Assumptions (technical potential)• Qmean and head can be extracted• Water to wire efficiency 70%• Q0 = 75%; CF 50%• O&M 1-2% (ESHA)• Capital costs (ESHA): (€/kW Installed) France 1,850 – 4,000 Spain 1,000 – 1,500
……assumptions (technical)• 20 year life span• 10% discount rate• Discounted cash flow analysis for each site
Assumptions (environmental potential)• Q0=33%• Reduces potential by 40%
Limitations • Proximity to grid • Mean flow used • Costs based on a range (site-specific)Creative Commons – VargaA
Improvements • Link road/grid databases with ECRINS • Use multiple years for better mean flow • Refine capital and mitigation costs • Verify with real examplesCreative Commons – Dale Klamuella
Environmental factors•Hydrological character•Connectivity within system•Solid material and morphology•Landscape and biotopes•Biocoenoses Creative Commons – Richard Haworthhttp://homepages.eawag.ch/~wehrli/papers/Bratrich_GreenHydro_RiverRes_04.pdf
InnovationInnovation is a change in the thoughtprocess for doing somethingIt may refer to an incremental emergent orradical and revolutionary changes inthinking, products, processes, ororganisations.