /x]sf] 5 . ;"o{ z/L/ l;lyn aGb5 . t/, / rGb| d fsf] cfsf/ / xfdLn]] kmnk"mn, ;fukft / k[ Y jLaf6 /x] s f] b" / Lsf] cGo vfBkbfy{ ;] j g ubf{ klg 7" n f] dfqfdf kfgL cg' k ft ;dfg /x] s f vfO/x] s f x' G 5f} + . sfF q mf] d f sf/0f xfdL] ;"oeGbf $)) { (^ k|ltzt, v/a'hfdf (@ u'0ff ;fgf] rGb|dfnfO{ klg k|ltzt, b"wdf *& k|ltzt, ;"ohq} b]Vb5f}F . { jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 19
  20. 20. yfxf kfO/fvf}“ k[YjLsf] ;a}eGbf alnof] :tgwf/L d';fsf] j[l4 slt < xfdLnfO{ nfUg;S5, ;a}eGbf alnof] :tgwf/L hgfj/ d';fn] xfd|f] l9s'6Lsf] cGg vfP/ x}/fg kfb{5 . d';fsf] xfQL xf] . xfQL :ynk|f0fLdWo] ;a}eGbf 7"nf]rflxF xf] t/ k|fs[lts l;sf/L ;k{, lrn, la/fnf], nf6f]sf];]/f]h:tf jlni7 g} eg] xf]Og . b'O{ km'6 dfq nfdf] c:6«]lnofdf hLj gx'g] xf] eg] Pshf]8L d';faf6 pTkfbg ePsf kfOg] Kn]l6k; ljZjdf kfOg] :tgwf/L k|f0fLdWo] ;a}eGbf ;Gtfg Ps jif{df * ;o *) k'Ub5g . To;} b/df alnof] x' G 5 . ;ª V of a9 b f :tgwf/L eP Pshf]8L d';faf6 % klg o;n] r/fn] jif{ d f ($,)#& h:t} k"mn kfb{5 s/f] 8 d' ; fsf] x' n / hª u nL aGb5 . o;/L xfF ; sf] h:tf] ;+ V of a9 g kfpg] u' F 8 agfP/ xf] eg] d';fn] a:5 . o;sf] k[ Y jLdf s:tf] txNsf dRrfpnf eGg] cg' d fg ug{ k' R 5/ df5f vfg] cf] t sf] h:tf] x' G 5 . kfgLdf klg sl7g x' G 5 . df5fh:t} kf} 8 g;Sg] Kn] l 6k;nfO{ k[ Y jLdf cfˆgf] cl:tTj arfpg ;Ifd ;a}eGbf k'/fgf] / k|f/lDes !@ xhf/ jif{ lxp“df k'l/P/ klg lhp“b} cj:yfsf] :tgwf/L hgfj/ dflgG5 . xfdLn] ha Zjf;k|Zjf; aGb ub{5f}F, db{5f}F t/ k]ml/ k'gh{Gd kfpg ;Sb}gf}F . lxpFdf k'l/Psf] s]xL ;dod} ;fOsnsf] cflj:sf/ xfdL db{5f}F . t/, AofS6]l/of, kmGhfO{ tyf 9';Ldf To:tf] jftfj/0f / ce"tk"j{ Ifdtf kfOPsf] hg:jf:Yosf nflu 5, hf] !@ xhf/ jif{;Dd ;d] t nfebfoL d[ t fj:yfdf /x] / klg ;jf/L;fwgsf] dfGotf k'ghL{jg kfpg;S5g . kfPsf] ;fOsnsf] ?;L j} 1 flgsx¿n] ] cflj:sf/ :s6NofG8sf cG6fl6{ s fsf] lxpF d f ls/Kofl6«s Dofsldngn] ;g !*$@ df ubf{ kmnfd] xhf/fF} ld6/ ulx/fOleq /8sf kfO8n / rSsfsf] k|of]u u/]sf lyP . k|mfG;df sDtLdf klg !@ xhf/ ;g !*^% df rSsf 3'dfpg Sofªs hl8t jf]g]:s/ jif{klxn]b]lv hd]sf o:tf ;"IdhLjnfO{ k'ghL{jg lbg gfds ;fOsn aGof] . ;fOsndf qmdzM /a/sf rSsf ;kmntf k|fKt u/]sf 5g . / c¿ ;'ljwfo'Qm efu ljsf; ub}{ OªUNofG8sf h]D; :6f/n]n] ;g !