Livestock-Climate Change Annual Meeting 2011: REMM Project Update (R. Reid)

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A description of the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP's REMM Project (Increasing adaptive capacity of Mongolian livestock herders under a changing climate through rangeland ecosystem monitoring and community-based conservation) and update on the project's current status. Presentation given by R. Reid (Colorado State University) at the Livestock Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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  • Land area of 1.56 million square km80% of the land area is rangelands, in 4 major types
  • Unfragmented ecosystemsWildlife & biodiversity
  • 2.5 million peopleAbout 30% depend directly on livestock husbandry for their livelihoods; another 20% depend on it indirectlyLivestock husbandry accounts for 80% of agricultural production and 20% (or more?) of GDP
  • 40% of rural households live in poverty.
  • One of the strongest warming signals in the world.
  • One of the strongest warming signals in the world.
  • One of the strongest warming signals in the world.
  • In 1999-2003 a series of drought years followed by devastating winter storms called dzud killed 30% of the national herd, but by this summer the herd had more than rebounded and was at record levels. The combination of increasing degradation and poverty in the pastoral population, combined with a global shift towards decentralized community-based resource management, led to over 12 donor-sponsored projects that supported the formation of over 2000 community-based herder groups across Mongolia.
  • Livestock-Climate Change Annual Meeting 2011: REMM Project Update (R. Reid)

