Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: TRANS Project Update (N. Hanan)


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An overview of the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP TRANS (Transhumance, natural resources, and conflict in the Sahel: a pilot project) Project and update on the project's current status. Presentation given by N. Hanan (South Dakota State University) at the Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting, Golden, CO, April 26-27, 2011.

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  • We’ll let our local experts, the NGO’s, define precisely where each of them will work and which corridors to survey. But, since they are based in Nioro, Diema and Sevare, we anticipate they will select someplace nearby.
  • Livestock-Climate Change CRSP Annual Meeting 2011: TRANS Project Update (N. Hanan)

    1. 1. Transhumance, natural resources and conflict in the Sahel: a pilot project<br />PI: N. Hanan, Co-I’s: L. Prihodko, F. Dembele, M. Karembe, I. Barry, M. Diarra, B. Telly, G. Tappan<br />
    2. 2. Team<br />PI Niall Hanan (South Dakota State University)<br />Co-I’s<br />Lara Prihodko (CSU/SDSU)<br />FadialaDembélé (Institute Polytechnique Rural)<br />MoussaKarembé (University of Bamako)<br />Ibrahim Barry (CEPAP, Nioro)<br />MamadouDiarra (ADISSAH, Diéma)<br />BalougoTelly (RICAD, Sevaré)<br />Gray Tappan (USGS-EROS)<br />
    3. 3. Malian NGO Partners<br /><ul><li>MamadouDiarra (ADISSAH, Diéma)</li></ul>ADISSAH (Association pour le Développement Intégré dans la Savane et le Sahel) basée à Diéma avec une antenne à Dioumara.<br /><ul><li>Ibrahim Barry (CEPAP, Nioro)</li></ul>CEPAP (Centre d’études pour la Promotion Agro-Pastorale) basée à Nioro du Sahel.<br /><ul><li>BalougoTelly (RICAD, Sevaré)</li></ul>RICAD (Recherched’Initiatives et de Coopération pour un DéveloppementCommunautaire et Autonome) basée à Sevaré<br />
    4. 4. Background – Sahelian Transhumance<br />Traditional movement corridors link the Sahel to more humid regions in the south<br />Gradient of increasing forage quality but decreasing water resources from South to North<br />Pastoralists travel north in the rainy season to graze – out of southern agricultural regions<br />Travel back south as surface water availability declines in dry season<br />Dry season grazing on crop residue… fertilize fields<br />Complementarity<br />Map of West Africa showing examples of large scale, transhumance patterns (grey and black lines) and more meso-scale movement patterns (blue lines) in West Africa. Red circle shows primary study zone in the Nioro-Dièma-Baouléand Delta regions of Mali. Base map updated from Kamuanga et al, 2008; meso scale patterns drawn from Legrosse 1999; Adriensen and Neilsen 2002; Turner 2006; Clanet and Ogilvie 2010; Wane et al. 2010.<br />
    5. 5. “Gradient of increasing forage quality… S to N”<br />North South<br />North South<br />KosiwaAmévor et al. in preparation<br />
    6. 6. Agriculture and Transhumance Conflicts<br />An age-old problem…<br />But…<br />Agricultural encroachment is occurring<br />Potential for more serious conflict…<br />Problems arise when cattle and un-harvested crops are in the same region at the same time<br />When pastoralists see their ability to graze, access water and move restricted…<br />When farmers see their crops damaged…<br />
    7. 7. Agriculture and Transhumance Conflicts<br />Lake Agoufou, Gourma Region<br />Agriculture in the Diema Region<br />There are four traditionally utilized north-south transhumance routes within 80 km of Dièma in central Kayes region, each of which has challenges with respect to access to water, forage and agricultural encroachment.<br />Newly settled lake in the Gourma region of Mali. Notice small agricultural holdings near the lake. We are investigating how settlement is changing transhumant pastoralist access to water and nearby grazing.<br />
    8. 8. Project Plan<br />
    9. 9. Pilot Project: Objectives <br />Locate transhumance movement corridors in intensive study areas<br />Develop methods to map these corridors over larger areas<br />Examine trends in land use, grazing and water resources to identify constraints on corridors<br />Identify potential resource based flash points <br />Build capacity <br />Plan for more expansive future project<br />Going somewhere…<br />
    10. 10. Pilot Project: Process 1/3<br />Herd GPS monitoring in intensive study areas<br />For location, status and current utilization<br />Field surveys of:<br />Transhumance Corridors<br />Intensity of activities<br />Transhumant movements<br />Herd counts<br />Agriculture<br />Community knowledge, attitudes and perceptions<br />Recognized flash-points<br />Sahel grazing lands<br />