**% df ;fOsnnfO{ cfw'lgs ¿k lbP . d'6sf] rfn slt < ' clxn] ahf/df cfw'lgs k|ljlwaf6 ljsl;t %) eGbf dfgjd' 6 ' k| l tldg] 6 %@ k6s a9L luo/ ePsf ;fOsn;d]t pknAw 5g . cyjf k|ltlbg ! nfveGbf a9L pDn“bf] kfgL lxp“ aGg] 7fp“ k6s wl8sG5 . k|To]s w8sg;Fu} d' 6 ' n ] &) l;l; /ut z/L/sf ;fOa]l/of ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf 7"nf] d?e"ld xf] . o; g;fx¿df k|jflxt ub{5 . d'6'af6 d?e"ldnfO{ cToGt lr;f] / cToGt udL{ x'g] :yfgsf ;~rfl/t ePsf] /ut z/L/sf ¿kdf lrlgG5 . ljzfn e"If]qdf km}lnPsf] o; d?e"lddf g;f xF ' b } ! nfv @) xhf/ udL{ofddf ^) l8u|L ;]lG6u|]6 tfk x'G5 eg] hf8f]ofddf dfOnsf] ofqf k" / f u/] / k] m l/ dfOg; ^) l8u|L;Dd tn emb{5 . o; d?e"ldsf] d'6'd} k'Ub5 / ljsf//lxt eP/ e;f]{ofg:s klg p:t} cToGt lr;f] :yfg xf], hxfFsf] k'g;{~rfl/t x'G5 . hldgdf plDn/x]sf] kfgL kf]Vg]lalQs} hd]/ lxpF aGb5 . jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 20
  21. 21. :yfgLo hfu/0f ;fd'bflos jg Joj:yfkgcGtu{t pkef]Qmfaf6} ;+/If0f o; jgIf]qs} cUnf] 6fs'/fdf Pp6f 6fj/ agfpg] nIo kfPkl5 xnSs a9]sf] kf]v/fsf] hosf]6 ;fd'bflos jg klg /x]sf] 5 . sfx'F ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] j8f g+ @ df ca lrl8ofvfgf aGg] ePsf] 5 . @$=$( x] S 6/ If] q kmndf km} l nPsf] ;f] jg s] x L kf]v/f;Fu} hf]l8Psf] of] jgnfO{ kf]v/f cfpg] ko{6s jif{cl3;Dd kf]y|fkf]y|L / a'6ofg dfq ePsf] gfªuf] kfvf] leqofpg] dfq xf]Og, Jojl:yt jgef]h Pjd kf]v/fsf] lyof] . n]s;fO8sf afl;Gbfn] ;d]t sf7 / bfp/fsf k|b"if0f, eL8ef8 / xf]xNnfaf6 Ps}l5g zflGt vf]Hg]sf nflu o;} jgnfO{ k|of]u ug{ yfn]kl5 ¿vsf h/f;d]t nflu /d0fLo k|fs[lts b[iofjnf]sgsf] cj;/;d]t k|bfg ;dfKt ePsf] ;f] jgsf] ;+/If0fdf :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] ug]{] :ynsf ¿kdf ljsl;t ug]{ k|of; pkef]Qmfaf6 lgs} b' M v v] K g' k /] s f] 5 . jf:tjdf ;/sf/n] o; k|f/De ePsf] 5 . jgIf] q nfO{ /fli6« o jgsf] ¿kdf ;+ / If0f ug{ ;ldlt pkef]Qmf :jo++n] tf/af/, j[If/f]k0f / /]vb]v ub}{ cfPsf] agfPkl5 eg] ;'wf/ x'g yn]sf] lyof] / lg/Gt/ j[If/f]k0f ;f] jgaf6 k|To]s pkef]Qmfn] jgsf] uf]8d]n ubf{ lg:sg] ePk5L jg df}nfpFb} uof] . pQ/tkm{ sfxF' ufpF ljsf; bfp/fdWo] 5 ld6/ 8f]/La/fa/ dfq lgsfn]/ n}hfg ;ldlt / afFsL l;dfgfdf kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf kg]{ kfpg] Joj:yf ePsf sf/0f klg jg;+ / If0fn] /fd| f ] ;f] jgdf xfn ! ;o $$ pkef]Qmf jg;+/If0f sfo{df ;kmntf kfPsf] 5 . jg x'ls{Psf] k5L r/fx¿sf] ;ªVof ;xefuL eO/x]sf 5g . a9] / r/fpBfgsf] ¿kdf ljsl;t x' F b } uPkl5 jgsf] 5]j}df xfF; / as'Nnfsf ayfg b]Vg kfOg] tyf lrl8ofvfgf g} agfpg] sfo{df pkef]Qmf h]6]sf 5g . 