Development of North Western Himalyan states


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Development of North Western Himalyan states

  1. 1. Building Biotechnology for a Knowledge-based Bioeconomy Brain Storming Session Prioritization of Research for Development of N-W Himalyan States 12-13 July 2013, GBPUAST Pantnagar Dr Nazir A Ganai Head, Division of Biotechnology SKUAST-Kashmir
  2. 2. Agriculture and the Bieconomy
  3. 3. Contents:  A SWOT analysis of agriculture in J & K  Status of agriculture in J & K  Challenges and Opportunities facing agriculture  Bioeconomy- the way forward? What is it? Why Bioeconomy ? Global trends  Our Initiatives in Biotech applications  Recommendations
  4. 4. North-Westen Himalyan States J & K: 2.22 lac Sq km (65% ) H P: 0.55 lac Sq km (18% ) Uttrakuand: 0.53 lac Sq km (17% )
  5. 5. Land Resource in J & K ( Ha) G-2,65,000 E-74,000 D- 1,05,000 C-2,11,300 B- 2,91,000 A - 6,58,000 F- 7,52,000 A Forest B Non-Agricultural Land C Barren & Uncultivable Land D Permanent Pastures & Other Grazing Land E Fallow Land Including Current Fallows F Net Area Sown (31% of the land use area) or 7 % of total Geographic area G Area under Fruit Crops
  6. 6. Contribution of different sectors to economy in J & K 46% 25% 30% 50% 35% 15% J & K National
  7. 7. Industrial investment in J & K National
  8. 8. Agribase economy in J & K • the economy - bio-mass based. • Subsistence requirements of the people for: – food grains, – firewood, – fodder, – timber for housing, – milk, meat, fibre and – medicines are derived from the plant and animal resources available in the state.
  9. 9. Agribase economy in J & K • Inputs for industrial and commercial sectors - obtained from the bio-mass produce of the state. • Export of fresh and dry fruits, • the famous saffron and honey, • timber, resin, medicinal items, • the basmati of Jammu region • Famous handicrafts: • Pashmina shawls, carpets etc • artefacts carved from walnut • Tourism industry: tourists are attracted largely by the scenic natural beauty of the state with its lofty lush green mountain ranges, towering snow-clad peaks, placid sparking lakes, bubbling streams and springs.
  10. 10. Our strengths and opportunities • Vast area: 2.22 lac sq kms (67% of N-W Himalya) • Diverse and varied agro-climatic zones – Cold arid ladakh region – Temperate Kashmir region – Sub-tropical jammu region • Rich Biodiversity – Ethnic diversity – Flora : 3,054 species. – Domestic & Wild life: 16% of india – Rich Medicinal & Aromatic plants
  11. 11. Strengths …….. • Unique Cash crops • Kashmir: – Saffron – monopoly in india – Apple: 77% production in country – Walnuts: monopoly – Spices: Kashmiri mirchi, kala zeera, – Floriculture • Jammu: – Basmiti- Quality – Rajmash – Black caraway (Zeera) • Ladakh – Pashmina fibre – Apricot – Herbs related amchi system of medicine
  12. 12. Diversity Temperature +40O C to - 40OC Altitude 3000 ft to 24000 ft above MSL Rainfall 110 mm Ladakh to 600 mm
  13. 13. Effect of herbal extracts on the cell proliferation in Prostate cancer cell line, C4-2 cells Preserving and enhancing the indigenous plant knowledge is actually rescuing a global heritage and is a recognized tool in search for new drugs and pharmaceutical sources, (Lambert et al., 1997) Nearly 50 per cent of the plant species described in British pharmacopoeia are reported to grow in Kashmir valley • Till date more than 5000 aromatic/medical plants have been discovered in Jammu and Kashmir. • Scientific observations reveal that the state could become the superpower in future for the herbal medicines and perfumes if the huge resources are exploited properly and effectively
  14. 14. Floral Diversity Floral Diversity Animal Diversity Tree Diversity
  15. 15. Challenges facing agriculture • Widening demand and supply gaps: – 40% import of food grains - 8 lac tones ( ~ Rs 9 billion) – 20% vegetables - 1 lac tonnes (~ Rs 1 billion) – 60% meat (sheep and goat) (~ Rs 3 billion) • Increasing population pressure from highest growth rates in the country (2.7 % vs 1.6%). , • Shrinking land resources due to population expansion, urbanisation and soil degradation, indiscriminate & unplanned growth of housing sector • Fragile Climate: Extreme winters, long dry spells, • Rain fed agriculture due to peculiar topography • Receding glaciers due to global warming further aggravate the problems inherent to the rain fed agriculture J & K,
  16. 16. ----challanges • deforestation, loss of biodiversity and qualitative deterioration of the pastures • indiscriminate use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides contaminating food, soil and water beyond minimum permissible levels. • over exploitation of natural resource base and environmental quality decline, • global warming and climate change leading to emergence of new biotic and abiotic stresses • stagnation in productivity of agricultural crops • Subsistence agriculture ( less renumerative)
  17. 17. Vanishing “Venice of Asia” , Dal Lake disappearing (National Geographic News, June 9, 2010) Deweeding of Dal Lake costs millions of rupees to Kashmir b In 20th Century “Dal Lake” represented a goldmine of Tourism in Kashmir
  18. 18. Biotechnology has a solution for ‘dying Dal Lake’ Grass Carp, a voracious grass eater fish, when genetically modified in china , resulted in 42% increase in growth rate and 16% increase in grass consumption Transgenic carp Chinese Science Bulletin 2003 Vol. 48 No.16 1764 1770
  19. 19. Sustainable production of renewable biomass?
