 Authentication & their types.
 Knowledge Based Authentication.
 Token Based Authentication.
 Biometrics Authenticatio...
Authentication
Authentication is a process of validating who you are to
whom you claimed to be.
 Human authentication tec...
Three Basic Identification
Methods of password
Possession
(“something I have”)
•Keys
•Passport
•Smart Card
Knowledge
(“Som...
Password
• Password is basically an encryption
algorithms.
 It is 8-15 character or slightly more than that.
 Mostly tex...
PASSPHRASE
•Passphrase length is about 30-50 characters or
more than that so it creates ambiguity to remember,
if there is...
 It’s the enhance version of password.
 It is a combination of words or simply collection of
password in proper sequence...
T
O
K
E
N
B
A
S
E
D
A security token (or sometimes a hardware
token, authentication token, USB token, cryptographic
token, software token, vir...
Token
Disconnected
Token
Connected
Token
Contactless
Token
Single
Sign – on Software
Token
Mobile
Device
Token
Smart Card ...
B
I
O
M
E
T
R
I
C
S
Biometrics
•Refer to a broad range of
technologies.
•Automate the identification
or verification of an individual.
Based on human characteristics or body organs
Process
Percentage
market share by
type of biometric
technology in
2003
•How secure is your password?
Now with the technology change,
fast processors and many tools on
the Internet, cracking pas...
Token
 Involves additional costs, such as the cost of the token and
any replacement fees.
 Users always need to carry th...
BIOMETRICS
•Biometrics has also some
drawbacks.
Suppose you select your fingerprint
as a biometrics..
But what to do whe...
•The 3D passwords are more customizable, and
very interesting way of authentication.
•A 3D password is a multifactor
authe...
 The 3D password presents a virtual environment
containing various virtual objects.
 The user walks through the environm...
 This is achieved through interacting only with the objects that
acquire information that the user is comfortable in prov...
Virtual objects
 Virtual objects can be any object we encounter in real life:
A computer on which the user can type in.
...
A biometric recognition device.
A staple that can be punched.
A book that can be moved from one place to
another.
Any ...
Snapshot of a proof - of - concept virtual
art gallery , which contains 36
pictures and six computers
STATE DIAGRAM OF A 3D PASSWORD APPLICATION
3D VIRTUAL
ENVIRONMENT
3D Virtual Environment
•3-D virtual environment affects the usability, effectiveness, and
acceptability of a 3-D password ...
The design of 3D virtual
environments should follow
these guidelines:
 Real Life Similarity
 Object Uniqueness & Distinc...
Advantages
 Flexibility
 Strength
 Ease to Memorize
 Respect of Privacy
Applications
The 3D password’s main application domains are protecting
critical systems and resources.
 Critical Servers
...
A small virtual environment can be used in the following
systems like-
 ATM
 Personal digital assistance
 Desktop compu...
Attacks and Countermeasures
Brute Force Attack
Well studied Attack
 Shoulder-surfing Attack
Timing Attack
Brute Force Attack
The attacker has to try all possible 3D passwords.
This kind of attack is very difficult for the follow...
Well Studied Attack
The attacker tries to find the highest probable distribution of
3D passwords. In order to launch such ...
Shoulder-surfing Attack
An attacker uses a camera to record the user’s 3D password or
tries to watch the legitimate user w...
Timing Attack
In this attack, the attacker observes how long it takes the
legitimate user to perform a correct sign in usi...
 The authentication can be improved with 3D password,
because the unauthorized person may not interact with same
object a...
 X. Suo, Y. Zhu, and G. S. Owen, “Graphical passwords: A survey,” in Proc. 21st
Annu. Comput. Security Appl. Conf., Dec. ...
3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1
3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1
3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1
3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1
3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1
3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1
3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1

9,062 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
7 Comments
19 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,062
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
13
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,543
Comments
7
Likes
19
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