    11. 11. Pilot Project: Process 2/3<br />Remote sensing and geospatial analysis training at SDSU-GIScE<br />Corridor detection, mapping and modeling activities with trainees <br />Integration of new transhumance corridor information with land use trends data sets<br />Identification of areas of potential conflict<br />End of the dry season<br />
    12. 12. Pilot Project: Process 3/3<br />Combine survey and geospatial data to analyze resource based conflicts<br />Community outreach and dissemination of results<br />Workshop <br />Draft reports, manuscripts<br />Prioritize key needs<br />Identify opportunities for continued research<br />Follow-on proposal<br />Grazing on agricultural residue<br />
    13. 13. Tappan<br />“Rapid Land Cover Mapper”<br />Resource for LULCC and additional high res. analyses<br />Mapping Land Cover and Land Use Change<br />Mali & Mauritania Land Cover Assessment for the Year 2000<br />
    14. 14. Tappan<br />“Rapid Land Cover Mapper”<br />Resource for LULCC and additional high res. analyses<br />Mapping Land Cover and Land Use Change<br />
    15. 15. Pastoral Resource Mapping (Region de Kayes)<br />NGO’sCEPAP & ADISSAH<br />Pastoral resources (grazing, water, movement corridors)<br />
    16. 16. Pastoral Resource Mapping(Region de Mopti)<br />NGO’sRICAD<br />Pastoral resources (grazing, water, movement corridors)<br />
    17. 17. Transhumance Corridor Geolocation and Mapping <br />Sample transhumance pathways in Kayes and Mopti<br />GPS mapping<br />High intensity route geo-location<br />Community (herder and agriculturalist) surveys<br />Transhumance corridors (routes, histories, key resources and primary ‘foyer de tension’ (“hot-spots”)<br />GPS collars on herd sample<br />Mapping annual, daily and foraging behaviors<br />GPS data: develop and test RS approaches<br />Survey: initial insight into locations, causes, of conflict <br />
    18. 18. Remote Sensing for Detection and Mapping of Transhumance Corridors<br />Data Acquisition for Corridor Detection<br />Medium & high spatial resolution optical, thermal and radar<br />ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection Radiometer)<br />14 channel (Visible through Thermal IR)<br /> 15 – 90 meter pixel <br />Landsat – Enhanced thematic Mapper<br />8 channel visible<br />15 – 30 meter pixel<br />ALOS-PALSAR (Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar)<br />Dual polarization<br />15 meter pixel<br />
    19. 19. Training and Capacity Building<br />Small beginnings…<br />Faculty at InstitutPolytechnique Rural & University of Bamako; three NGO’s<br />Students at IPR & UB<br />Training in remote sensing, GIS and “Land Cover Land Use Change” (LCLUC) analysis at SDSU<br />Candidates for training opportunity (KadiToure…)<br />
    20. 20. Pilot Project: Outcomes<br />Provision of spatially explicit data on pastoral and agricultural interactions and changes <br />Improved understanding of physical and social conditions in intensive study regions<br />Increased capacity in geospatial science<br />New mapping techniques<br />Development of new collaborative interdisciplinary team<br />
    21. 21. Pilot Project: Impact<br />Increased in-country capacity for research & informed management<br />Increased gender representation in geospatial sciences<br />Established US-Malian research partnerships<br />Strong foundation for expanded CRSP proposal on pastoral-agricultural integration and conflict avoidance<br />
    22. 22. On resources and conflict…<br />
    23. 23. On resources and conflict…<br />Pilot Project: we are exploring resource-based potential drivers of conflict, but we are not (yet) addressing the socio-political triggers of actual conflict<br /><ul><li>Expand team for full proposal…</li></li></ul><li>Future proposal<br />Expand land use change analysis and intersection with pastoral access to resources, effects of climate variability, etc.<br />Which areas are nearing critical points based on spatial contact and/or limiting resources?<br />Can traditional strategies and structures for pastoral-agricultural interactions cope/adapt to these new pressures?<br />What alternatives can be developed to mitigate conflict?<br />Apply coupled social-ecological modeling systems to issues of West African pastoral management <br />Involve additional social scientists skilled in conflict management to more fully integrate across climate-ecological-pastoral-social fields<br />Develop intervention strategies targeting national/regional/local political and traditional structures and NGO partners<br />Continue and expand education and capacity building components<br />
    24. 24. Future Impact…? <br />THANK YOU <br />
    25. 25. “Gradient of increasing forage quality … S to N”<br />South North<br />1300 mm 400 mm<br />Dystrophic savanna, Southern Mali <br />Eutrophic savanna, Northern Mali<br />