9sdSs sdn km'Ng] sdnkf]v/Ln] jftfj/0f emg df]xs k/Dk/fut¿kdf kfOg] sfu, 9's'/, sflnh, jgs'v'/f, agfPsf] b]lvG5 . t/, sl/a %) /f]kgL If]qkmnsf] ;f] nfdk'R5«|], h'/]nL, lkm:6], eb|fO{, 8fªu|], wf]lagL, sf]OnL, kf] v /L cltqmd0fsf sf/0f sl/a #@ /f] k gLdf ltqf, x' l rn, ;' u f, v'lDr;s]sf] 5 . jgsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/;Fu} sdnkf]v/L cflb r/f a9 b } tfnsf] ;+ / If0f;d] t uPsf 5g eg]] jg x' g ] xf] eg] s' d f/L aflSnPkl5 af3, df5fk' R 5« | ] ;lxtsf] d[ u / v/fof] klg lxd >[ ª v nf, km] j f b]lvg yfn]sf 5g . tfn, kf] v /fahf/, n' D n] , x] D hfh:tf jgnfO{ r/fkfs{ s f] sl/a () k| l tzt ¿kdf ljsf; ug{ /d0fLo :yfg b] V g a9LeGbf a9L r/f ;lsg] o; If] q n] cfslif{ t u/L /Do kf] v /fsf] ko{ 6 gnfO{ jftfj/0f agfpg, 6]jf lbg;Sg]5 . lrl8ofvfgf aGb}5 hosf]6 jg ltgLx¿sf] cfxf/ / af;:yfgsf] cg' s " n tf agfpg jglj1fgsf ljBfyL{ s f] k| o f] u zfnfsf ¿kdf ;d] t jg;+ / If0fdf ljz] i f hf] 8 lbF b } jgpkef] Q mf ;ldltn] ljsl;t x'Fb} u/]sf] of] jgdf v'nf jftfj/0f, kfgLsf] o;sf] cWoog k|f/De ul/;s]sf] 5 . r/fkfs{sf nflu ;' l jwf, efG;f3/, jgjfl6sf, kSsL jgef] h :yn / ljz] i f1åf/f ;DefJotf cWoog u/fpg kf] v /f df]6/af6f] ePsfn] jgef]hsf nflu lgs} cfsif{s ynf] pkdxfgu/kflnsfn] ;d"xnfO{ Ps nfv ¿k}ofF k|bfg alg;s]sf] 5 . ;'?df a]lNhod k'u]sf :yfgLo o'jfn] ul/;s]sf] 5 eg] of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu !) nfv vfg]kfgL 6ofªsL agfpg Ps nfv ¿k}ofF ;xof]u:j¿k ?k}ofF 5'6ofPsf] 5 . k7fPkl5 k|f/De ePsf tL k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0fdf emG8} gf} sf:sL lhNnfsf $ ;o !@ ;fd'bflos jgdWo] ut jif{ nfv ?k}ofF vr{ eO;s]sf] atfOG5 . bf];|f] pTs[i6 ;fd'bflos jg k'/:sf/ kfPsf] o; hosf]6 jgleqsf] cf7 /f]kgL If]qkmndf @)!& ;fndf :yfkgf jgdf rfFk, nK;L, a8x/, s6';, ;Nnf, pQL;, lrnfpg], ePsf] dgfªu] u'Daf klg o; jgsf] csf]{ cfsif{0f xf] . s'l/nf], t]hkQf, afF; / ;Nnf cflb jg:klt kfOG5g . kf]v/f pkdxfgu/kflnsf;Fu hf]l8Psf] o; jgnfO{ v'nf oxL] u'Daf x]g{ jif]{gL xhf/f}F ljb]zL tyf :jb]zL ko{6s lrl8ofvfgfsf] ¿kdf ko{6sLo If]q agfpg nfluPsf] hfg] ub{5g . – a'l4;fu/ a/fn, kf]v/f jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 21 1
  22. 22. hnjfo' ;" o{af6 k[YjLdf cfpg] k|sfzdf /x]sf] ljsL/0fnfO{ jfo'd08nsf] aflx/L ;txdf /x]sf] cf]hf]gsf] k/tn] leq l5g{af6 /f]s/ oxfFsf hLj–hutsf] /Iff ul//x]sf] ] jif{df ljZjsf] cf};t tfkqmd !=% af6 j[l4 eO{ $=% l8u|L ;]lN;o; k'Ug] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;f] ePdf ljut (,))) jif{sf] Oltxf;df of] ztfAbL k[YjLsf] tfkqmd 5 . jf:tjdf cf]hf]g gx'bf] xf] t k[YjLdf hLjgcg'sn F " ;a}eGbf rfF8f] a9g] ztfAbsf] ¿kdf /xg]5 . o;sf] jftfj/0f g} x'Fb}gYof] eg] klg x'G5 . cf]hf]gafx]s b' : kl/df0fM o; wlt{ d f a;f] a f; ul//x] s f dfgj jfo'd08ndf cGo y'k}| k|sf/sf Uof;x¿ klg /x]sf 5g . hLjgnufot k[YjLsf ;Dk"0f{ hLj ;~hfn tyf kfl/l:ylts jfo'd08ndf cGo ljleGg k|sf/sf Uof;x¿sf] pkl:ylt k|0ffnLnfO{ uDeL/ c;/ kg]{5 . a9bf ;"oaf6 cfpg] 5f]6f] cfj[lQsf ls/0fx¿ k[YjLsf] { o;af6 ;fd' l b| s ;tx ;txdf cfpgnfO{ cj/f]w xFbg t/ o:Tff Uof; clws ' } c;fdfGo¿kdf a9g;Sg], jiff{sf] ePkl5 k[YjLaf6 kms{g] nfdf] cfj[lQsf ls/0f eg] aflx/ lgoldttfdf vnn cfpg] ] , xl/tu[x k|efj tfTbf] k[YjL hfgaf6 /f]lsG5 . o;/L ;"oaf6 k|fKt tfk pmhf{ oxLF { h'4axfb'/ u'?