New Era of Authentication: 3D PASSWORD
Vinneta R,Vaibhavi K S
Students of Telecommunication Engineering,
S J C Institute Of Technology, Chikkaballapur
Abstract — Current authentication systems suffer
from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are
commonly used. Users tend to choose common words
from dictionaries and day to day life, which make
textual passwords easy to crack and exposed to
dictionary or basic force attacks. Smart cards or
tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications
have been proposed but some people hate the fact to
carry around their cards, some refuse to undergo
strong IR exposure to their retinas. The 3-D
password is a multifactor authentication scheme.
Mainly the 3-D passwords are the combination of
physical and biometric authentication. The sequence
of actions and interfaces toward the objects inside
the 3-D environment constructs the user’s 3-D
password. The 3-D password can combine most
existing authentication schemes such as textual
passwords, graphical passwords, and various types
of biometrics into a 3-D virtual environment. The
design of the 3-D virtual environment and the type of
objects selected conclude the 3-D password key space.
Keywords — 3-D password, authentication, biometric,
Normally the authentication scheme the user
experiences are particularly very easy or very difficult.
Throughout the years authentication has been a very
exciting approach. Having a lot of technologies around,
it can be very easy for 'others' to steal identity or to hack
user’s password. Therefore many procedures have come
up for the calculation of a secret key to secure user’s
password. The algorithms or procedures are based on
approach to pick a random number in the range of 10^6
and then the risks of the same number coming is rare.
User mostly uses textual passwords, graphical
passwords or the biometrics to secure their things or
works nowadays. The above tactic is mainly used in
textual algorithm. But most of the people uses their day
to day used name or number such as their pet name or
their phone numbers or their date of birth as their
passwords which are easily detectable by a hacker.
Smart cards are also used for authentication but they also
fails and these tokens or smart card can be stolen.
Many biometric authentications have been introduced
but most of the users are not willing to biometrics due to
their inappropriateness and the effect on their privacy. So
these biometrics cannot be implemented everywhere.
Therefore the idea of 3-D password is come up. This
is easily customizable and very interesting way of
authentication than before. The concept of 3-D
passwords promotes development, diplomacy, and
defence as security strategies. It is a multi feature
authentication scheme which combines the benefits of
different authentication schemes in a single virtual
environment. By this user will have the choice to select
whether this password will be only recall, biometrics,
token or recognition based, or a combination of two or
more schemes. User can make infinite number of 3-D
passwords by combining any two or more different
schemes. Therefore this scheme will be more
acceptable to user as it will provide more security than
any other authentication schemes. Giving the user the
freedom of selection as to what type of authentication
schemes will be included in their 3-D password and
given the large number of objects and items in the
environment(virtual), the number of possible 3-D
passwords will increase. Thus, it becomes much more
difficult for the attacker or say hackers to guess the
user’s 3-D password.
Fig. 1 .Basic idea of 3-D password
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 3-ENVIRONMENT
Fig.2. Snapshot of 3-d virtual environment 
2.1 Different object that can be used in 3D
1. A computer with which the user can type;
2. A fingerprint reader that requires the user’s fingerprint;
3. A biometric recognition device;
4. A paper or a white board that a user can write, sign, or
5. An automated teller machine (ATM) that requests a
6. A light that can be switched on/off;
7. A television or radio where channels can be selected;
8. A staple that can be punched;
9. A car that can be driven;
10. A book that can be moved from one place to another;
11. Any graphical password scheme;
12. Any real life object;
13. Any upcoming authentication scheme.
3-D PASSWORD SELECTION AND INPUTS
Let us consider a 3-D virtual environment space of size
G×G×G. The 3-D environment space is represented by
the coordinates (x, y, z) [1, . . ., G] ∈ × [1, . . . ., G] ×
[1,. . . , G]. Fig.2. Snapshot of 3-d virtual environment
The objects are distributed in the 3-D virtual
unique (x, y, z) coordinates.
We assume that the user can navigate into 3-D virtual
environment and interact with the objects using any input
device such as a mouse, keyboard, fingerprint scanner,
card reader, and microphone. We consider the
sequence of those actions and interactions using the
previous input devices as the user’s 3-D password .The
initial representation of user actions in the 3-D
virtual environment can be recorded as follows:
1. (10,20,21)Action = Open door;
2. (10,20,21)Action = Close door;
3. (5,7,16) Action =
4. (5,7,16) Action =
5. (5,7,16) Action = Typing, “A”; (5,7,16) Action
6. (5,7,16) Action = Typing, “O”; (5,7,16) Action =
7. (10,44,71) Action = Pick up
8. (1,38, 71) Action = Drawing point
Fig. 3. User entering textual password in 3-D
II. IMPLEMENTATION OF 3-D PASSWORD
Following are the steps for authentication (refer fig.4):
1. User will connect to the server for system login.
2. After successful client-server connection registration
form will be filled up.
