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Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: FORT Project Update (N. Joshi)


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A description of the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP's FORT Project (Enhancing livestock production systems in Tajikistan to mitigate potential impacts of climate change) and update on the project's current status. Presentation given by N. Joshi (Michigan State University) at the Livestock Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: FORT Project Update (N. Joshi)

  1. 1. Livestock - Climate Change<br />Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) <br />Project Report <br />Enhancing Livestock Production Systems in Tajikistan to Mitigate Potential Impacts of Climate Change<br />Dr. Nanda Joshi and Dr. Karim Maredia <br />Michigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MI<br />April 26, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Outline of presentation<br /><ul><li>Background on Tajikistan
  3. 3. Livestock Sector in Tajikistan
  4. 4. Livestock CC CRSP Pilot project in Tajikistan
  5. 5. Objectives, Approaches and Timeline
  6. 6. Stakeholder consultation
  7. 7. Work plans</li></li></ul><li>Central Asia<br />3<br />
  8. 8. Tajikistan at a Glance<br />Area: 143,100 Sq km<br />Sep 9, 1991 Independence <br />Topography:93% mountainous Arable Land: 7% Population: 7.3 million (2010) Per capita Income: $370Crop Land: ~ 0.8 million haGrazing Land: ~3.9 million ha<br />Major Crops: Cotton, WheatLivestock: ~ 6 million (Cattle, Sheep and goats ) Major export: Aluminum, Electricity, <br />Literacy rate: 97.4%Language: Tajik, Russian widely used <br />
  9. 9. Four Regions of Tajikistan <br />
  10. 10. Tajikistan and Potential Impact of Climate Change <br />6<br />Current scenario:<br /><ul><li>Most vulnerable country amongst Central Asian Countries
  11. 11. Rising surface temperature (2 – 4 C) by the end of 21st century (WBGU, 2007)
  12. 12. Melting of glaciers – shrinking glacier
  13. 13. Deforestation – loss of vegetation (carbon sink)
  14. 14. Frequent draught conditions</li></li></ul><li>Index of Vulnerability to Climate Change<br />Source: World Bank (2009)<br />
  15. 15. Agriculture Sector in Tajikistan<br /><ul><li>Tajikistan is a country with an ancient history of agricultural civilization
  16. 16. Agriculture is the primary source of employment (~60% of the population) generating ~30% of national GDP;
  17. 17. Cotton and wheat are the two major crops;
  18. 18. Cattle, sheep and goats are the ruminants of importance
  19. 19. It frequently suffers from food insecurity;
  20. 20. Extension service is weak and non-existent in most parts: NGOs are doing extension and technology transfer</li></li></ul><li>
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Breeds of dairy cattle<br />Tajik style black-and-white breed (average yield of 3,500-7,000 kg, fat content 3,8-3,9%<br />Nogo cattle (average yield of 3,500-4,000 kg, fat content 4,0-4,2%)<br />Photos: Dr. Fazliddin Ikromov, Director, RIL <br />
  23. 23. Karakul Breed<br />Tajik sheep breed<br />Hissar Sheep Breed<br />Breeds of sheep and goats in Tajikistan<br />Darvaz fine-wool breed<br />Photo: Dr. Fazliddin Ikromov<br />Tajik goat wool breeds<br />Sheep breed Jaidar<br />Pamir downy goats<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Livestock Feed and Forage <br /><ul><li>Grassland (3881 thousand ha) is the main source of green fodder for livestock and accounts for ~ ¾ available fodder.