3D Password M Sc BHU Sem 1

  1. 1.  Authentication & their types.  Knowledge Based Authentication.  Token Based Authentication.  Biometrics Authentication.  Drawbacks.  3D Password.  3D Virtual Environment.  Advantages & Application.  Attacks & Countermeasures.  Conclusion.  References. Areas Of Discussion
  2. 2. Authentication Authentication is a process of validating who you are to whom you claimed to be.  Human authentication techniques are as follows: 1. Knowledge Based (What you know) 2. Token Based (What you have) 3. Biometrics (What you are)
  3. 3. Three Basic Identification Methods of password Possession (“something I have”) •Keys •Passport •Smart Card Knowledge (“Something I know”) •Password • Pin Biometrics (“something I am”) •Face •Fingerprints •Iris
  4. 4. Password • Password is basically an encryption algorithms.  It is 8-15 character or slightly more than that.  Mostly textual passwords nowadays are kept which are very simple.
  5. 5. PASSPHRASE •Passphrase length is about 30-50 characters or more than that so it creates ambiguity to remember, if there is any proper sequence.
  6. 6.  It’s the enhance version of password.  It is a combination of words or simply collection of password in proper sequence.  It contains any well known thought also.  Length of passphrase is about 30-50 character or more than that also.
  7. 7. T O K E N B A S E D
  8. 8. A security token (or sometimes a hardware token, authentication token, USB token, cryptographic token, software token, virtual token) may be a physical device that an authorized user of computer services is given to ease authentication.
  9. 9. Token Disconnected Token Connected Token Contactless Token Single Sign – on Software Token Mobile Device Token Smart Card Bluetooth
  10. 10. B I O M E T R I C S
  11. 11. Biometrics •Refer to a broad range of technologies. •Automate the identification or verification of an individual.
  12. 12. Based on human characteristics or body organs
  13. 13. Process
  14. 14. Percentage market share by type of biometric technology in 2003
  15. 15. •How secure is your password? Now with the technology change, fast processors and many tools on the Internet, cracking password has become a Child's Play. Ten years back Klein performed such tests and he could crack 10-15 passwords per day. PASSWORD
  16. 16. Token  Involves additional costs, such as the cost of the token and any replacement fees.  Users always need to carry the token with them.  Users need multiple tokens for multiple Web sites and devices.  Does not protect fully from man-in-the-middle attacks (i.e., attacks where an intruder intercepts a user's session and steals the user's credentials by acting as a proxy between the user and the authentication device without the user's knowledge).
  17. 17. BIOMETRICS •Biometrics has also some drawbacks. Suppose you select your fingerprint as a biometrics.. But what to do when you have crack or wound in your finger. And now a days some hackers even implement exact copy of your biometrics also….
  18. 18. •The 3D passwords are more customizable, and very interesting way of authentication. •A 3D password is a multifactor authentication scheme that combine RECOGNITION +RECALL +TOKENS +BIOMETRICS in one authentication system.
  19. 19.  The 3D password presents a virtual environment containing various virtual objects.  The user walks through the environment and interacts with the objects.  It is the combination and sequence of user interactions that occur in the 3D environment.
  20. 20.  This is achieved through interacting only with the objects that acquire information that the user is comfortable in providing.  It becomes much more difficult for the attacker to guess the user’s 3-D password.
  21. 21. Virtual objects  Virtual objects can be any object we encounter in real life: A computer on which the user can type in. A fingerprint reader that requires users fingerprint. A paper or white board on which user can type. An Automated teller(ATM) machine that requires a token. A light that can be switched on/off. A television or radio where channels can be selected. A car that can be driven. A graphical password scheme.
  22. 22. A biometric recognition device. A staple that can be punched. A book that can be moved from one place to another. Any real life object. Any upcoming authentication scheme.
  23. 23. Snapshot of a proof - of - concept virtual art gallery , which contains 36 pictures and six computers
  24. 24. STATE DIAGRAM OF A 3D PASSWORD APPLICATION
  25. 25. 3D VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT
  26. 26. 3D Virtual Environment •3-D virtual environment affects the usability, effectiveness, and acceptability of a 3-D password system. • 3-D environment reflects the administration needs and the security requirements. 3D Virtual Environment
  27. 27. The design of 3D virtual environments should follow these guidelines:  Real Life Similarity  Object Uniqueness & Distinction  3D Virtual Environment Size  Number of objects & their types  System Importance
  28. 28. Advantages  Flexibility  Strength  Ease to Memorize  Respect of Privacy
  29. 29. Applications The 3D password’s main application domains are protecting critical systems and resources.  Critical Servers  Nuclear Reactors & Military Facilities  Airplanes and Missile Guiding
  30. 30. A small virtual environment can be used in the following systems like-  ATM  Personal digital assistance  Desktop computers & laptops  Web authentication etc.
  31. 31. Attacks and Countermeasures Brute Force Attack Well studied Attack  Shoulder-surfing Attack Timing Attack
  32. 32. Brute Force Attack The attacker has to try all possible 3D passwords. This kind of attack is very difficult for the following reasons.  Time required to login .  3D Attacks are very expensive.
  33. 33. Well Studied Attack The attacker tries to find the highest probable distribution of 3D passwords. In order to launch such an attack, the attacker has to acquire knowledge of the most probable 3D password distributions. This is very difficult because the attacker has to study all the existing authentication schemes that are used in the 3D environment. Moreover, a well studied attack is very hard to accomplish since the attacker has to perform a customized attack for every different 3D virtual environment design.
  34. 34. Shoulder-surfing Attack An attacker uses a camera to record the user’s 3D password or tries to watch the legitimate user while the 3D password is being performed. This attack is the most successful type of attack against 3D passwords and some other graphical passwords. However, the user’s 3D password may contain biometric data or textual passwords that cannot be seen from behind. Therefore, we assume that the 3D password should be performed in a secure place where a shoulder surfing attack cannot be performed.
  35. 35. Timing Attack In this attack, the attacker observes how long it takes the legitimate user to perform a correct sign in using the 3D password. This observation gives the attacker an indication of the legitimate user’s 3D password length. However, this kind of attack alone cannot be very successful since it gives the attacker mere hints. Therefore, it would probably be launched as part of a well studied or brute force attack. Timing attacks can be very effective if the 3D virtual environment is poorly designed.
  36. 36.  The authentication can be improved with 3D password, because the unauthorized person may not interact with same object at a particular location as the legitimate user.  It is difficult to crack, because it has no fixed number of steps and a particular procedure.  Added with biometrics and token verification this schema becomes almost unbreakable. Conclusion
  37. 37.  X. Suo, Y. Zhu, and G. S. Owen, “Graphical passwords: A survey,” in Proc. 21st Annu. Comput. Security Appl. Conf., Dec. 5–9, 2005, pp. 463–472. D. V. Klein, “Foiling the cracker: A survey of, and improvement to passwords security,” in Proc. USENIX Security Workshop, 1990, pp. 5–14. T. Kitten, Keeping an Eye on the ATM. (2005, Jul. 11). [Online]. Available: ATMMarketPlace.com G. E. Blonder, “Graphical password,” U.S. Patent 5 559 961, Sep. 24, 1996. R. Dhamija and A. Perrig, “Déjà Vu: A user study using images for authentication,” in Proc. 9th USINEX Security Symp., Denver, CO, Aug. 2000, pp. 45–58. References

×