Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Livestock-Climate Change Annual Meeting 2011: Gender and Climate Change (S. Russo)


Published on

Tips on incorporating gender equity assessments into research on the interactions of climate change and livestock or agricultural production. Presentation given by S. Russo (University of Florida) at the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Livestock-Climate Change Annual Meeting 2011: Gender and Climate Change (S. Russo)

  1. 1. Incorporating gender equity assessments into your research<br />Adapting Livestock Systems to Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting<br />April 26-27, 2011<br />Sandra L. Russo, University of Florida<br />Gender and Climate Change<br />
  2. 2. A difficult conversation<br />The exercise analogy<br />The prescriptions<br />The excuses<br />The responses<br />Make a plan<br />Success!<br />
  3. 3. Questions?<br />Are there gender differences in the experience of and response to climate change?<br />What are the various pathways and impacts where gender may be important?<br />How is gender assessed in livestock production? And in climate change research? <br />What indicators can be used to assess gender and climate change in livestock projects?<br />
  4. 4. Adaptations to climate change -- gender roles and responsibilities<br />Economic<br />Environmental <br />Social <br />Health<br />
  5. 5. ECONOMIC IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Environmental effects of climate change (drought, flooding, cropping season and temperature variations)lead to:<br />Crop losses/failures<br />Depleted livestock pastures<br />Immediate effects: food deficits/insecurity; reduced income; depleted savings; livestock mortality<br />Responses include:<br />Male labor out-migration<br />Changes in gender roles and responsibilities <br />Increased burden on women<br />Outcomes: <br />Reduced productivity<br />Feedback effect: increased food deficits, reduced income<br />
  6. 6. EFFECTS of climate change on agricultural production<br />Environmental Effects <br />of Climate Change on Production<br />Crop losses or failure<br />Depleted pastures<br />Food deficits<br />Reduced income<br />Depleted savings<br />Livestock mortality<br />Reduced draft power<br />Male labor out-migration<br />Increased use of hand tillage<br />Changed gender roles <br />& responsibilities<br />Increased burden on women<br />Economic Impact = Reduced Productivity<br />
  7. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Climate change may lead to commercial and subsistence failures in crop and livestock production<br />To cope with livelihood crises, people may resort to land management practices which may be environmentally degrading and unsustainable:<br />Deforestation<br />Overgrazing<br />Overuse of water points, or over-pumping of wells<br />Slope or riparian farming<br />Crop intensification<br />
  8. 8. SOCIAL IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Crop and livestock failures also have social effects due to lower incomes, depleted savings/assets, or food deficits<br />Forced and early marriages <br />Prostitution<br />“Loaning” of children<br />Family breakdown as members leave to find employment<br />Changes in gender roles<br />De-agrarianization<br />Gender-based violence<br />Removal from school<br />
  9. 9. Environmental and social consequences of climate change<br />Environmental Effects of Climate Change <br />Crop & livestock production failures<br />Depleted savings/<br />assets<br />Food deficits<br />Reduced income<br />Responses to livelihood crises<br />Unsustainable resource management practices<br />Negative social effects<br />Environmental degradation<br />Further reductions in production<br />
  10. 10. HEALTH IMPACT PATHWAYS<br />Environmental effects of climate change shape health outcomes due to impacts on water quality and quantity<br />Water table fluctuations (flooding or drought)<br />Boreholes run dry<br />Home gardens are under- or over-watered, <br /> leading to food deficits & malnutrition<br />Water access points (for domestic use) <br /> further away<br />Adds to women’s labor burden & time poverty<br />Less water consumed<br />Poorer hygiene<br />Water supply is of lower quality<br />Pollution runoff, salinity, or mineral-laden<br />Water-borne diseases, vector-breeding grounds<br />Resulting outcomes:<br />Poor health<br />Reduced productivity due to lower human capital<br />
  11. 11. Health consequences of climate change<br />Environmental effects of climate change<br />Water table rises/lowers<br />Adds to women’s time poverty<br />Poor water quality<br />Homegardens <br />under/over watered<br />Water points <br />further away<br />Less water for <br />domestic uses<br />Food deficits<br />Hunger & Malnutrition<br />Reduced consumption, hygiene & sanitation<br />Poor health<br />(lower human capital)<br />Reduced productivity<br />
  12. 12. Gender and climate change in developing countries relies on adaptation<br />Economic<br />Environmental<br />Social <br />Health<br />
  13. 13. POLICY AND PLANNING IMPLICATIONS<br />Meet immediate food needs while addressing larger climate change issues<br />Strengthen women’s role as farmers in their own right<br />Introduce environmentally sustainable long-term solutions to food deficits (strategic) vs. short-term solutions that may immediately improve conditions but do not empower women (practical)<br />
  14. 14. Strategic gender needs are met when investments are made that empower women<br />Practical - women’s roles as mothers & housekeepers<br />Strategic – women’s roles as economic actors<br />
  15. 15. Food security and climate change analytics<br />Opportunities<br />Use of technology, market functionality, poverty, malnutrition, and gender can be analyzed along with observed environmental changes<br />Assessments<br />Interface between gender, community-based natural resources management, livestock management, and climate change<br />Socioeconomic variables and gender concerns<br />