    1. 1. Increasing the Adaptive Capacity of Mongolian Livestock Herders under a Changing Climate through Rangeland Ecosystem Monitoring and Community-based Conservation<br />A seed grant funded by the ALS-CC CRSP<br />
    2. 2. Project institutions<br />Lead Institution<br />Colorado State University<br />Lead Collaborating Institutions<br />Wildlife Conservation Society, Mongolia Program<br />Mongolian Society for Range Management<br />Eastern Mongolia Community Conservation Association<br />National University of Mongolia<br />
    3. 3. Principal investigators<br />Lead PI<br />Dr. Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez, CSU<br />Co-PI’s<br />Dr. Robin Reid, CSU<br />Dr. Melinda Laituri, CSU<br />Dr. Amanda Fine, Wildlife Conservation Society<br />Dr. Bulgamaa Densambuu, Mongolian Society for Range Management<br />
    4. 4. Broader research program: the MOR2 Project, funded by US-NSF<br />Community-based rangeland ecosystem management in response to climate change in Mongolia<br />MOR2 research questions:<br />1) How resilient are Mongolian pastoral systems to climate change? <br />Does community-based rangeland management increase resilience to climate change? <br />How do scale and boundaries affect ability to manage the resilience of these systems? <br />Can participatory system modeling and scenario planning improve learning, knowledge integration, and adaptation?<br />Leveraged funds also from the World Bank, the Ford Foundation and the Center for Collaborative Conservation<br />
    5. 5. Rangelands = 80% of land area<br />Mountain & <br />Forest steppe<br />Steppe<br />Desert steppe<br />
    6. 6. Temperate Grassland Biodiversity<br />Photo by George Schaller<br />
    7. 7. Pastoral Livelihoods<br />2.5 million people, >30% depend on livestock for their livelihoods<br />40 million head<br />Livestock = 20% of GDP<br />Livestock = 80% of agricultural production<br />
    8. 8. Political & Economic Change<br />Democracy & Free Market 1990-present<br />Collective Era 1960-1990<br />
    9. 9. Initial Effects of Privatization (1992-1999)<br />poverty & wealth differentiation <br /> # of herders<br /> terms of trade <br /> social services<br /> +  regulatory institutions<br /> =  movement + <br /> out-of-season & year-long grazing + <br /> trespassing & conflict<br />(Fernandez-Gimenez 2001)<br />
    10. 10. Rural Poverty = 40%<br />
    11. 11. Changing Climate: Instrumental data<br />Temperature Trends near Lake Hövsgöl<br />Nandintsetseg et al. (2006)<br />
    12. 12. Changing Climate: Instrumental data<br /><ul><li>Drought = Frequency almost doubled in the last 60 years
    13. 13. Worst droughts on record (over most of the country) = during the last decade
    14. 14. Recent doubling of CV of annual and summer rainfall in some places
    15. 15. 1999-2002 dzud unprecedented in written record; 2009-2010 dzud = 20% of national herd lost</li></ul>AIACC (2006), Marin (2010)<br />
    16. 16. Changing Climate: Pastoral observations<br /><ul><li>Worse droughts = Recent droughts (after 1999), worst in living memory
    17. 17. More ‘silk embroidery’ rain = Small patches of green surrounded by barren land, depleted faster, more migration
    18. 18. More ‘hard’ rain
    19. 19. Timing of rain more erratic
    20. 20. Delayed rain, later in the summer
    21. 21. More dust storms
    22. 22. Snowmelt starting earlier</li></ul>Marin (2010) and Fassnacht et al (in press)<br />
    23. 23. 1999-Present<br />1999-2003 drought and dzud kill 30% of livestock, but by 2007 national herd of record size<br />Another dzud in 2010, similar livestock lost<br />~ 12 donors and NGOs helped organize over 2000 community-based “herder groups” to address conflicts and grassland deterioration<br />Land Law revised in 2002 to permit possession of campsites<br />A new draft pastureland law will be considered by Parliament in the current session; major national policy debate<br />
    24. 24. Overall ALS-CC CRSP Project Goal<br />To strengthen Mongolian capacity to assess and monitor changes in rangeland ecosystems and thereby improve the ability of herders and their ecosystems to adapt to climate change<br />
    25. 25. ALS-CC CRSP Project Objectives<br />Develop and pilot test holistic rangeland ecosystem monitoring Indicators<br />Train herders, conservation practitioners, government agency staff and researchers in current formal rangeland assessment and monitoring approaches<br />Develop an integrated monitoring plan and database framework<br />
    26. 26. Project activities, outputs and outcomes<br />
    27. 27. Activities and progress on objective 1: Develop and test indicators<br />Activities<br />Literature review on climate change, community-based NRM and wildlife indicators<br />Participatory workshop to develop wildlife indicators with herders<br />Pre and post-workshop evaluations<br />Progress<br />Two Wildlife Conservation Society interns have finished a review, in Mongolian, of over 150 documents in Mongolian and English and made oral presentations to their WCS and MOR2 mentors. <br />Wildlife monitoring workshop will take place in August<br />
    28. 28. Activities and progress on objective 2: Train stakeholders in monitoring<br />Activities<br />15-18 June, rangeland monitoring workshop<br />Late August, wildlife indicators workshop<br />Progress<br />Based on Dr. Bulgamaa’s recommendation, the target audience for the Rangeland Monitoring Workshop has been altered to focus more on training Mongolian University teachers, in addition to the MOR2 field research team and other young researchers from the participating institutes.<br />
    29. 29. Expected Learning Outcomes…based on our past workshops…<br />This workshop has been very useful…. teaching how to conduct research together with local citizens, providing new ideas for the attendees, and providing information that can be passed to the next generation of researchers. <br /> -Workshop Attendee<br />
    30. 30. Activities and progress on objective 3: Integrated plan & database framework<br />Activities<br />Develop an integrated plan and database framework<br />Progress<br />Co-PI’s Laituri and Fine currently designing the framework<br />Will use the USDA ARS’s DIMA database as the platform for ecological data entry<br />As part of MOR2, team members presented the integrated database concept at a Data Management Workshop on March 24.<br />
    31. 31. Conceptual Model<br />
    32. 32. Sampling<br />Social Organization/<br />Governance<br />Spatial Scale/<br />Ecological & Physical<br />Levels of Organization<br />National Government<br />Country<br />Ecological Zone<br />Aimag<br />Watershed<br />Soum Government<br />Soum Administrative<br />Boundaries<br />Bag<br />CBRM Group or Traditional<br />“Neighborhood”<br />Grazing Territory<br />Winter Camps &<br />Pastures<br />Khot Ail<br />Household<br />Ecological Plots<br />Person<br />
    33. 33. Challenges encountered and lessons learned<br /><ul><li>Lots of leveraging gained by attaching a small seed grant to a larger research project
    34. 34. But change of CRSP geographic focus will lose this advantage
    35. 35. May be strong connections between this work and other larger CSRP projects, so inclusion of this project team in future CRSP workshops and meetings would be useful</li></li></ul><li>Next steps<br /><ul><li>Translation of literature review into English
    36. 36. Rangeland monitoring workshop, 15-18 June 2011
    37. 37. Wildlife indicators workshop, August 2011
    38. 38. Completion of database testing in summer and fall 2011</li></li></ul><li>Emerging issues, knowledge gaps<br /><ul><li>Global indigenous pastoral network sharing indigenous adaptations and measuring indigenous indicators of climate change
    39. 39. New pastoral income streams through developing and testing environmental markets for pastoral communities, including water, carbon and biodiversity
    40. 40. Pastoral women and adaptations to climate change</li></li></ul><li>Thank you!!<br />

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