  26. 26. Pasture Issues
  27. 27. Degraded pasture - overgrazing
  28. 28. Limited access to summer high mountain pastures – infrastructure (road, bridges)
  29. 29. Lack of knowledge in good pasture management practices (rotation, controlled grazing)
  30. 30. Forage crop production Issues
  31. 31. Decreasing land available for forage cultivation
  32. 32. Lack of forage conservation technologies
  33. 33. Lack of good seeds and other facilities</li></li></ul><li>
  34. 34. Objectives of Livestock CC CRSP Pilot Project <br /><ul><li>To identify forage production and pasture management issues for improved livestock production in Tajikistan;
  35. 35. To establish long term research and demonstration site(s) in four regions, and
  36. 36. To train farmers and NGO representatives in forage cultivation and conservation techniques and help integrate forage in their farming systems </li></li></ul><li>Project Approaches<br /><ul><li>Build partnerships: Livestock Research Institute under Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences (TAAS), Tajik Agrarian University (TAU), CGIAR – ICARDA Center, University of Central Asia (UCA), and local NGOs;
  37. 37. Establish research and demonstration sites: Research and demonstration sites in four geographic regions of Tajikistan for forage cultivation and pasture management; and
  38. 38. Participatory training: Train farmers and local NGO representatives in pasture management and forage crop cultivation</li></li></ul><li>Project Timeline January – December (2011)<br />
  39. 39. Monitoring &Impact Evaluation<br />19<br />
  40. 40. Impact Indicators<br />20<br />
  41. 41. Project Launch Workshop,Dushanbe, Tajikistan, March 1, 2011<br />
  42. 42. 22<br />SOGD <br />KHATLON <br />Breakout group discussion on research and demonstration sites<br />RRS<br />GBAO<br />
  43. 43. Key Issues in livestock sector<br /><ul><li>Lack of support for R&D
  44. 44. Degradation and deterioration of the pasture land
  45. 45. Lack of input availability – supply of feed supplements, forage crops seeds, medicine etc
  46. 46. Value chain not well established – marketing weak</li></li></ul><li>Workshop Recommendations <br /><ul><li>Pasture Management – controlled grazing, reseeding and restoration of grazing land
  47. 47. Forage cultivation – Introduce leguminous species
  48. 48. Conduct training - farmers and NGO representatives on forming pasture users groups, forage conservation techniques (hay, silage)
  49. 49. Establish research and demonstration sites at
  50. 50. SOGD Region – Utkansai Jamoat, Bobojon Gafurov District
  51. 51. GBAO – Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district
  52. 52. Khatlon – Dehbaland Jamoat of Muminabad district
  53. 53. RRS – Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol District</li></li></ul><li>25<br />Site Coordinators <br />Sogd: Utkansai Jamoat, Bobojon Gafurov district <br />Executing Officer: Dr. Kosimov M.A., Director of Sogd branch of Research Institute of Livestock of Tajik Academy of Agricultural Science<br />GBAO: Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district <br />Executing officer: Mr. Shonazarov Parpishoh Akumatshoevich – Director of branch of the «Pasture melioration Trust» in GBAO.<br />RRS: Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol district <br />Executing officer: Mr. Ikromov Nozim – Agriculture specialist of Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol district<br />Khatlon: DehbalandJamoat of Muminabad district <br />Executing officer: Mr. Rahimov Haidar – Farm economy <br />
  54. 54. Region Specific Work Plans <br />Sogd Region: <br /><ul><li>Selection and composition of winter (Kurgon Tract) and summer (Utkansoy Jamoat) pastures
  55. 55. Increasing productivity of natural pasture around settlement: direct sowing ephemeral –wormwood (Artemisia) pasture with grasswort (Salsola) and Cochia prostrata; Introduction of a drought resistant wattle (Australian acacia)
  56. 56. Improvement of pasture land around Utkansoy Jamoat: N fertilization
  57. 57. Introducing soybean, sorghum and African millet to traditional Maize cropping under irrigated condition </li></ul>Gorno-Badakhasan Region:<br /><ul><li>Selection and cultivation of promising forage crops under irrigated conditions: Alfalfa, Maize triticale, millet etc.
  58. 58. Improvement of pasture land around Yakshivol village: N fertilization </li></ul>Khatlon Region: <br /><ul><li>Selection and cultivation of promising forage crops under irrigated conditions: Alfalfa, Maize triticale, millet etc.
  59. 59. Improvement of pasture land around Dehbaland Jamoat: N fertilization</li></ul>Region of Republican Subordination (RRS): <br /><ul><li>Selection and cultivation of promising forage crops under irrigated conditions: Alfalfa, Maize triticale, millet etc.
  60. 60. Improvement of pasture land around Mukcuy Jamoat: N fertilization</li></li></ul><li>27<br />Bobojon Gafurov district <br />SOGD<br />Jirgatol district <br />RRS<br />Dushanbe<br />Muminabad district <br />GBAO<br />KHATLON<br />Ishkashim district <br />
  61. 61. SOGD Work Plan<br />28<br />SOGD REGION <br />Utkansai Jamoat, Bobojon Gafurov District <br />Photo: Dr. Kosimov M.A.<br />
  62. 62. GBAO Work Plan<br />29<br />Gorno-Badakhashan Region<br />Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district <br />Ishkashim Jamoat of Ishkashim district <br />Photos: Mr. Shonazarov Parpishoh<br />
  63. 63. Khatlon Work Plan<br />30<br />Khatlon Regions<br />Dehbaland Jamoat of Muminabad district <br />Photo: Mr. Rahimov Haidar<br />
  64. 64. RRS Work Plan<br />31<br />Region of Republican Subordination<br />Mukcuy Jamoat of Jirgatol District<br />Photo: Mr. Ikromov Nozim<br />
  65. 65. Feed/Forage Crops and linked to Climate Change<br /><ul><li>Performance and productivity of pasture;
  66. 66. Productivity of forage crops;
  67. 67. Environmental benefits: soil erosion, soil fertility, drought tolerance
  68. 68. Scaling up and replications of the research sites in other countries in Central Asia
  69. 69. Overall impacts on livestock productivity and in-turn food and nutritional security</li></li></ul><li>Thank you<br />Your suggestions, inputs and ideas are welcome<br />