  16. 16. Feed the Future Indicators and gender assessments<br />Two key objectives:<br />Inclusive agriculture sector growth<br />Improved nutritional status of women and children<br />
  17. 17. Required indicators for the two key Feed the future objectives<br />Objective: improved nutritional status, especially of women and children<br />Prevalence of stunted children under 5<br />Prevalence of wasted children under 5<br />Prevalence of underweight women<br />Objective: inclusive agricultural sector growth<br />Percent growth in agricultural GDP<br />Expenditures of rural HH<br />
  18. 18. Indicators and m&E<br />Types of Indicators<br />Process, Output, Outcome, Impact<br />Qualitative and Quantitative<br />ALL quantitative indicators that deal with people must be sex disaggregated. <br />Qualitative indicators are used to illustrate changes in trends, values, roles, responsibilities.<br />
  19. 19. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />1. Gender Blind<br />Measures changes over time without recognizing gender differences.<br />Example:<br />Result: Increased literacy<br />Indicator: Literacy levels over 5 years<br />Stats: 1970: 24% 1975: 36%<br />We don’t know what proportions are women or men<br />
  20. 20. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />2. Gender Sensitive<br />Measures changes in gender relations and is used to assess progress in achieving gender equality by measuring changes in status in women and men over time.<br />Signals changes in power relations between men and women over time.<br />Determines access, use and control of resources and distribution of cost and benefits.<br />Used to determine reduced gender inequality and/or exacerbated gender inequalities<br />Example:<br />Result: Increased literacy for women and men<br />Indicator: Literacy levels over 5 years for women and men<br />Stats: 2004: 24% 2009: 36% (women)<br />Stats: 2004: 34% 2009: 55% ( men)<br />
  21. 21. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Three Types of Gender Indicators<br />3. Sex-Specific<br />Measures changes in women’s (men’s) condition/positive relation to women (men) over time.<br />Gender inequalities.<br />Example:<br />Result: Increased decision-making among women in senior management<br />Indicator: Levels of decision making of women in senior management<br />Stats: 2004: 24% 2009: 36% (women)<br />
  22. 22. Indicators and M&E cont.<br />Sex Disaggregated (Data)<br />Data that is cross-classified by sex, presenting information separately for men, women, boys and girls.<br />A precursor to tracking results but not the overarching objective; not the stopping point.<br />Critical for identifying and assessing the real and potential contributions of the fully-described population.<br />Examples:<br />Prevalence of Poverty: Percent of people (men/women) living on less than $1.25/day.<br />Number of people (men/women) trained in child health and nutrition through USG-supported health area programs. <br />
  23. 23. Women or Gender Indicators<br />Proposed indicator<br />Expenditures of rural HH<br /># of individuals receiving agricultural productivity or food security training<br /># of additional hectares under improved technologies or management practices <br /># of farmers who have applied new technologies or management practices<br />Type/Unit of analysis/disaggregation<br />Impact/dollars/sex of HH head<br />Output/individual/sex<br />Outcome/ha<br />Outcome/individual/sex<br />
  24. 24. Women or Gender Indicators cont.<br />Proposed indicator<br /> # of producer organizations, water users associations, trade and business associations, and community-based organizations receiving assistance<br /> # of private enterprises, POs, WUA, and CBOs applying new technologies or management practices<br />Type/Unit of analysis/disaggregation<br />Output/organization<br />Output/organization<br />
  25. 25. possible gender sensitive LCC indicators <br />Percentage of male participation in community group meetings where issues of nutrition, healthcare, and intra-family food distribution are discussed<br />Number and percentage of village model farmers/livestock owners who are women<br />Change in perceptions about natural resources problems and solutions, disaggregated by sex<br />
  26. 26. Women or Gender Indicators cont.<br />Proposed indicator<br /># of rural hectares formalized<br />Km of roads improved or constructed<br />Value of agricultural and rural loans <br />Type/Unit of analysis/disaggregation<br />Outcome/ha/<br />Outcome/km<br />Outcome/dollars<br />Are these people-level indicators? <br />Are there any gender issues?<br />
  27. 27. Relevance of FtF gender indicators to Livestock-climate change projects<br />Your LCC-CRSP Project…<br />Constraints and issues<br />Which FtF objective are you addressing?<br />What is your time frame?<br />Do you have or did you establish a baseline against which to measure?<br />At what level are you assessing achievements?<br />Agricultural growth or improved nutrition and health of women and girls?<br />LCC Seed projects are one year<br />If not, you can only report anecdotes <br />Probably people level, process or output indicators<br />
  28. 28. Quiz<br />What are your project’s gender equity objectives?<br />Project participants, e.g., livestock keepers<br />Project personnel, partners and graduate students<br />Are you achieving these objectives?<br />Do you have/did you conduct a gender analysis? Who does what, when, where? Who has access and control of resources? How does this affect your project’s objectives?<br />Do you know where to go/who to ask for assistance? Do you have the tools?<br />
  29. 29. Thank you<br />Click and add insert graphic here (5” high x 8.5” wide maximum).<br />