3. User will now enter into virtual 3-D environment.
4. Now the user will perform its authentication steps
according to set design.
5. User enters his textual password. If the textual
password is successfully logged in, it will enter into
graphical password window else it will go back to
Login form (refer fig.3).
6. On the other hand, if the graphical password is
successfully logged in various services will be
performed such as biometrics and tokens.
7. Services include Upload (), Save (), Delete (), Open
() and etc..
8. Finally, the user will log out from the 3-D
Fig.4 State diagram showing the implementation
V. SECURITY ANALYSIS
5.1. 3D Password space size
To find out the password space, we have to count all
possible 3D passwords that have a certain number of
actions, interactions, and inputs towards all objects that
exist in the 3D virtual environments.
5.2. 3D password distribution knowledge
Users tend to use meaningful words for textual passwords.
Therefore finding these different words from dictionary is a
relatively simple task which yields a high success rate for
breaking textual passwords. Pass faces users tend to choose
faces that reflect their own taste on facial attractiveness,
race, and gender. Every user has different requirements and
preferences when selecting the appropriate 3D Password.
This fact will increase the effort required to find a pattern
of user’s highly selected 3D password. In addition, since
the 3D password combines several authentication schemes
into a single authentication environment, the attacker has to
study every single authentication scheme and has to
discover what the most probable selected secrets are. Since
every 3D password system can be designed according to
the protected system requirements, the attacker has to
separately study every 3D password system. Therefore,
more effort is required to build the
knowledge of most probable 3D passwords .
VI. PROBABILITY OF SYSTEM HACK 
Let the Textual Password Hack Probability = 1/x
Let the Graphical Password I Hack Probability = 1/y1
Let the Graphical Password I Hack Probability = 1/y2
Let the Graphical Password I Hack Probability = 1/y3
Let the Graphical Password I Hack Probability = 1/y4
Let the Face Recognition Hack Probability = 1/z
Combination Probability = 1/(xy1y2y3y4z)
Combinatorics for the Choice of six
SYSTEM BREAK PROBABILITY:
VII. 3D PASSWORD APPLICATIONS
The 3-D password can have a password space that is very
large compared to other authentication schemes. So, the
3-D password’s main application domains are protecting
critical systems and resources.
7.1. Critical servers – Many large organizations have
critical servers that are usually protected by a textual
password. A3-D password authentication proposes a
sound replacement for a textual password.
7.2. Nuclear and military facilities – Such facilities
should be protected by the most powerful authentication
systems. The 3-D password has a very large probable
password space, and since it can contain token,
biometrics, recognition, and knowledge-based
authentications I a single authentication system, it is a
sound choice for high level security locations.
7.3. Airplanes and jet fighters – Because of the possible
threat of miscuing airplanes and jet fighters for religo-
political agendas, usage of such protected by a powerful
In addition, 3D passwords can be used in less critical
systems because the 3-D virtual environment can be
designed to fit to any system needs. A small virtual
environment can be used in the following systems like
• Personal Digital Assistance
• Desktop Computers & laptop logins
• Web authentication
VIII. ADVANTAGES OF 3-D PASSWORD 
8.1. The new scheme provide secrets that are easy to
remember and very difficult for intruders to guess.
8.2 The new scheme provides secrets that are not easy to
write down on paper. Moreover, the scheme secrets should
be difficult to share with others.
8.3 The new scheme provides secrets that can be easily
IX. DISADVANTAGES OF 3-D PASSWORD
9.1. As compare to traditional password approach this
approach will definitely take more time to do user
9.2. More storage space required because it needs to save
images which is large binary objects .
9.3. More costly due to required devices like web cam,
finger print device etc.
9.4. More complex than previous authentication schemes
In 3D password system as number of series of action and
interaction in the virtual 3D environment increases then the
length of the codeword or the authentication key’s length
also increases. The amount of memory that is required to
store a 3D password is large when compared to a textual
password but provides far better security than textual
password. Any user can make use of it no special training is
required. Now a day’s password security is in high demand.
This 3D technique will definitely serve the purpose. The
choice of what authentication schemes will be part of the
user’s 3-d password reflects the user’s preferences and
requirements. A user who prefers to remember and recall a
password might choose textual and graphical passwords
apart of their 3-D password. On the other hand, user’s who
have more difficulty with memory or recall might prefer to
choose smart cards as their 3-D password. Moreover,
user who prefers to keep any kind of biometrical data
private might not interact with objects that require
biometric information. Therefore, it is the user’s choice and
decision to construct the desired and preferred 3-D
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