  20. 20. PM Dr. Manmohan Singh at G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology on June 19, 2010, said… “ policymakers and scientists need to put their heads together for developing sustainable technologies that can produce more from less in the background of the new challenges of global warming and climate change…”
  21. 21. The bioeconomy : the way forward  the sustainable production of renewable biomass which includes any biological material to be used as raw material and  conversion of biomass into a range of food, health, fibre and industrial products and energy  can play an important role in both creating economic growth, and in formulating effective responses to pressing challenges- food /nutritional security, clean environment and human health
  22. 22. Way forward - KBBE • Convergence of Biotechnology , nanotchnology and bioinformatics • provides the knowledge-base for the sustainable management, production and use of biological resources… • provides new, safe, affordable and eco-efficient products … • Through • Shift in practice from a sectoral approach to our problems towards a more integrated approach of the KBBE. • Knowledge and innovation in bilogical sciences
  23. 23. Biomass feedstock Animal and plant therapeutics and diagnostics Nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical production Fine chemical production Research on genomes, cell processes, and bioinformatics Health: new therapies and diagnostics Industry: enzymes, biofuels, and bioplastics Primary production: food, feed, fibre, and cellulosic crops Integration across Biotechnology Applications
  24. 24. Our Initiatives and Successes in Biotech Applications -- fragmented nd isolated attempts
  25. 25. Biotechnological Interventions for Improving Reproductive Performance • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) in Goats & Sheep • Simplified/Modified zona-free Cloning Technique  “First Cloned Pashmina Goat “NOORI” born at Division of Biotechnology, SKUAST-K, Srinagar, through this Technique”. “Noorie” with her foster dam • “Noorie” at 1 year of Age •
  26. 26. Enucleated Eggs Reconstructed embryos cultured in lab for 7 days Blastocyst Clones Goat ovaries Donor cell culture Somatic cell donor Oocyte –somatic cell fusion Foster mother PRODUCTION OF CLONED PASHMINA GOAT AT SKUAST KASHMIR Incubation (38.5 C) Cloning. Laboratory, Centre of Animal Biotechnology, SKUAST-K, Srinagar
  27. 27. Awards & Achievements PI of the Project receiving cerificate of appreciation from DG, ICAR and Minister for Agriculture, J&K J&K Tableau on Republic Day 2013 depicting Centre of Biotechnology, SKUAST Kashmir and its research achievements PI being awarded by the Chief Minister Omer Abdullah
  28. 28. Bioprospecting of genes for cold tolerance Pashmina Goat Bactrian Camel Abiotic Stress Factor : Cold Stress
  29. 29. Heatmap analysis of differentially expressed genes in pashmina goat under Cold vs Hot conditions in Blood and Skin Important candidate genes identified 1. ADRB: Adrenoegic receptor binding 2. CIRBP: cold induced RNA binding 3. RBM3: RNA binding motif 4. UCP1 : Uncoupling protein 5. HIF-1 Hypoxia inducible Factor 6. GAS7 : Growth arrest specific 7. IGF1: Insulin like growth factor 8. LSP lympocyte specific protein 9. PAM: Neurotransmitter 10.HSP105 11.HSP47 12.HSP70-1
  30. 30. Figure 2: Ven diagram representing the number of transcripts in skin samples of pashmina goats whose changes in expression during different seasons.
  31. 31. Camel Genome Information Resource A second database on complete transcriptome of ~ 21000 transcripts is under development.