ª ✍ ;l~rt eP/ k[YjLsf] tftf]kg a9g] k|lqmofnfO{ xl/tu[x k|efj elgG5 . cf}Bf]lusLs/0fsf] k|lqmof ;'? ePkZrft tfkqmdn] s[lifk|0ffnLdf gsf/fTds c;/ kg],{ df6f] tyf k[YjLsf] jfo'd08ndf o:tf xl/tu[x Uof;x¿sf] dfqf () jftfj/0fLo cfb|Tffdf kl/jt{g cfpg]nufot kfgLsf u'0ff a9]sf] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;/L xl/tu[x Uof;sf] ;|ftx¿df ;d]t ;+s6 b]vfkg{;Sg]5 . ] dfqfTds j[l4sf sf/0f ;f}o{ ls/0faf6 cfpg] tfk oxLF lhDd]jf/ sf] < /f]lsg] k|lqmof;Fu} k[YjLsf] tfTg] k|lqmof klg a9]sf] 5 . cfhef] l n eO/x] s f ljleGg dfgjLo lqmofsnfkn] To;}sf/0f, xl/tu[x k|efjn] k[YjLdf cjl:yt ;Dk"0f{ hLjdf jfo'd08ndf xl/tu[x Uof;sf] kl/df0f a9fpg ;xof]u ljljw gsf/fTds kl/0ffd b]vfkb{5 . xl/tu[x Uof;dWo] ul//x]sf] 5 . h}ljs cjz]ifsf OGwgx¿ vf;u/L vlgh sfa{g8fOcS;fO8nfO{ xl/tu[x k|efj a9fpg] k|d'v t]n, sf]Onf tyf k|fs[lts Uof;df /x]sf] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 sf/stŒj dflgG5 . olb sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 jfo'd08ndf Uof;sf] k|r/ k|of]u eO{ hngk|lqmofåf/f pT;lh{t eO/x]sf] ' ylkg] qmd oxL b/ sfod /x] ;g @!)) ;Dddf tfkqmd 5 . 7"nf] kl/df0fdf hlnt h}ljs cjz]ifn] ljut s]xL lgs} pRr /xg] eljiojf0fL j}1flgsx¿n] u/]sf 5g . bzsklxn]bl] v g} jfo'd08ndf sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] kl/df0f o;}sf sf/0f ljZjsf] hnjfo'df ;d]t kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] a9fO/x]sf] 5 . l;d]G6 tyf cGo sf/vfgfsf] j[l4n] j}1flgsx¿sf] bfaf 5 . } sfa{g8fOcS;fO8sf] pTkfbgnfO{ a9fjf lbO/x]sf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf c;/x¿ jfo'd08nsf] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8nfO{ vf;u/L la?jfsf ljZjJofkL pi0ftf g} xl/tu[x Uof; pT;h{gsf] k|dv k|efj slnnf kftn] ;f]:g] ub{5 . To;}n] jgljgf;sf] tLj|tf;Fu} ' xf] . k[YjLsf hnjfo'af/] eljiojf0fL ug{ tof/ ul/Psf oxfFsf] jfo'd08ndf /x]sf] sfa{g8fOcS;fO8 ;f]:g] sfo{ sDKo'6/ gd'gfcg';f/ clxn]sf] cj:yfsf] xl/tu[x Uof; klg 36b} uPsf] 5 . o;/L Pslt/ h}ljs OGwgsf] hngdf pT;h{g lgoGq0fsf nflu s'g} k|of; gePdf cfufdL ;o j[ l 4 / csf] { l t/ a9 b f] jgljgf;n] jfo' d 08ndf jftfj/0fLo ;r]ttf Û xfd|f] k|lta4tf ÛÛ /)f÷ kof{ j /)f ÷ 22

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