  32. 32. Other Important Achievements • Vaccine against foot rot in sheep and goat – Increased Fecundity in Sheep • M A Introgression of FecB gene • Lambing percentage increase from 80% to 150 •
  33. 33. Apple industry-  India : 7th largest producer of apple  Kashmir: 70% to apple production  At a cost of : 7000 Tons of fungicides annually  Concerns: Impacts Human Health & Environment, future marketing oppurtunities  Challenge:  Breed for disease resistance  Develop Bio control agents for disease management State Area (000 HA) Production (ooo MT) Productivity (MT/HA) J & K 133 1330 10 HP 97 510 5 Uttranchal 32 132 4
  34. 34. Biopesticides developed in SKUAST-K: Biowilt- X (Trichoderma harzianum) Biocomp-X (Pseudomonas fluorescens)  USA Patent No: (No. US 7, 815, 903 B2; Date of Grant 19-10-2010) and  India Patent No: (239609; Date of Grant 26-03-2010).
  35. 35. Biofertilizers for organic agriculture 1. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria – Makes available 30 kg of phosphorus to the crops per hectare per year. – Improves crop growth by secretion of growth regulators. – Seed treatment : Mix 250 ml with the seed needed for one acre and dry for 20 minutes under shade before 2. Shalimar Microbes: • Consortium of different microbes like phosphate solubilizing bacteria, actinomycete, Lactobacillus. • Use: solid waste decomposition and also acts as a biofertilizer.
  36. 36. SHALIMAR BIOFERTILIZER (Azotobacter) • Fixes 20-40 kg nitrogen from atmosphere per hectare per year. • Increases yield by 10 – 25%. • Improves crop growth by secretion of growth regulators and vitamins. • Protects crops against some soil borne pathogens. • Seed treatment: : 250ml/acre • Seedling root dipping : 1000ml/acre • Field application : 400ml/acre (Mix the biofertilizer with the soil before sowing • Suitable for crops : Wheat, oat, barley, Mustard, seasum, Linseeds, Sunflower, castor, Pearl millets, Finger millets, and floriculture plants etc.
  37. 37. SHALIMAR BIOFERTILIZER (Rhizobium phaseoli) • Features: • Fixes 100 to 300 kg nitrogen per hectare in one crop season. • Increases yield by 10-35%. • Improves crop growth by secretion of growth regulators. • Protects crops against some soil borne pathogens. • Seed treatment : 250ml/acre • Field application : 400ml/acre (Mix the biofertilizer with the soil before sowing). • Suitable for crops Rajmash
  38. 38. E-learning portal MIS developed for: 1. FARMMAN 1.00 Management of Cattle and buffalo breeding research data 2. SheepMan 1.00: Online tool for management of sheep research data across farms 3. SoftMate: Tool for planning breeding programs to avoid the inbreeding depression
  39. 39. New Initiative: Dairy Development – Challenge of 21st Century  Demand- High  Nutritional security to 1.6 billion people by 2030  Rising purchase power  Improving health conciousnes  Support to Dairy Industry  Challenge for 2030  4 fold growth: 127 million tones to 550 million tones by (300 ml to 1000 ml person / day  5 fold growth: 14 lac tons to 74 lac tones  Constraint  Acute dearth of proven germplasm  Feed and Fodder availability  Health cover
  40. 40. Dairy Development: Integrating Biotechnology and IT e-linking of farmers cows with the hub (elite nucleus herd) for pursuit of ONBS- MOET
  41. 41. Approach…..  e-registration of farmers cows for :  delivery of services and collection of feed back data  Widening of the genetic base from few hundred farm-bred cattle to 7 lac breedable cows of farmers through e-linking for planning long-term research programs for sustainable dairying  Data Warehousing to support data analysis and decision- making tasks through use of ICT.  Production of tested high performance breeding bulls through: Open Nucleus Breeding Scheme t E T T for fast multiplication of elite cows  GWAS for Evaluation of breeding value
  42. 42. Recommendations • Strengthening of the capacity (infrastructure and human resource) in J & K to get ready for the technology driven bio-revolution • Special program for Networking of the institutes in the three states on N-E pattern for: – Knowledge and Resource sharing • Faculty exchange & Student exchange – Documentation and characterization of our bioresources • Common e-resource of our biodiversity – validated and authentic – Bioprospecting of our resources for • commercially valuable genetic and biochemical resources. • Genes for biotic and abiotic stress tolerence
  43. 43. Recommendation……… • Collaborative inter-institutional research programs – MAS for accelerated improvement in field / horticulture crops / animals / fish – MA S approach for breeding resistance in plants and animals – Mitigating Climate change and ensuring healthy foods: • Development of biocontrol agents for management of diseases and pests • Development of the biofertilisers for organic agriculture